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  • simian vi
  • It has been clear for a number of years that small DNA tumor viruses such as simian virus 40 (SV40) and papillomavirus interact with cell cycle control pathways during lytic replication in a way that promotes entry into the S phase of the cell cycle. (asm.org)
  • Altered phosphorylation pattern of simian virus 40 T antigen expressed in insect cells by using a baculovirus vector. (asm.org)
  • Furthermore, the phenotype of the PKmut in 293 cells is substantially reversed by expression of the simian virus 40 (SV40) large (T) and small (t) T antigens. (asm.org)
  • Lai Ching-Juh, Nathans D. The ВС gene of simian virus 40. (medkursor.ru)
  • The popular fibroblast line was originally utilized in research focusing on the transformation of the cancer-causing Rous sarcoma virus ( RSV ), but now is a very useful host for acquired immunodeficiency disease ( AIDS ) research, as well as transfection experiments with simian virus 40 and recombinant plasmid vectors. (fsu.edu)
  • Transformed (Simian Virus 40) African Green Monkey Kidney Fibroblast Cells (COS-1) - The transformed COS-1 cell line was derived from the CV-1 fibroblast line, which was initiated in March, 1964 by F. C. Jensen and colleagues from the normal kidney of an adult African green monkey. (fsu.edu)
  • Developed by Yakov Gluzman, the COS-1 cell line differs from CV-1 due to transformation of the earlier line with an origin defective mutant of simian virus 40 ( SV40 ) that codes for wild type T-antigen. (fsu.edu)
  • We identify hypomorphic or null strains for miRNA expression from rhesus macaque simian virus 40 (SV40) and human JC virus. (jove.com)
  • vaccine
  • Poliovirus serves as a model to increase our understanding of positive-strand RNA viruses for which no vaccine is available and which remain a significant health hazard: examples include other picornaviruses, such as rhinoviruses, coxsackieviruses and the deadly enterovirus 71 as well as more distantly related positive-strand RNA viruses such as hepatitis C and Dengue fever. (stanford.edu)
  • The live-attenuated human parainfluenza virus 3 (PIV3) cold-passage 45 ( cp 45) candidate vaccine was shown previously to be safe, immunogenic, and phenotypically stable in seronegative human infants. (asm.org)
  • Previous efforts at paramyxovirus vaccine development have suggested that live-attenuated, intranasally administered vaccine viruses represent the best strategy for the prevention of the severe lower respiratory tract disease that occurs in infants and children ( 8 ). (asm.org)
  • A licensed PIV3 vaccine is not yet available, but attenuated candidate vaccine viruses, including a bovine PIV3 and a human cold-passaged (cp) PIV3, termed cp 45, have been developed and are under clinical evaluation ( 18 , 19 ). (asm.org)
  • For example, we discovered and invented a novel vaccine approach using mutant viruses defective in 2'- O methylation of viral RNA. (utmb.edu)
  • Protective efficacy of a high-growth reassortant H1N1 influenza virus vaccine against the European Avian-like H1N1 swine influenza virus in mice and pigs. (bioportfolio.com)
  • It could be demonstrated that a novel recombinant double deletion mutant is a safe and efficacious vaccine candidate. (asm.org)
  • Therefore, the described vaccine also represents the first model for a broad range of related viruses and is of high importance to the field. (asm.org)
  • This review article aimed at reviewing current science on defective interfering particles of their molecular and immunological features, role in disease progression and persistence, impact on vaccine production and viral vectors, and future directions. (omicsonline.org)
  • Defective interfering particles are very important to the field of biotechnology due to their nature of stimulating the immune system and attenuating some of the live viruses during live-attenuated vaccine production, however, they have a devastating effect like interfering with vaccine production, i.e., decrease in the viral titer, and facilitate pathogenesis and persistence of some viral infections. (omicsonline.org)
  • Cells
  • This result, coupled with the finding that several of the nc mutants are capable of wild-type levels of fusion from within, suggests that the ability to cause such fusion does not correlate with the ability to kill cells. (asm.org)
  • For millions of years, humans and viruses have engaged in a constant tug of war: as our cells evolve new ways to defend us from our viral enemies, these pathogens in turn acquire new traits to sidestep those defenses. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) have been identified as a potent secretor of the type I interferons (IFNs) in response to CpG as well as several viruses. (rupress.org)
  • Specifically, CD11b + DCs were found to present virus antigens to CD4 + T cells in the draining lymph nodes, and this interaction was crucial in the generation of the potent Th1 response ( 2 ) needed to provide protective immunity. (rupress.org)
  • In all bacterial, plant and animal cells, as well as in many viruses, genetic information resides in DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). (diva-portal.org)
  • Interestingly, two attenuated mutants, T213A and I262A, were less dependent on claudin-1 for cellular entry in Huh-7 cells. (asm.org)
  • Also, p53 or p53mt24-28 did not reduce the amount of virus released from infected cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Altered budding site of a pantropic mutant of Sendai virus, F1-R, in polarized epithelial cells. (asm.org)
  • To test the effect of the Elb mutations in virion-mediated cell transformation, the mutant Elb regions were introduced into intact viral genomes by overlap recombination and were subsequently used in a transformation assay on BRK cells. (uu.nl)
  • The 19 and 58-kDa mutant viruses were found to transform BRK cells with 11 and 25% of the efficiency of wild type virus, respectively. (uu.nl)
  • In lytic infection, the 19-kDa mutant virus was some 30-fold reduced in yield on HeLa cells, whereas the 58-kDa mutant virus was 3000-fold reduced in its ability to grow on HeLa cells at low multiplicity of infection, but showed a marked multiplicity-dependent leakiness. (uu.nl)
  • The 58-kDa mutant virus was not defective when its growth was assayed on human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells. (uu.nl)
  • Cells infected by this mutant accumulated higher levels of viral covalently closed, circular DNA (cccDNA) than those infected by wild-type virus. (asm.org)
  • The accumulation of high levels of cccDNA was due to a failure of the mutant-infected cells to suppress de novo cccDNA synthesis compared with suppression by cells infected by the wild type. (asm.org)
  • The ability of viruses to kill cancer cells has been recognized for more than a century [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • containing stop codons at residues 1 and 5 in EBV-PK) is highly defective for release of infectious virus from 293 cells but not 293T cells. (asm.org)
  • EBV-PK is also packaged into the virion tegument and thus is delivered in an active form to cells immediately after virus penetration ( 3 ). (asm.org)
  • Van Zaane D., Dekker-Michielsen M. J. A., Bloemers H. P. J. Virus - specific precursor polypeptides in cells infected with rauscher leukemia virus : synthesis, identification and processing. (medkursor.ru)
  • A microcytotoxicity test for chicken embryo cells was introduced to search for new antigens after the infection of these cells with avian leukosis and sarcoma virus strains. (naver.com)
  • A conditional mutant of SR-RSV-D with a highly reduced ability to transform chicken cells at high temperature (41°) was obtained by mutagenization with 5-fluorouracil. (naver.com)
  • Additionally, both mutants with an NSs deletion induced high levels of interferon and showed a marked growth defect in interferon-competent sheep SFT-R cells. (asm.org)
  • Bertoletti A, Ferrari C, Fiaccadori F, Penna A, Margolskee R, Schlicht HJ, Fowler P, Guilhot S, Chisari FV (1991) HLA class I restricted human cytotoxic T cells recognize endogenously synthesized hepatitis B virus nucleocapsid antigen. (springer.com)
  • These are structural analogues of sialic acid, and work to inhibit the enzymatic action of NA, thus retaining newly formed virus on the host cells. (springer.com)
  • Despite having a nonrearranged enhancer, which a previous study has shown renders some PyVs more susceptible to the autoregulatory activities of the miRNA, restoring miRNA expression to K661 has little effect on virus growth in either immortalized or primary monkey kidney cells. (jove.com)
  • In addition to the aberrant cytokine production, the mutant mice also appeared defective in mobilization of virus-specific killer T cells to the lungs. (medindia.net)
  • Virology
  • 7 However, the application of the techniques of molecular virology to this issue has led to the demonstration of persistent virus infection of the myocardium in patients with myocarditis or even so-called IDCM. (ahajournals.org)
  • H. Journal of Virology 81, 2980-2994 (2007).PubMedArticleFlores, R., Hernandez, C., Martinez de Alba, A. Expression of a cleavage-resistant mutant of G3BP that stabilized SGs against virus attack reduced replicative output of poliovirus . (tagnabit.net)
  • Deletion
  • A second approach involving the generation of several UL99 deletion mutants indicated that at least the C-terminal two-thirds of this ORF is nonessential for viral growth. (asm.org)
  • Deletion of UL82 results in a virus that is severely impaired in culture ( 6 ). (asm.org)
  • In contrast, deletion of UL83 does not significantly affect the growth of cultured virus ( 44 ). (asm.org)
  • Therefore, the double deletion mutant will provide the basis for further developments of safe and efficacious modified live SBV vaccines which could be also a model for other viruses of the Simbu serogroup and related orthobunyaviruses. (asm.org)
  • strains
  • Purification, Serology, and Particle Morphology of Two Russet Crack Strains of Sweet Potato Feathery Mottle Virus. (apsnet.org)
  • I. Occurrence in different virus strains. (naver.com)
  • cytoplasmic
  • Veit M., Kretzschmar E., Kuroda K., Garten W, Schmidt M.F.G., Klenk H.D., Rott R.. Site-specific mutagenesis identifies three cysteine residues in the cytoplasmic tail as acylation sites of influenza virus hemagglutinin. (springer.com)
  • subunit
  • Publications] H.Omote,M.-Y.Park,M.Maeda and M.Futai: 'The α/β subunit interaction in H^+-ATPase(ATP synthase):an Escherichia coil α subunit mutation (αArg-296→Cys)restored coupling efficiency to the deleterious β subunit mutant(βSer-174→Phe). (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] M.-Y.Park,H.Omote,M.Maeda,M.Futai: 'Conserved Glu-181 and Arg-182 residues of Escherichia coli H^+-ATPase(ATP synthase)β subunit are essential for catalysis:Properties of 33 mutants between βGlu-161 and βLys-201 residues. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] A.Iwamoto,Y.Orita,M.Maeda,and M.Futai: 'N-Ethylmaleimide-sensitive mutant(βVal-153→Cys)Escherichia coli F1 ATPase:Cross-Linking of the mutant β subunit with the α subunit. (nii.ac.jp)
  • lytic
  • DNA-binding-defective mutants of the Epstein-Barr virus lytic switch activator Zta transactivate with altered specificities. (bu.edu)
  • In the context of the intact virus, several recent studies indicate that a major and essential role of EBV-PK is to promote viral egress from the nucleus during lytic infection ( 10 , 13 , 41 ). (asm.org)
  • Characterization
  • Ihle J. N., Denny T. P., Bolognesi D. P. Purification and serological characterization of the major envelope glycoprotein from AKR murine leukemia virus and its reactivity with autogenous immune sera from mice. (medkursor.ru)
  • Bhat R, Ulrich P, Vyas G (1990) Molecular characterization of a new variant of hepatitis B virus in a persistently infected homosexual man. (springer.com)
  • molecular
  • By combining this quantitative phenotypic data with molecular assays to detect local and systemic virus accumulation, AGO2, AGO3, and AGO7 were shown to play antiviral roles during TCV infection. (plantphysiol.org)
  • In this study, we examined the molecular mechanism of virus recognition by pDCs. (rupress.org)
  • virulent
  • Nevertheless, in IFNAR −/− mice, all mutants were virulent, with the highest mortality rate for rSBVΔNSs and a reduced virulence for the NSm-deleted virus. (asm.org)
  • mice
  • When the researchers used a weaker virus, the Socs4 mutants survived but again showed more severe symptoms than mice with intact SOCS4. (medindia.net)
  • When the researchers analyzed the immune response in the Socs4 mutants they found that the mutant mice responded to influenza virus with production of abnormally high levels of cytokines and chemokines--both small molecules that promote inflammation. (medindia.net)
  • phosphorylation
  • Recently, we demonstrated that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) suppresses IFN-induced JAK phosphorylation during the early infection stage in the human amnion cell line FL but not in the human monocytic cell line U937 ( 44 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • EBV-PK phosphorylation of IRF3 inhibits its function and may thus decrease the innate immune response to the virus ( 54 ). (asm.org)
  • RNAs
  • Analysis of the innate immune response against negative-strand RNA viruses in mammals revealed that triphosphate groups at the 5′ ends of the uncapped viral RNAs, rather than long dsRNAs, play a critical role in the induction of IFN synthesis ( 10 - 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • genomes
  • The Rudiviridae are a family of rod-shaped archaeal viruses with covalently closed, linear double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genomes. (asm.org)
  • Baculoviruses are large enveloped viruses with double-stranded circular DNA genomes and have been used for various biotechnological applications. (biomedcentral.com)
  • immune
  • Ferrari C, Penna A, Bertoletti A, Valli A, Degli-Antoni T, Giuberti A, Cavalli A, Petit MA, Fiaccadori F (1990) Cellular immune response to hepatitis B virus- encoded antigens in acute and chronic hepatitis B virus infection. (springer.com)
  • A study published on May 8th in PLOS Pathogens identifies SOCS4 as a key regulator of the immune response against influenza virus. (medindia.net)
  • sendai
  • In particular, pDCs can be induced to secrete large amounts of IFN-α when stimulated with oligodeoxynucleotides containing certain CpG motifs ( 5 - 7 , 10 ) or viruses including sendai virus ( 7 ), influenza ( 4 ), and HSV-1 ( 5 , 6 ). (rupress.org)
  • variants
  • Some variants of the influenza neuraminidase confer more virulence to the virus than others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reassortment between viruses leading to appearance of avian virus HA and human virus NA on the virion surface often resulted in decreasing the replicative potential of the formed variants because of disturbance of a functional balance between "alien" HA and NA. (springer.com)
  • Comparison of two host cell range variants of feline immunodeficiency virus. (asm.org)
  • genomic
  • Therefore, these results demonstrate a novel mechanism whereby the genomic DNA of a virus can engage TLR9 and result in the secretion of IFN-α by pDCs. (rupress.org)
  • In these viruses, the nucleoprotein immediately associates with neosynthesized genomic RNA, thus preventing the formation of dsRNA ( 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • Carman WF, Fagan E, Hadziyannis S, Karayiannis P, Tassopoulos NC, Williams R, Thomas HC (1990) Association of a precore genomic variant of hepatitis B virus with fulminant hepatitis. (springer.com)
  • encode
  • Plant viruses evolved to encode viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSRs) that interfere with the function of key components in the silencing pathway. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Most plant viruses have evolved to encode viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSRs) that use varied mechanisms to target components in the silencing pathway ( Incarbone and Dunoyer, 2013 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Further, numerous studies from several different herpesvirus systems have provided unifying evidence that these viruses encode factors that elicit a cell cycle block, thereby actively preventing entry into S phase. (asm.org)
  • vectors
  • This result is of particular interest in view of the frequent transmission of medically relevant negative-strand RNA viruses to humans by insect vectors. (pnas.org)
  • distantly related
  • More recently, African green monkeys have been of significant interest because of the high levels of simian immunodeficiency virus type 1 ( SIV-1 ) that frequently occur in their blood, which may be distantly related to the human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV ) that causes AIDS. (fsu.edu)
  • Human adeno-associated virus type 5 is only distantly related to other known primate helper-dependent parvoviruses. (fitness-vip.com)
  • envelope glycoprotein
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope glycoprotein complex is composed of E1 and E2 subunits. (asm.org)
  • Intracellular distribution of the envelope glycoprotein of human immunodeficiency virus and its role in the production of cytopathic effect in CD4+ and CD4- human cell lines. (asm.org)