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  • neuron
  • The results provide the morphology and physiological responses of neurons involved in a putative circuit connecting the mushroom body lobes, the SP, and the LP, as well as input to SP and LP by one multiglomerular AL neuron and output from the LP by one descending neuron. (frontiersin.org)
  • Kenyon
  • In particular, connection probability ½, as found in the locust antennal-lobe-mushroom-body circuit, serves to maximize separation of neuronal representations across the target Kenyon cells (KCs), and explains their specific and reliable responses. (frontiersin.org)
  • They have been defined anatomically as a discrete neuropil composed of an abundance of parallel fibers originating from densely packed cell bodies, called globuli cells or Kenyon cells ( Schürmann F-W, 1973 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • To facilitate the analysis of the mushroom body we provide a compilation of transgenic fruit flies that express transgenes under direct control of the Kenyon-cell specific promoter, mb247. (frontiersin.org)
  • The transgenes expressed are fluorescence reporters to analyze neuroanatomical aspects of the mushroom body, proteins to restrict ectopic gene expression to mushroom bodies, or fluorescent sensors to monitor physiological parameters of neuronal activity of Kenyon cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Overall, the collection of transgenic flies expressing sensor and reporter genes in Kenyon cells facilitates combinations with binary transcription systems and might, ultimately, advance the physiological analysis of mushroom body function. (frontiersin.org)
  • behavior
  • However, to fully elucidate the neural circuitry of complex behavior, it is crucial to understand brain interactions with the whole body, which can be achieved only by mapping the whole-body connectome. (jneurosci.org)
  • species
  • The authors compared total brain size against body size for 109 army ant workers and 39 soldiers across eight species and subspecies of Eciton . (eurekalert.org)
  • The mushroom body in the central brain is a particularly prominent brain region that has been intensely studied in several insect species and been implicated in a variety of behaviors, e.g., associative learning, locomotor activity, and sleep. (frontiersin.org)
  • vertical
  • Shomrat T, Zarrella I, Fiorito G, Hochner B (2008) The octopus vertical lobe modulates short-term learning rate and uses LTP to acquire long-term memory. (springer.com)
  • large
  • We also discuss the challenges encountered by scientists who endeavor to map these whole-body connectomes in large animals. (jneurosci.org)
  • central brain
  • Based on its distribution in the central brain region and the mushroom bodies, we speculate that the onychophoran arthropsin might be either a photosensitive molecule playing a role in the circadian clock, or a non-photosensitive protein involved in olfactory pathways, or both. (frontiersin.org)
  • Protein
  • Since the role of arthropsin and its distribution within the body are unknown, we immunolocalized this protein in a representative of Onychophora - Euperipatoides rowelli - an ecdysozoan taxon which is regarded as one of the closest relatives of Arthropoda. (frontiersin.org)