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  • mtDNA
  • These include mutations in the small amounts of extra-nuclear mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) . (phgfoundation.org)
  • A new paper published in the journal PNAS reports on heteroplasmy , the presence of different mtDNA variants within a single human cell. (phgfoundation.org)
  • The paper of Mitalipov shows for the first time that a replication advantage of the small amount of carry-over donor mtDNA and the acceptor mtDNA could shift the ratio back to the donor mtDNA with the pathogenic mutation, possibly leading to an affected child. (sciencemediacentre.org)
  • As an alternative, in vitro experiments with mixtures of donor and acceptor mtDNA populations could be included in the treatment strategy. (sciencemediacentre.org)
  • This should unambiguously show if there is a replication difference between donor and acceptor mtDNA and if there is a perfect match for treatment. (sciencemediacentre.org)
  • Treated eggs were then fertilized and allowed to divide and develop into blastocysts, and these cell masses were used to create stem cell lines which were checked for efficiency of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replacement. (sciencemediacentre.org)
  • This happened in 2 of 15 cell lines from control donations and in 1 of 3 cell lines from donations involving patients' oocytes bearing disease-causing mtDNA. (sciencemediacentre.org)
  • The tendency of the occasional ES cell line established from reconstituted blastocysts to repopulate from remaining maternal mtDNA is well described, again raising the issue that such reversion may be relevant in a clinical context. (sciencemediacentre.org)
  • So we inherit our mtDNA only from our mother and what we inherit is the mtDNA that's in her eggs just prior to fertilisation. (healthcanal.com)
  • So we can never predict if mutant mtDNA is going to distribute to cells which give rise to the brain, the heart, the kidneys or whatever. (healthcanal.com)
  • So the new baby will have chromosomes from it's mother and father but it will have another population of mtDNA, which will be from the woman who donated her egg to this treatment. (healthcanal.com)
  • And we don't know that if you carry over a few of these mtDNA with mutations, whether that will actually still lead to the onset of mitochondrial disease. (healthcanal.com)
  • So we need some rigorous experiments to determine whether it's possible to extract the chromosomes either from the mum's egg or the newly fertilised egg, without taking any mutant mtDNA along. (healthcanal.com)
  • Authors of some studies performed on monkeys in the United States have argued they didn't carry mtDNA from the original egg when they performed this first process. (healthcanal.com)
  • germline
  • In the current study, they found through genetic analysis that the CBL mutation in children with JMML always appears as a germline event, meaning it occurs in essentially every cell of the body - particularly the egg or sperm - and can therefore be passed on from one generation to the next. (ucsf.edu)
  • cytoplasm
  • The importance of the egg's non-nuclear material-the cytoplasm-in early development is apparent in the consistent relation that is seen to exist between certain regions in the cytoplasm of a fertilized egg and certain kinds or directions of cell differentiation. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Belmonte
  • Then, the zygotes' own DNA-repair mechanism replaced what was cut out with a copy of a MYBPC3 gene from the mother, which did not carry a mutation, Belmonte said. (cnn.com)
  • diseases
  • MRT could reduce the chances of women passing mutations associated with these diseases on to their children, but the processes also carry risks that are poorly understood . (nature.com)
  • Last week, Doug Turnbull and Mary Herbert at the University of Newcastle upon Tyne in the UK applied for permission to use nuclear transfer to prevent children inheriting diseases caused by mitochondrial mutations in their mothers. (newscientist.com)
  • Harmful mutations in mitochondrial DNA can cause a range of severe diseases for which there are currently no treatments. (newscientist.com)
  • An extraordinarily large percentage of rare diseases in children are rooted in mutations that are not found in their parents,' said Dr Kári Stefánsson of deCODE genetics, the Icelandic company which carried out the study, published in Nature . (ivf.net)
  • Such stem cells can regenerate and replace those damaged cells and tissues and alleviate diseases that affect millions of people. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Since the stem cells described in this study were a genetic match to the egg cell donor, they could also be used to develop cell-based therapies for diseases such as blindness, diabetes, or other conditions in which genetically identical cells offer a therapeutic advantage. (phys.org)
  • The promise of stem cell research to eventually lead to better treatments and cures for diseases afflicting millions of Americans today is powerful. (rutgers.edu)
  • The main goal of HESC research is to identify the mechanisms that govern cell differentiation and to turn HESCs into specific cell types that can be used for treating debilitating and life-threatening diseases and injuries. (stanford.edu)
  • iPSCs
  • Then, the isolated urinary cells were infected with four Yamanaka factors to generate iPSCs. (arvojournals.org)
  • The patient specific iPSCs were observed to be positive for stem cells markers including Oct4, Sox2, Nanog and Trai1-81. (arvojournals.org)
  • Compared with the LBs derived from ESCs and iPSCs from heathy donor showing transparency morphologies, those derived from the patient-specific iPSCs were blurry. (arvojournals.org)
  • 2007). The reprogrammed cells-"induced pluripotent stem cells" (iPSCs)-could ultimately eliminate the need for HESCs. (stanford.edu)
  • genome
  • [ 1 ] The first available assembly of the genome was completed in 2000 by the UCSC Genome Bioinformatics Group, composed of Jim Kent (then a UCSC graduate student of molecular, cell and developmental biology), Patrick Gavin, Terrence Furey, and David Kulp. (thefullwiki.org)
  • replication
  • A woman is already born with all her eggs, whereas sperm are produced throughout a man's life by cell division, which can introduce errors in DNA replication. (ivf.net)
  • Further analysis showed that the later steps in the virus replication cycle were accelerated by NS2(K86R) mutation, which may relate to an enhanced interaction between NS2(K86R) and the components of host factor F1Fo-ATPase, FoB and F1β. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • chromosomal
  • These fetal cells can be examined for chromosomal and genetic disorders. (genomebc.ca)
  • Instead of taking an unfertilised egg, you start with one that's already been fertilised (zygote), so it's got two populations of chromosomal DNA. (healthcanal.com)
  • It's not known, for example, if the spermatids (as they're called) had mutations, or if the mice produced by this technique had inherited undetected genetic or chromosomal abnormalities resulting from those mutations. (gizmodo.com.au)
  • The new study, co-led by Jiahao Sha and Qi Zhou, is the first to demonstrate that it's possible to push embryonic stem cells through meiosis (cell division) to produce a functional gamete, with apparently correct nuclear DNA and chromosomal content, and the ability to produce viable offspring. (gizmodo.com.au)
  • abnormal
  • most relevant measures of technical efficacy show little or no difference of treatments vs controls, except there were significant numbers of chromosomally abnormal blastocysts, and development using frozen donor eggs instead of fresh was about half as efficient. (sciencemediacentre.org)
  • Malignant, ill-regulated proliferation of cells causing either a solid tumour or other abnormal conditions. (genomebc.ca)
  • scientists
  • Just after the first ISSCR guidelines were issued in 2006, scientists reported the derivation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. (nature.com)
  • March 25, 2010 UCSF scientists have used a novel cell-based strategy to treat motor symptoms in rats with a disease designed to mimic Parkinson's disease. (ucsf.edu)
  • Scientists from China have made history by taking a cell that's not a sperm cell and then used it to create a live animal. (gizmodo.com.au)
  • stem-cell lines
  • Some who oppose this method have proposed alternative methods for creating stem cell lines. (rutgers.edu)
  • The problem with these approaches is that none of them has proved successful to date - and thus are not methods currently available for creating viable stem cell lines. (rutgers.edu)
  • And the science says these alternative methods are not currently feasible ways of producing stem cell lines. (rutgers.edu)
  • study
  • Parents pass on more new genetic mutations to their children with age, and fathers pass on more than mothers, according to a study. (ivf.net)
  • Although the majority of new mutations reported in this study have come from the fathers, the most striking new insights are from the extra mutations that occur in the eggs of older mothers,' said Professor Martin Taylor of the University of Edinburgh, UK. (ivf.net)
  • This work is an outstanding example of how collaborations between different institutions, on different continents, can solve fundamental problems in biomedicine," said Dieter Egli, PhD, principal co-author of the study, and Assistant Professor of Developmental Cell Biology in Pediatrics at Columbia University Medical Center and a Senior Research Fellow at the NYSCF Research Institute and a NYSCF-Robertson Investigator. (phys.org)
  • In this study, a single mutation of K86R in the NS2 protein can sufficiently render the high-yielding property to the PR8 virus in Vero cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Professor Doug Turnbull, director of the Wellcome Trust Centre for Mitochondrial Disease at Newcastle University and co-author of the study, said: 'Our studies on stem cells does express a cautionary note that it might not be 100 percent efficient in preventing transmission, but for many women who carry these mutations the risk is far less than conceiving naturally. (ivf.net)
  • women
  • Someone who has inherited a mutation in BRCA1/BRCA2 has an increased risk of breast (for both women and men), ovarian or prostate cancer. (genomebc.ca)
  • From my point of view, this has big implications in women who have some type of mitochondrial DNA mutation," said Carla Koehler, a mitochondrial biologist at the University of California Los Angeles who has been studying ways to repair the mutations. (nbcnews.com)