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  • assays
  • We present here the results obtained within the framework of an EU funded project aimed to develop and validate alternative metabolic activating systems to be used in short-term mutagenicity assays, in order to reduce the use of laboratory animals for toxicology testing. (uclouvain.be)
  • In this study, an in vitro battery of established assays was used to examine the cytotoxicity, mutagenicity, genotoxicity and inflammatory responses of certain commercial e-cigs and compared to tobacco burning cigarettes, smokeless tobacco (SLT) products and a nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) product. (mdpi.com)
  • In all assays, exposures with e-cig liquids and collected aerosols, at the doses tested, showed no significant activity when compared to tobacco burning cigarettes. (mdpi.com)
  • Results for the e-cigs, with and without nicotine in two evaluated flavor variants, were very similar in all assays, indicating that the presence of nicotine and flavors, at the levels tested, did not induce any cytotoxic, genotoxic or inflammatory effects. (mdpi.com)
  • vitro
  • This test complies with the OECD and ISO guidelines as one of the three levels of in vitro tests for genotoxicity and follows the AAMI/ANSI/ISO/10993-3, AAMI/ANSI/ISO/10993-1, AAMI/ANSI/ISO/10993-12, and OECD 471 standards. (nelsonlabs.com)
  • Therefore, the alternative metabolizing systems, which do not require the use of laboratory animals, have a substantial potential in in vitro toxicology, in the basic genotoxicity testing as well as in the elucidation of activation mechanisms. (uclouvain.be)
  • This approach has been used to estimate the weights of evidence for mutagenic activities of 105 chemical compounds studied by means of a battery of four tests: Ames's test, the test for chromosome aberrations in vitro, the test for cytogenetic defects in vivo, and the test for dominant lethal mutations in rodents. (deepdyve.com)
  • The present findings indicate that neither the e-cig liquids and collected aerosols, nor the extracts of the SLT and NRT products produce any meaningful toxic effects in four widely-applied in vitro test systems, in which the conventional cigarette smoke preparations, at comparable exposures, are markedly cytotoxic and genotoxic. (mdpi.com)
  • revertant
  • If, however, the strain undergoes a reverse mutation (spontaneous or induced by the test substance or a positive control material), the organism no longer requires histidine to grow and can produce a visible colony or revertant. (nelsonlabs.com)
  • gene
  • Only mutations to the test organism in the region of the histidine gene will cause the test organism to undergo a reverse mutation to an organism, which then no longer requires histidine. (nelsonlabs.com)
  • material
  • Dietary administration of the test material had no effect on body weight or food consumption in the female rats, but was associated with a 4.5% decrease in the body weight gain of the high-dose males which was not statistically significant. (inchem.org)
  • commercial
  • It should also be pointed out that the total organic solids (TOS) content of the commercial (31%), rather than that of the tested product (87.8%) was used to calculate the ADI in the previous review. (inchem.org)