• the lipids and proteins are sorted and directed by separate pathways from the trans -Golgi network (TGN) to the specific plasma membrane ( 26 , 32 , 37 ). (asm.org)
  • this, together with the induced loss of lipids and proteins, leads to irreversible damage resulting in the death of the cell ( 8 , 47 , 50 ). (asm.org)
  • To examine this possibility directly, we have used a novel confocal imaging approach to visualize dopaminergic axons in the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) in mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) promoter. (jneurosci.org)
  • Because genetic experiments in mice demonstrated that Hox10 proteins are strongly redundant in this function, we first searched for common motifs among the group members. (biologists.org)
  • To test this hypothesis, we immunized mice, that expressed enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the GAD65 promoter, with either GAD65 (n = 13) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) (n = 13). (ox.ac.uk)
  • Many chimeric protein drugs are monoclonal antibodies whose specificity for a target molecule was developed using mice and hence were initially "mouse" antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice immunized with the RPM-1 chimeric antigen generate robust neutralizing antibody responses to MPV but weak or no cross-reactive recognition of RSV F, suggesting that grafting of the single palivizumab epitope stimulates a comparatively limited antibody response. (plos.org)
  • Mice with T cells expressing a mutant CD28 devoid of its C-terminal basic amino acids were defective in T reg cell generation. (sciencemag.org)
  • Polarized epithelial cells possess two distinct domains of the plasma membrane, the apical and the basolateral, separated by tight junctions which prevent lateral diffusion and commingling of the proteins and lipids of these domains of the plasma membrane. (asm.org)
  • Furthermore, N -ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF), soluble NSF attachment proteins, and soluble NSF attachment protein membrane receptors, as well as Rab proteins, have been shown to be involved in the vesicular transport from the TGN to basolateral membranes ( 12 ). (asm.org)
  • This ligase attaches ubiquitin to both nuclear regulatory proteins and to misfolded membrane proteins degraded at the ER (ER-associated degradation or ERAD). (yale.edu)
  • Most paramyxoviruses encode ~9 proteins and express two glycoproteins embedded in the particle envelope that are responsible for host cell binding, membrane fusion and virus entry [ 12 , 13 ]. (plos.org)
  • The G protein is a type II membrane protein, with highly glycosylated, mucin-like domains, as well as a CX3C chemokine-like motif that may be involved in modulating immune responses during infection [ 1 ]. (plos.org)
  • The F protein is a member of the class I viral fusion proteins and it undergoes large conformational changes during virus entry to promote viral and cellular membrane fusion ( Fig 1A ) [ 13 - 18 ]. (plos.org)
  • Domain-swapping experiments have shown that, in some cases, the HD plays a central role in dictating the functional specificity of the protein ( Chan and Mann, 1993 ). (biologists.org)
  • We are trying to understand the functional consequences of SUMO-protein modification, particularly in cell cycle checkpoints, and to determine the basis of specificity for the SUMO-cleaving proteases. (yale.edu)
  • The invasion of host cells by the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum requires specific protein-protein interactions between parasite and host receptors and an intracellular translocation machinery to power the process. (rupress.org)
  • The RPM-1 protein provides a new tool for characterizing the immune responses resulting from RSV and HMPV infections and provides insights into the requirements for developing a chimeric subunit vaccine that could induce robust and balanced immunity to both virus infections. (plos.org)
  • For partial gene fusions, the shuffling of different active sites and binding domains have potential to result in new proteins with novel functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Histones, including linker histones, are highly basic proteins that randomly bind to DNA. (asm.org)
  • First, like cellular DnaJ proteins, SV40 TAg can bind specifically to a member of the Hsp70 family of heat shock proteins ( 36 ). (asm.org)
  • This protein is found to bind and ubiquitylate synphilin 1 (SNCAIP), which is an interacting protein of alpha-synuclein in neurons, and a major component of LB. Alternatively-spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been reported. (wikipedia.org)
  • In HEp-2 and many other cell lines apoptosis induced by the d 120 mutant is caspase dependent ( 12 ). (asm.org)
  • This motif includes two potential phosphorylation sites, which are essential for protein activity as their mutation to alanines resulted in a total loss of rib-repressing properties. (biologists.org)
  • In addition, this motif might also regulate protein activity by alteration of the protein's DNA-binding affinity through changes in the phosphorylation state of two conserved tyrosine residues within the homeodomain. (biologists.org)
  • We have previously demonstrated that the N-terminal J domain of TAg affects the RB-related proteins by perturbing the phosphorylation status of p107 and p130 and promoting the degradation of p130 and that this domain is required for transformation of cells that express either p107 or p130. (asm.org)
  • In this report, we have analyzed the sequences in the NA TMD involved in apical transport and raft association by making chimeric TMDs from NA and human transferring receptor (TR) TMDs and by mutating the NA TMD sequences. (asm.org)
  • We identified the presence of two small sequences flanking the homeodomain that are phylogenetically conserved among Hox10 proteins and that seem to be specific for this group. (biologists.org)
  • This technique is often used for identification and purification of proteins, by fusing a GST protein, FLAG peptide, or a hexa-his peptide (6xHis-tag), which can be isolated using affinity chromatography with nickel or cobalt resins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The concept of combinatorial control of transcription in higher eukaryotes is supported primarily by transient reporter assays in vivo and analysis of protein-DNA interactions in vitro . (embopress.org)
  • Our data indicates that this motif has a significant regulatory function, modulating interactions with more N-terminal parts of the Hox protein, eventually triggering the rib-repressing program. (biologists.org)
  • Some, however, experience interactions between the two proteins that can modify their functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently, all three proteins, TAF-I, NAP1, and B23, were found to function as linker histone chaperones ( 4 - 7 ). (asm.org)
  • A nucleolar protein, nucleolin (NCL), and prothymosin α (ProTα) were shown to regulate linker histone-chromatin binding ( 8 - 10 ). (asm.org)
  • Fluorescent recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) assays using various combinations of mutant linker histones have demonstrated that both the GD and CTD cooperatively contribute to the stable binding of linker histones on chromatin ( 11 ). (asm.org)
  • To analyze the function of these factors in vivo , we engineered chimeric repressors containing the ets and IRF DNA‐binding domains connected by a flexible POU domain linker. (embopress.org)
  • Mutant Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (ouhsc.edu)
  • The Ubl called SUMO is attached to many proteins in vivo and is crucial for cell-cycle progression. (yale.edu)
  • The LXCXE domain (residues 103 to 107) mediates binding to the retinoblastoma family proteins pRB, p107, and p130 ( 5 , 6 , 9 , 19 , 51 ). (asm.org)
  • Biochemical and functional characterization of transcription factor complexes has shown that the structural information necessary for their assembly is provided by both protein-protein and protein-DNA contacts. (embopress.org)
  • Mechanisms of protein sorting, including the recognition events that occur at the TGN, leading to separate vesicle formation and eventual delivery and fusion of these vesicles to apical or basolateral membranes, are beginning to be elucidated. (asm.org)
  • Naturally occurring fusion proteins are commonly found in cancer cells, where they may function as oncoproteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bcr-abl fusion protein is a well-known example of an oncogenic fusion protein, and is considered to be the primary oncogenic driver of chronic myelogenous leukemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The purpose of creating fusion proteins in drug development is to impart properties from each of the "parent" proteins to the resulting chimeric protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • RSV and HMPV produce an attachment protein (G) and fusion (F) protein, which mediate these functions and which are also targets of the immune response. (plos.org)
  • In contrast, in hepatocytes, proteins are sorted via the endocytic-transcytotic route, i.e., first, both apical and basolateral proteins are transported to the basolateral side, and subsequently, apical proteins are transported to the apical surface via transcytosis ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • In contrast, the mutant was unable to remove 1,2,4-[ 14 C]trichlorobenzene from the cell membranes when grown on Luria-Bertani (LB) medium but was able to remove the aromatic compound when pregrown on LB medium with toluene supplied via the gas phase. (asm.org)
  • Treatment of cells that express the mutated receptor variants with the Met inhibitor SU11274 leads, in a mutant-dependent manner, to a reduction of tyrosine phosphorylated levels of Abl and Rad51, impairs radiation-induced nuclear translocation of Rad51, and acts as a radiosensitizer together with the p53 inhibitor pifithrin-α by increasing cellular double-strand DNA break levels following exposure to ionizing radiation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here, we report that contrary to cells that express wt Met, only cells that express Met-mutated variants exhibit constitutive levels of tyrosine phosphorylated forms of both Abl and Rad51, which could be reduced by the Met inhibitor SU11274 in a mutant-dependent manner. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Different cells may use different mechanisms and sorting machineries to transport proteins to the apical and basolateral plasma membranes. (asm.org)
  • In Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, the cells most widely used for studying apical and basolateral sorting, proteins and lipids are sorted and transported directly from the TGN to the apical or basolateral membranes ( 20 , 30 ). (asm.org)
  • More generally, we study the reversible enzymatic coupling of proteins to other proteins within cells. (yale.edu)
  • One class of toluene-sensitive octanol-tolerant mutant was isolated after Tn 5 -′ phoA mutagenesis of wild-type P. putida DOT-T1E cells. (asm.org)
  • The mutant, called P. putida DOT-T1E-18, was extremely sensitive to 0.3% (vol/vol) toluene added when cells were pregrown in the absence of toluene, whereas pregrowth on toluene supplied via the gas phase resulted in survival of about 0.0001% of the initial number. (asm.org)
  • Further, we show that the cytoplasmic domain of TRAP, a protein that is not expressed in merozoites but is essential for invasion of liver cells by the sporozoite stage, can substitute for the cytoplasmic domain of EBA-175. (rupress.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene contains two RING-finger motifs and an IBR (in between RING fingers) motif. (wikipedia.org)
  • In our second major area of research, we are analyzing the function and dynamics of protein modification by other Ubls. (yale.edu)
  • Amino acid residues 14 to 18 and 27 to 31 had the least effect on apical transport, whereas mutations in the amino acid residues 11 to 13, 23 to 26, and 32 to 35 resulted in altered polarity for the mutant proteins. (asm.org)
  • PF4 is a 70-amino acid (AA) platelet-specific protein that belongs to the CXC (or beta) chemokine subfamily, in which the first two of the four conserved cysteine residues are separated by one AA residue. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Our previous studies identified template activating factor I (TAF-I), nucleosome assembly protein 1 (NAP1), and nucleophosmin/B23 as factors involved in regulating the transcription and replication of adenovirus chromatin ( 2 , 3 ). (asm.org)