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  • estimation
  • It is derived from the MUAC using the following formula: M U A A = M U A C 2 4 π {\displaystyle MUAA={\frac {MUAC^{2}}{4\pi }}} The mid-upper arm muscle circumference (MUAMC) is an estimation of the circumference of the bone and muscle portions of the upper arm. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is derived from the MUAMC using the following formula, with the MUAMC as above: M U A M A = M U A M C 2 4 π {\displaystyle MUAMA={\frac {MUAMC^{2}}{4\pi }}} The corrected mid-upper arm muscle area (CMUAMA) is an estimation of the area of the muscle portions of the upper arm, attempting to eliminate the area due to bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • A reasonably accurate estimation of body fat can be obtained by means of a "two compartment model" of the human body which is based upon two simplifying assumptions: 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • osteoporosis
  • It is important to attain a sufficient peak bone mass and reduce the risk of osteoporosis in later life, as the levels of biochemical bone turnover markers peak in the middle of puberty and begin to decrease in late puberty, according to, Harel et al. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These relations are of immense importance especially for bone loss situations like in osteoporosis, since an adapted training utilizing the needed maximum forces on the bone can be used to stimulate bone growth and hence prevent or help to minimize bone loss. (wikipedia.org)
  • The DXA scan is typically used to diagnose and follow osteoporosis, as contrasted to the nuclear bone scan, which is sensitive to certain metabolic diseases of bones in which bones are attempting to heal from infections, fractures, or tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • percentage of body fat
  • People of Asian descent have different associations between BMI, percentage of body fat, and health risks than those of European descent, with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease at BMIs lower than the WHO cut-off point for overweight, 25 kg/m2, although the cutoff for observed risk varies among different Asian populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epidemiologically, the percentage of body fat in an individual varies according to sex and age. (wikipedia.org)
  • fracture
  • circa 15000μStrain: maximum elastically deformation exceeded - bone fracture. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to this a typical bone, e.g. the tibia has a security margin of about 5 to 7 between typical load (2000 to 3000 μStrain) and fracture load (about 15000μStrain). (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the physical material properties of bone (as a material) are not altered in the different bone types of the body, this difference in modelling threshold results in an increased bone mass and bone strength and hence in an increased safety factor (relation between fracture load and typical loads) for the skull compared to the tibia. (wikipedia.org)
  • individual's
  • Still, it does not take into account the individual's physique, so its use is limited Overweight or obesity can be assessed using BMI index , but only roughly. (weightlosshot.com)
  • It may also help prevent stress[citation needed] and depression, increase quality of sleep and act as a non-pharmaceutical sleep aid to treat diseases such as insomnia, help promote or maintain positive self-esteem, improve mental health, maintain steady digestion and treat constipation and gas, regulate fertility health, and augment an individual's sex appeal or body image. (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • Carl Lavie has written that, "The B.M.I. tables are excellent for identifying obesity and body fat in large populations, but they are far less reliable for determining fatness in individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to mass migration and increased mobility of people between geographical regions in the recent past, dark-skinned populations today are found all over the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • circumference
  • Patients with HIV-associated cardiomyopathy had evidence of undernutrition compared with HIV-infected people without cardiomyopathy, as evidenced by a significantly lower body mass index (BMI) (20.9 kg/m 2 v. 27.0 kg/m 2 , p =0.02), mid-upper arm circumference (26.2 cm v. 27.3 cm, p =0.02), and bone-free arm muscle area (26.7 cm 2 v. 32.8 cm 2 , p =0.02). (scielo.org.za)
  • This is measured using Body Mass Index - BMI or waist circumference. (wikipedia.org)
  • found that, at the maximum circumference of the triceps, the contribution of bone to the total cross-sectional area was 18% in men and 17% in women, which were 10 cm² and 6.5 cm² respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • ligament
  • The coccyx attaches the sacrum, from the dorsal grooves with the attachment being either a symphysis or as a true synovial joint, and also to the gluteus maximus muscle, the coccygeal muscle, and the anococcygeal ligament. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plantar fasciitis is a disorder of the insertion site of the ligament on the bone characterized by micro tears, breakdown of collagen, and scarring. (wikipedia.org)
  • pubertal
  • mentioned the bone turnover cycle as being related to the gonadal hormones, especially estrogen in women [ 2 ], and a sex steroid hormone-dependent increase in the longitudinal growth and periosteal bone expansion for pubertal girls was observed by Libanati et al. (biomedcentral.com)
  • citation needed] Widening of the hip bones occurs as part of the female pubertal process, and estrogens (the predominant sex hormones in females) cause a widening of the pelvis as a part of sexual differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • muscular
  • normal people, who don't have so great a muscular mass, should stay into the fitness range in the table to be healthier. (wikipedia.org)
  • bodybuilders
  • For example, athletes and bodybuilders with strong muscles or people who have large body frames could be shown as obese by BMI calculations, but may have very little body fat. (lose-weight-with-us.com)
  • Bodybuilders may compete at essential body fat range, in fact certified personal trainers will suggest them to keep that extremely low level of body fat only for the contest time. (wikipedia.org)
  • percentages
  • Different authorities have consequently developed different recommendations for ideal body fat percentages. (wikipedia.org)
  • This graph from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in the United States charts the average body fat percentages of Americans from samples from 1999-2004: In males, mean percentage body fat ranged from 22.9% at age 16-19 years to 30.9% at age 60-79 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • So far, two receptors have been identified with homology to G protein-coupled receptors, and one receptor similar to the cadherin family: Adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) Adiponectin receptor 2 (AdipoR2) T-cadherin - CDH13 These have distinct tissue specificities within the body and have different affinities to the various forms of adiponectin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scheuermann's disease) Spondylolisthesis Spondylosis Posterior rami syndrome Other degenerative spinal conditions Any condition that causes instability of the spine Bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP) should not be routinely used in any type of anterior cervical spine fusion, such as with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • exercises
  • Physical exercises are generally grouped into three types, depending on the overall effect they have on the human body: Aerobic exercise is any physical activity that uses large muscle groups and causes the body to use more oxygen than it would while resting. (wikipedia.org)
  • Flexibility exercises stretch and lengthen muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Muscles and fat distribution may change from time to time, unlike bone structure, depending on food habits, exercises and hormone levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • physiological
  • Due to this control loop, there is a linear relationship in the healthy body between muscle cross sectional area (as a surrogate for typical maximum forces the muscle is able to produce under physiological conditions) and the bone cross sectional area (as a surrogate for bone strength). (wikipedia.org)
  • adult
  • In adult humans, muscle mass may change due to exercise, and fat distribution may change due to hormone fluctuations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both male and female hormones are present in the human body, and though only one of them is predominant in an adult, the other hormone has effects on body's shape to some extent. (wikipedia.org)
  • kilograms
  • The BMI is defined as the body mass divided by the square of the body height, and is universally expressed in units of kg/m2, resulting from mass in kilograms and height in metres. (wikipedia.org)
  • peak
  • The reason for the elastic deformation of bone is the peak forces caused by muscles (e.g. measurable using mechanography). (wikipedia.org)
  • Height
  • So, if all body dimensions double, and mass scales naturally with the cube of the height, then BMI doubles instead of remaining the same. (wikipedia.org)
  • In comparison, the Ponderal index is based on the natural scaling of mass with the third power of the height. (wikipedia.org)
  • Males are, on average, taller, but body shape may be analyzed after normalizing with respect to height. (wikipedia.org)
  • DEXA
  • DEXA exams provide both total body and up to 14 regional (trunk, individual arms & legs, android, gynoid, etc.) results. (wikipedia.org)
  • taller
  • This results in taller people having a reported BMI that is uncharacteristically high, compared to their actual body fat levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • puberty
  • During puberty, differentiation of the male and female body occurs for the purposes of reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the action of testosterone, males may develop these facial-bone features during puberty: A more prominent brow bone (bone across the centre of the forehead from around the middle of eyebrow across to the middle of the other) A heavier jaw. (wikipedia.org)
  • heal
  • There are many types of spinal fusion and each technique involves using bone grafting - either from the patient (autograft), donor (allograft), or artificial bone substitutes - to help the bones heal together. (wikipedia.org)
  • estimate
  • Remember that it is an "estimate" of body fat, and a fairly good gauge of your risk for diseases that increase with higher body fat. (healthtap.com)
  • strain
  • Hence bone adapts its mechanical properties according to the needed mechanical function - bone mass, bone geometry and hence bone strength (see also Stress-strain index, SSI) is adapted according to the everyday usage / needs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Frost defined four regions of elastic bone deformation which result in different consequences on the control loop: Disuse: Strain (wikipedia.org)
  • Strain E at length l and change of length Δl: E = Δ l l {\displaystyle E={\frac {\Delta l}{l}}} It has to be considered that bone strength is highly dependent on geometry and direction of the acting forces in relation to this geometry. (wikipedia.org)
  • calipers
  • The skin fold is pulled away from the muscle and measured with the calipers, taking a reading 4 seconds after the calipers have been released. (wikipedia.org)
  • widely
  • The widely used body mass index (BMI) provides a measure that allows the comparison of the adiposity of individuals of different heights and weights. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adaptation
  • The Adaptation (feed-back control loop) of bone according to the maximum forces is considered to be a lifelong process. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • Different type of bones can have different modelling and remodelling thresholds. (wikipedia.org)
  • A number of different conditions can cause pain in the general area of the coccyx, but not all involve the coccyx and the muscles attached to it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two X-ray beams, with different energy levels, are aimed at the patient's bones. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Human body shape is a complex phenomenon with sophisticated detail and function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Growth is usually completed between the ages of 13 and 18, at which time the epiphyseal plates of long bones close, allowing no further growth (see Human skeleton). (wikipedia.org)
  • strength
  • The muscle mass or strength is one factor affecting the bone mass, and ideally, exercise should be relatively easy to continue, as older people have been subjects in previous studies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is also not usually recommended for improving cognition, the risk of heart disease, bone strength, or for generalized well being. (wikipedia.org)