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  • proteins
  • Each muscle cell contains many long, stringlike proteins called myofilaments. (livestrong.com)
  • When these proteins connect and slide past one another in a complex interaction, the muscle fiber contracts and generates movement. (livestrong.com)
  • At the onset of differentiation, histone acetyltransferases such as p300 and PCAF are recruited to muscle specific genes by myogenic bHLH, Mef2, and SRF proteins and exert their enzymatic activity on regulatory chromatin regions and on transcription factors such as MyoD [ 7 , 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Electric eels have several thousand of these cells stacked, each producing 0.15 V. The cells function by pumping positive sodium and potassium ions out of the cell via transport proteins powered by adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (wikipedia.org)
  • The functions of the endoplasmic reticulum can be summarized as the synthesis and export of proteins and membrane lipids, but varies between ER and cell type and cell function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Actins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in various types of cell motility, and maintenance of the cytoskeleton. (wikipedia.org)
  • Robert Vernon Rice (b. 13 Aug 1924) is a retired American biochemist from Carnegie Mellon University and the Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole, Massachusetts primarily known for work in the area of biochemistry and physiology of muscle proteins and neuromuscular interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem
  • According to the researchers, it might also be possible to fix genetic defects in pluripotent stem cells from a patient and then grow small patches of healthy muscle that could be used with other genetic treatments to heal or replace specific areas of diseased muscle. (webmd.com)
  • In the new study, skin cells were reprogrammed in the lab to revert to what are called pluripotent stem cells -- cells that can grow into any type of cell. (webmd.com)
  • We identified a protein in muscle stem cells that appears to be responsible for their age-related dysfunction, and then developed a small molecule drug that limits the effects of this protein," said senior author Stanley Watowich, UTMB associate professor in the department of biochemistry and molecular biology. (medindia.net)
  • By resetting muscle stem cells to a more youthful state, we were able to rejuvenate them so that they could more effectively repair muscle tissues. (medindia.net)
  • Following seven days of drug treatment, researchers found that the aged mice that received the drug had more functional muscle stem cells that were actively repairing the injured muscle. (medindia.net)
  • A new study by researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden shows how an unexpectedly high number of mutations in the stem cells of muscles impair cell regeneration. (medicalxpress.com)
  • For the research, the scientists used embryonic stem cells (or similar cells derived from a patient's skin sample), which have the potential to form any cell type in the body, known as human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). (cam.ac.uk)
  • Specially programmed stem cells demonstrated the potential to regenerate lost muscle mass in muscular dystrophy, according to a Northwestern Medicine study published in Nature Communications. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Because of these two distinct features, satellite cells are defined as bona fide adult stem cells. (hindawi.com)
  • regenerate muscle
  • Satellite cells adopt a quiescent state, and upon environmental cues, such as mechanical stress, injury or in pathological environment of degenerative muscle diseases, they are activated to proliferate and terminally differentiate to regenerate muscle [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Duchenne
  • When a child's muscles are already withering away from something like Duchenne muscular dystrophy , it would not be ethical to take muscle samples from them and do further damage," he explained. (webmd.com)
  • protein
  • a plasma membrane component) and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) use heterodimeric LPAR1-CD97 to drive Gi/o protein-phospholipase C-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate signaling and induce [Ca2+] in breast cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hemoglobin is a quaternary protein that occurs in the red blood cell, whereas, myoglobin is a tertiary protein found the muscle cells of mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myotilin (myofibrillar titin-like protein) also known as TTID (TiTin Immunoglobulin Domain) is a muscle protein that is found within the Z-disc of sarcomeres. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myotilin is a structural protein that, along with titin and alpha-actinin give structural integrity to sarcomeres at Z-discs in striated muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calponin 1 is a basic smooth muscle protein that in humans is encoded by the CNN1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • respiration
  • The function of intercostal muscle is to assist in respiration. (reference.com)
  • Muscle cells, when put into action, can quickly require a large amount of oxygen for respiration because of their incredible demand for energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, muscle cells use myoglobin to accelerate oxygen diffusion and act as localized oxygen reserves for times of intense respiration. (wikipedia.org)
  • postnatal
  • During postnatal life, muscle growth relies on satellite cells, which are a subpopulation of somite-derived cells that reside between myofibers and the basal lamina [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • metabolic
  • In aged mice, a promising new drug that proven to significantly increase muscle size, strength and metabolic state discovered by researchers from The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston. (medindia.net)
  • A new Junior Research Group at the Institute for Cardiovascular Prevention will focus on metabolic adaption of heart muscle cells to find new therapies for combating heart disease. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Phthalate exposure changes the metabolic profile of cardiac muscle cells. (nih.gov)
  • these saw that a 20% reduction in the amount of water in a cell inhibits metabolism, with metabolism decreasing progressively as the cell dries out and all metabolic activity halting when the water level reaches 70% below normal. (wikipedia.org)
  • The quantity of both rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum in a cell can slowly interchange from one type to the other, depending on the changing metabolic activities of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • intracellular calcium
  • For example: dimerized Homer physical tether linking inositol trisphosphate receptors (IP3R) and ryanodine receptors on the intracellular calcium stores with cell surface group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors and the Alpha-1D adrenergic receptor The plant alkaloid ryanodine, for which this receptor was named, has become an invaluable investigative tool. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • Beginning around age 35, muscle mass, strength and function continually decline as we get older. (medindia.net)
  • Muscles require a large amount of energy to function. (phys.org)
  • The primary function of smooth muscle cells is to help hollow organs contract. (reference.com)
  • What is the function of intercostal muscle? (reference.com)
  • What is the function of the rectus femoris muscle? (reference.com)
  • According to About.com, the function of the rectus femoris muscle is to enable knee extension and hip flexion. (reference.com)
  • What is the function of the biceps brachii muscle? (reference.com)
  • The function of the biceps brachii muscle is to help the arm to bend at the elbow, according to WebMD. (reference.com)
  • Targeted disruption of the myotilin gene in mice does not cause significant alterations in muscle function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Low body weight in the elderly can be caused by pathological conditions associated with aging and predisposing to higher mortality (such as cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, or depression) or of the cachexia (wasting syndrome) and sarcopenia (loss of muscle mass, structure, and function). (wikipedia.org)
  • sodium
  • They permit sodium, potassium and calcium to easily diffuse from cell to cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is the direct result of a membrane which allows sodium ions to slowly enter the cell until the threshold is reached for depolarization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mediators
  • The beta and gamma actins co-exist in most cell types as components of the cytoskeleton, and as mediators of internal cell motility. (wikipedia.org)
  • junctions
  • Porous junctions called intercalated discs form junctions between the cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of these junctions and bridges the heart muscle is able to act as a single coordinated unit. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD97 in colonic enterocytes strengthens E-cadherin-based adherens junctions to maintain lateral cell-cell contacts and regulates the localization and degradation of β-catenin through glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and Akt signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • uterus
  • When a woman gives birth, the smooth muscle cells found in the uterus contract to push the baby out of the birth canal. (reference.com)
  • A ciliated columnar epithelium lines the lumen of the uterine tube, where currents generated by the cilia propel the egg cell toward the uterus. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy occurs through sarcomerogenesis, the creation of new sarcomere units in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike in muscle, repolarization occurs at a slow rate (100 ms). This prevents the heart from undergoing sustained contractions because it forces the refractory period and cardiac action potential firing to be of the same length of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • shorten
  • Smooth muscle cells were observed to freely shorten in a unique corkscrew-like fashion with a pitch of 1.4 cell lengths (that is, the length change required for one complete rotation of cell) at a rate of 27 degrees per second. (sciencemag.org)
  • diseases
  • The cardiomyopathies are a group of diseases characterized by disruptions to cardiac muscle cell growth and / or organization. (wikipedia.org)
  • The condition may also occur as a new mutation or be associated with a number of inherited muscle diseases, such as central core disease. (wikipedia.org)