• PF is an ultrafiltrate of plasma, 18 but it also reflects the composition of cardiac interstitium, at least in cardiac ischemia, 19 and the production and release of macromolecules (including growth factors) in normal and diseased myocardium. (ahajournals.org)
  • 22 However, whether human PF contains growth factors and peptides specifically synthesized within the myocardium and whether its characteristics reflect cardiac adaptation to chronic overload have not yet been established. (ahajournals.org)
  • Consistent with this idea, studies in our laboratory using an in vivo open-chest porcine heart model found a decrease in the Ca 2+ sensitivity of isometric tension in skinned myocytes from postischemic stunned myocardium. (ahajournals.org)
  • Traditional deletion of Gata4 caused embryonic lethality associated with endoderm defects and cardiac malformations, precluding an analysis of the role of GATA4 in the adult myocardium. (ahajournals.org)
  • In vertebrates, there is a third muscle tissue recognized: Cardiac muscle (myocardium), found only in the heart, is a striated muscle similar in structure to skeletal muscle but not subject to voluntary control. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cardiac muscle tissue or myocardium forms the bulk of the heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, peak concentrations of T cells in the myocardium during days 7-14 play important roles in both viral clearance and immune mediated cardiac damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • An additional study showed that myocytes expressing a dominant negative N-cadherin mutant showed significant abnormalities in myocyte distribution and migration towards the endocardium, resulting in defects in trabecular formation within the myocardium. (wikipedia.org)
  • The identification of eCSCs has provided an explanation for the hitherto unexplained existence of a subpopulation of immature cycling myocytes in the adult myocardium. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, they have not changed the well-established fact that the working myocardium is mainly constituted of terminally differentiated contractile myocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • eCSCs are clonogenic, self-renewing and multipotent in vitro and in vivo, capable of generating the 3 major cell types of the myocardium: myocytes, smooth muscle and endothelial vascular cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the myocardium now recognized as a tissue with limited regenerating potential, harbouring eCSCs that can be isolated and amplified in vitro for regenerative protocols of cell transplantation or stimulated to replicate and differentiate in situ in response to growth factors, it has become reasonable to exploit this endogenous regenerative potential to replace lost/damaged cardiac muscle with autologous functional myocardium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Binding to beta-1 receptors in the myocardium increases the heart rate and makes contractions more forceful in an attempt to increase cardiac output. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the heart Foxp1 has 3 vital roles, these include the regulation of cardiac myocyte maturation and proliferation, outflow tract separation of the pulmonary artery and aorta, and expression of Sox4 in cushions and myocardium. (wikipedia.org)
  • 15,16 In a recent study, Yu et al 17 described the presence of circulating factors in the serum of patients with chronic renal failure that may contribute to the development of cardiac hypertrophy. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cripto also affects the formation of nitric oxide, a small signaling molecule that has been reported to be important for growth and development of cardiac and smooth muscle. (ebscohost.com)
  • In the heart, nuclear calcium is important for the development of cardiac hypertrophy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The metabolics and calcium handling properties of the reprogramed myocyte flown in space are then tested for their improved potential for repairing a damaged mouse heart model on earth. (nasa.gov)
  • Oxidative stress has been clinically shown to be relevant in the progression of cardiac diseases and heart failure [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Since miR-208a is a key modulator of many heart functions, alterations in its expression levels are frequently associated with pathological cardiac dysfunctions, such as hypertrophy, fibrosis, arrhythmias, contractile dysfunction, conduction abnormalities, fibrillation, and cardiac remodeling [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) represents a promising treatment modality to alleviate LV dysfunction in humans with heart failure (HF). (ahajournals.org)
  • Primary Human Cardiac Myocytes isolated from the ventricles of the adult heart. (promocell.com)
  • In conclusion, mice with cardiac-specific deletion of Smad5 develop dilated cardiomyopathy and heart failure as a result of sarcomeric disarray and myocyte disruption. (ahajournals.org)
  • These data demonstrate a unique role for Smad5 in cardiac myocyte integrity and therefore for BMP signaling in adult heart. (ahajournals.org)
  • The same correlation is seen in some homoiotherm species such as teleost fish and urodelian amphibians leading to the hypothesis that cardiac myocyte proliferation is a major driver of heart regeneration. (ahajournals.org)
  • In this review, we summarize recent advances in the understanding of the intrinsic pathway and how it relates to cardiac myocyte death and heart disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • Our results suggest that diastolic wall stress activates the cardiac renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and that angiotensin (Ang) II and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) may play a functional role in the eccentric pattern of hypertrophy observed in the volume overload model of MR in the dog heart. (springer.com)
  • We conclude that excessive exercise, in the untreated hypertensive state can have deleterious effects on cardiac remodeling and may actually accelerate the progression to heart failure. (ahajournals.org)
  • Research has shown a predictable remodeling of cardiac myocyte shape underlying progression to heart failure (HF). (ahajournals.org)
  • Between the ages of 6 and 12 months in female spontaneously hypertensive heart failure (SHHF) rats, after a period of compensated hypertrophy, myocyte length begins to increase without further increase in CSA. (ahajournals.org)
  • Because muscarinic receptors play a crucial role in modulation of heart rate and stabilization of membrane electrical excitability ( Billman and Hoskins, 1989 ), it is important to evaluate the effects of cocaine on cardiac I K(ACh) . (aspetjournals.org)
  • The diabetic heart was characterized by a severe time-dependent loss in LV post-mitotic myocytes, dictated primarily by a defect in cell renewal. (ahajournals.org)
  • Under control conditions, 20% of myocytes were replaced per month in the adult mouse heart through activation, cell cycle reentry, and differentiation of CSCs. (ahajournals.org)
  • Although the coronary endothelium is responsible for the bulk of the endogenous, physiological production of NO in the heart, 10 11 NO can also be produced within the cardiac myocytes themselves (ie, autocrine production) by the constitutive NO synthase NOS-3. (ahajournals.org)
  • 12 13 Dynamic regulation of NO production in the heart apparently yields beat-to-beat oscillations in response to changes in coronary flow and myocardial loading and achieves micromolar levels in close vicinity to the cardiac myocyte. (ahajournals.org)
  • Key genes in heart development are homologous between insects and mammals (e.g. tinman), as are key components of cardiac myocyte physiology, including ion channels, pumps and exchangers. (nc3rs.org.uk)
  • It has also been pointed out ( 28 , 29 ) that the reduced Na + -K + -ATPase of the failing heart may exacerbate toxicity of cardiac glycosides in the diseased heart, because the toxic effects of these drugs are known to be the extension of their therapeutic effects. (physiology.org)
  • Moreover, pressure overload stimulation induced rapid decompensation and heart failure in cardiac-specific Gata4 -deleted mice. (ahajournals.org)
  • More recently, the requirement of GATA4 in regulating cardiac development and differentiation of myocytes has been investigated in genetically modified mice, although these studies did not examine the importance of GATA4 in regulating hypertrophy and/or heart failure in the adult. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is an established treatment for patients with chronic heart failure. (ahajournals.org)
  • 3 Simultaneous pacing of the right and left ventricles, a procedure called cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), is a major advance in the treatment of patients with moderate to severe chronic HF (New York Heart Association class III or IV). (ahajournals.org)
  • Preconditioning and Postconditioning by Cardiac Glycosides in the Mouse Heart. (semanticscholar.org)
  • 7 Leptin receptors, the product of the db gene, 8 are present in the heart and modulate numerous direct cardiac effects. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cardiac muscle (heart muscle) is one of the three major types of muscle, the others being skeletal and smooth muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The inner endocardium lines the cardiac chambers, covers the cardiac valves, and joins with the endothelium that lines the blood vessels that connect to the heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • hECTs also express key cardiac genes (α-MHC, SERCA2a and ACTC1) nearing the levels seen in the adult heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coxsackievirus B3 can cause cardiac damage, eventually resulting in a weakened and enlarged heart that is termed dilated cardiomyopathy. (wikipedia.org)
  • dissociated myocytes and abnormal heart tube development occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • These findings produced a paradigm shift in cardiac biology and opened new opportunities and approaches for future treatment of cardiac diseases by placing the heart squarely amongst other organs with regenerative potential such as the liver, skin, muscle, CNS. (wikipedia.org)
  • That same year, a different group demonstrated that Isl-1 is not restricted to second heart field progenitors in the developing heart, but also labels cardiac neural crest. (wikipedia.org)
  • Especially the cardiac subtype of troponin T is useful in laboratory diagnosis of heart attack, as it is released into the blood stream when damage to the heart muscle occurs. (wikipedia.org)
  • These changes can lower heart rate, eliminate atrial fibrillation, and ultimately sudden cardiac death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similarly, dominant-negative genotypes for caveolin-3 increase cardiac hypertrophy, whereas increased expression of caveolin-3 inhibits the ability of the heart to hypertrophy, implicating caveolin-3 as a negative regulator of cardiac hypertrophy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, abundant expression of Csx, the presumptive mouse homolog of tinman, is observed only in the heart from the time of cardiac differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Nkx2-5 knock out mice, cardiac development halts at the linear heart tube stage and looping morphogenesis disrupted. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the heart works harder to meet normal metabolic demands, the amount cardiac output can increase in times of increased oxygen demand (e.g., exercise) is reduced. (wikipedia.org)
  • This translates to the loss of one's cardiac reserve, or the ability of the heart to work harder during strenuous physical activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • A common finding in those with heart failure is an increased heart rate, stimulated by increased sympathetic activity in order to maintain an adequate cardiac output. (wikipedia.org)
  • The general effect is one of reduced cardiac output and increased strain on the heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 2006 study demonstrated the general cardioprotective effects of EGCG against cardiac hypertrophy, a common pathology of the heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • SUMO 1 may be an important therapeutic target to help improve cardiac performance in patients with heart failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • L-type calcium channel blocker drugs are used as cardiac antiarrhythmics or antihypertensives, depending on whether the drugs have higher affinity for the heart (the phenylalkylamines, like verapamil), or for the vessels (the dihydropyridines, like nifedipine). (wikipedia.org)
  • 1,2 A direct transcriptional regulatory role for GATA4 is further supported by the observation that antisense GATA4 mRNA expression inhibited the basal expression of certain cardiac-expressed genes in cardiomyocyte cultures. (ahajournals.org)
  • Free, long-chain, polyunsaturated fatty acids reduce membrane electrical excitability in neonatal rat cardiac myocytes. (pnas.org)
  • Using wild-type and PARP-1-deficient murine myocytes challenged with hydrogen peroxide, we found that mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial membrane potential were better preserved in PARP-deficient myocytes and cellular NAD+ levels were maintained. (nih.gov)
  • Increased NO synthesis was associated with a parallel increase in myocyte death as measured by CPK release into the culture medium as well as by loss of membrane integrity, visualized by trypan blue staining. (jci.org)
  • While enriched in the intercalated disc (ID), Na V 1.5 is present in different membrane domains in myocytes and interacts with several partners. (ahajournals.org)
  • Preloading of gamma-glutamylcysteine monoethyl ester (gamma-GCE), a membrane-permeating GSH precursor, increased the H2O2 resistance of cultured mouse myocytes. (ahajournals.org)
  • The cell membrane of a myocyte has several specialized regions, which may include the intercalated disk and the transverse tubular system. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is activated after the fast increase of the membrane potential following the phase 0 of the cardiac action potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • This association occurs predominately in areas proximate to the peripheral membrane of cardiac myocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • When extracellular cardioplegia displaces blood surrounding myocytes, the membrane voltage becomes less negative and the cell depolarizes more readily. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overexpressing the adenosine A1 receptor also led to increased protection against ischemia-induced myocyte injury as well as an enhanced preconditioning effect. (garvan.org.au)
  • Similarly, 60 minutes of ischemia followed by 24 to 72 hours of reperfusion leads to an increase in kir6.2 transcription in left ventricle rat myocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistent with this idea, the selective α 1 -adrenergic receptor agonist methoxamine was still able to inhibit the Cl − current activated by Iso in PTX-treated myocytes. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The PDH kinase activity of myocytes from fed rats was increased to that of starved rats after 25 h of culture with n-octanoate, dibutyryl cyclic AMP or both agents together. (biochemj.org)
  • MHC-α isoform is expressed predominantly in human cardiac atria, exhibiting only minor expression in human cardiac ventricles. (wikipedia.org)
  • it is the predominant isoform expressed in human cardiac atria, and the lesser expressed isoform (7%) expressed in human cardiac ventricles. (wikipedia.org)
  • An automated method measuring cardiac myocyte surface area was described and used as an index of cell growth. (cdc.gov)
  • Among the latter of these is the edge detection method that employs a raster-line to detect changes in myocyte length by sensing left and right cell boundaries using a threshold [ 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Reconstitution of the alpha1A subtype, but not the alpha1B, rescued alpha1ABKO myocytes from cell death induced by each stimulus. (nih.gov)
  • Unlike freshly isolated rod-shaped myocytes, cultured HCM can be used for long-term experiments like investigating the long-term effects of cytokines, mechanical strain, or cell-cell interactions, as they are prepared according to a special protocol. (promocell.com)
  • Average cell volume increased more than 400%, and myocytes lengthened 125%, but cell width only increased 53% during this period. (physiology.org)
  • Because transforming growth-factor beta modulates iNOS expression in other cell types, we evaluated its effects on cardiac myocyte iNOS expression and NO-mediated myocyte cytotoxicity. (jci.org)
  • However, hyperpolarization-activated ClC-2 channels expressed in heterologous expression systems bear a striking resemblance to the well-characterized hyperpolarization-activated cationic pacemaker current, I f (or I h ), found in many mammalian cardiac cell types 21 22 and are now known to belong to the HCN gene family. (ahajournals.org)
  • Here, we review the current knowledge in the field focusing on the withdrawal of cardiac myocytes from the cell cycle during the transition from neonatal to adult stages. (ahajournals.org)
  • In order to evaluate their presence and biological activity, we studied the effect of PF and serum obtained from patients undergoing cardiac surgery on the phenotype and cell growth of isolated adult rat myocytes. (ahajournals.org)
  • Our results demonstrate a methodology for the introduction of peptides into neonatal cardiac myocytes that allows study of their actions without substantial compromises in cell integrity. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1 , 2 Ca 2+ pumping by the SR Ca-ATPase and extrusion from the cell through Na + /Ca 2+ exchange allows diastolic relaxation and cardiac refilling between beats. (ahajournals.org)
  • Metabolic coupling of GSH between myocytes may contribute at least in part to this high resistance of the cell sheets. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cardiac muscle (like skeletal muscle) is characterized by striations - the stripes of dark and light bands resulting from the organised arrangement of myofilaments and myofibrils in the sarcomere along the length of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cardiomyopathies are a group of diseases characterized by disruptions to cardiac muscle cell growth and / or organization. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cardiac myocyte is the major cell involved in remodeling. (wikipedia.org)