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  • myoblasts
  • Most, if not all, of the muscle that formed in culture arose from cells that expressed MyoD and G8 in vivo.This population of ectopically located cells appears to be distinct from multipotential stem cells and myofibroblasts.They closely resemble quiescent, stably programmed skeletal myoblasts with the capacity to differentiate when placed in a permissive environment. (nih.gov)
  • In a series of sequential experiments, Weintraub and his students showed that myoD was able to convert fibroblasts (connective tissue cells) into myoblasts (skeletal muscle cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • KAP1 is localized at muscle-related genes in myoblasts along with both MyoD and Mef2 (a myocyte transcription enhancer factor). (wikipedia.org)
  • Nandrolone-induced nuclear accumulation of MyoD protein is mediated by Numb, a Notch inhibitor, in C2C12 myoblasts. (nih.gov)
  • In C2C12 and primary mouse myoblasts, we show that MyoD can occupy an E-box within the promoter of Cdc6 and that this association, along with E2F3a, is required for its activity. (nih.gov)
  • MyoD and Cdc6 are both expressed after quiescent C2C12 myoblasts or satellite cells in association with myofibers are stimulated for growth, but MyoD appears at least 2-3 h earlier than Cdc6. (nih.gov)
  • Genes
  • Members of the MEF2 family of DNA binding proteins interact with a set of AT-rich sequences commonly found in the promoters and enhancers of muscle-specific genes. (nih.gov)
  • With recent advances in technology, it is now possible to study the effects of various training interventions on a variety of signalling proteins and early-response genes in skeletal muscle. (springer.com)
  • His research at Princeton, which would continue during his years in Seattle, applied enzymatic and traditional biochemical isolation/separation techniques to clarify the relationship between the physical structure of genes and their expression (the process by which DNA is transcribed into messenger RNA, and eventually into Protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sustained MyoD expression is necessary for retaining the expression of muscle-related genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chiu R, Boyle WJ, Meek J, Smeal T, Hunter T, Karin M. The c-Fos protein interacts with c-Jun/AP-1 to stimulate transcription of AP-1 responsive genes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Recent findings indicate that Myod functions in an instructive chromatin context and directly regulates genes that are expressed throughout the myogenic program, achieving promoter-specific regulation of its own binding and activity through a feed-forward mechanism. (biologists.org)
  • RT 2 -PCR array methodology was used to identify the expression profile of genes encoding proteins involved in IGF-1 pathway. (biomedcentral.com)
  • myogenesis
  • While not completely understood, MyoD is now thought to function as a major myogenesis controller in an on/off switch association mediated by KAP1 (KRAB [Krüppel-like associated box]-associated protein 1) phosphorylation . (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins involved in myogenesis (the induction of muscle cells). (embl.de)
  • In order to develop a human cell model for investigation of possible effects of antisense and RNAi effector molecules we have used lentiviral mediated myoD -forced myogenesis of DM1 patient fibroblasts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our results define a novel function for p38-γ during adult myogenesis, whereby its direct phosphorylation of MyoD assembles a repressive transcriptional complex containing a MyoD corepressor. (rupress.org)
  • developmental
  • The expression of Myod is sufficient to convert a fibroblast to a skeletal muscle cell, and, as such, is a model system in developmental biology for studying how a single initiating event can orchestrate a highly complex and predictable response. (biologists.org)
  • PAX7
  • Immediately upon isolation, each myofiber is associated with a fixed number (Pax7 + /MyoD - ) of satellite cells resting in quiescence. (bio-protocol.org)
  • At around 24 h in culture, satellite cells undergo their first round of cell division, through upregulating MyoD (Pax7 + /MyoD + ) and proliferate to form cell aggregates by 72 h. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Satellite cells on cultured myofiber explants can either terminally differentiate (Pax7 - /MyoD + ) or self-renew (Pax7 + /MyoD - ) and return to quiescence (Le Grand and Rudnicki, 2007). (bio-protocol.org)
  • mesoderm
  • The function of MyoD in development is to commit mesoderm cells to a skeletal myoblast lineage, and then to regulate that continued state. (wikipedia.org)
  • RAR?1 knockdown obliterates somite boundaries, and causes loss of Myod protein in the presomitic mesoderm, but ectopic, persistent expression of Myod protein in the trunk. (stanford.edu)
  • impairs
  • Finally, knockdown of MyoD impairs the ability of C2C12 cells to express Cdc6 after leaving quiescence, and as a result, they cannot fully progress into S phase. (nih.gov)
  • eukaryotic
  • The basic-leucine zipper (bZIP) domain transcription factors [( PUBMED:7780801 )] of eukaryotic are proteins that contain a basic region mediating sequence-specific DNA-binding followed by a leucine zipper region required for dimerisation. (embl.de)
  • A number of eukaryotic proteins, which probably are sequence specific DNA- binding proteins that act as transcription factors, share a conserved domain of 40 to 50 amino acid residues. (embl.de)
  • Mice
  • Later studies by the same group of investigators at FHCRC further characterized the structural and functional characteristics of myoD and its nuclear-localized protein product, which were found to be present in organisms as diverse as nematode worms, frogs, mice, and humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation
  • FLICE-like inhibitory protein (FLIP) protects against apoptosis and suppresses NF-kappaB activation induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Activation of Protein Kinase A in Mature Osteoblasts Promotes a Major Bone Anabolic Response. (nih.gov)
  • Activation of Cdc6 by MyoD is associated with the expansion of quiescent myogenic satellite cells. (nih.gov)
  • Drosophila
  • Drosophila extra-macrochaetae (emc) protein, which participates in sensory organ patterning by antagonizing the neurogenic activity of the achaete- scute complex. (embl.de)
  • Drosophila achaete-scute (AS-C) complex proteins T3 (l'sc), T4 (scute), T5 (achaete) and T8 (asense). (embl.de)
  • Tumor
  • For example, we currently studide epithelia functions at the molecular level within artificial epithelial tissues (lung, kidney, gut¿) to create optimal conditions for cell biology and molecular approaches as well as drug screening on specifically targeted functions: protein expressing defect (cystic fibrosis, lung), water retention (kidney diseases), tumor formation (Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition EMT, metastasis. (ucd.ie)
  • cellular
  • Skeletal muscle is a malleable tissue capable of altering the type and amount of protein in response to disruptions to cellular homeostasis. (springer.com)
  • Based on our current understanding of Myod, it is reasonable to suggest that the regulated activity of a single factor that broadly interacts with many cellular components might be a common mechanism for orchestrating a complex response to an initiating event. (biologists.org)
  • Molecular
  • As part of this work, his lab pioneered a molecular biology technique known as the Selection And Amplification Binding (SAAB) assay, which is used to find the DNA-binding sites for proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • heterodimers
  • The HLH proteins lacking the basic domain (Emc, Id) function as negative regulators, since they form heterodimers, but fail to bind DNA. (embl.de)
  • Id (inhibitor of DNA binding) proteins lack a basic DNA-binding domain but are able to form heterodimers with other HLH proteins, thereby inhibiting binding to DNA. (embl.de)
  • vivo
  • The G8 antibody was used to label those cells that expressed MyoD in vivo and to follow their fate in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • Most, if not all, of the muscle that formed in culture arose from cells that expressed MyoD and G8 in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • amino
  • Most of these proteins have an extra basic region of about 15 amino acid residues that is adjacent to the HLH domain and specifically binds to DNA. (embl.de)
  • cell
  • Immunofluorescence localization of cell type-specific proteins and BrdU in G8-positive cells in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • The researchers expressed the complementary DNA (cDNA) of the murine MyoD protein in a different cell lines ( fibroblast and adipoblast ) and found MyoD converted them to myogenic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus MyoD enhances its own activity in the cell in a feedforward manner. (wikipedia.org)