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  • rejection
  • Recent reviews that have outlined the clinical effects of DC-based vaccines highlight the discrepancy observed between the immunonogenicity and the therapeutic efficacy in terms of inducing tumor rejection ( 6 , 12 , 13 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition, the AH1-specific CTL response elicited comprises most, if not all, of the lytic activity inducible against TS/A tumors undergoing rejection, as demonstrated by cold-target inhibition experiments, thus indicating that gp70 423-431 can be considered the immunodominant tumor antigen of anti-TS/A CTL response. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The expression of this enzyme in the placenta plays a critical role in preventing rejection of allogenic fetuses (likely by inhibiting T-cell proliferation), which are extremely sensitive to extracellular tryptophan shortage ( 27 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • chemically induced
  • Resistance does not generally extend to other syngeneic tumors induced by the same carcinogen, but is restricted to challenge with the tumor used for immunization, indicating that the antigenic polymorphism of chemically induced sarcomas is apparently quite extensive ( 7 , 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • tissue
  • The molecular sequence that links chronic inflammation to cancer development involves intricate and context-dependent interactions among differentiated tissue cells, immune cells, organ-specific stem cells, and other cell types present at the incipient tumor site ( 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Therefore, knowledge of the levels of bioavailable drug in tumor tissue and the rate of bioavailability will help in the design of improved liposomal formulations of anticancer drugs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Therefore, a complete description of the functional specialization and tissue distribution of DCs deserves special attention in tumor models. (frontiersin.org)
  • A goal of cancer treatment is to improve tumor control while minimizing normal tissue toxicity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • For example, IGRT may be used to reduce radiation-related toxicity through improved targeting of the tumor and exclusion of normal tissue. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The regression of tumor was associated with the elevated expression of the IFN-γ-inducible chemokines IP-10 and Mig within the tumor tissue. (bloodjournal.org)
  • NK cells show a broad array of tissue distribution and phenotypic variability. (frontiersin.org)
  • These uterine NK cells secrete IL-8, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), stromal cell-derived factor-1, and interferon gamma-inducible protein-10 (IP-10) which help in tissue building, remodeling, and angiogenesis ( 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Stem cells, both embryonic and adult, due to the potential for application in tissue regeneration have been the target of interest to the world scientific community. (hindawi.com)
  • The study of the stem cells potential has stimulated the onset of new areas, as the regenerative medicine and tissue bioengineering. (hindawi.com)
  • Methods of cell cultivation have been fundamental to physiological, biological, and pharmacological assessments at cellular and tissue levels [ 1 ], as well as to molecular studies. (hindawi.com)
  • recurrent tumor
  • however, four of the eight patients with recurrent tumor remain alive more than 1 year after surgery for recurrence. (thejns.org)
  • Pulmonary or hepatic metastases after resection of primary tumors displayed enhanced outgrowth of metastatic tumors, while metastasis of lymph-node or local recurrent tumor did not be affected by resection of primary tumors. (nii.ac.jp)
  • angiogenesis
  • As a novel alternative therapy to overcome the shortcomings of the existing agents, we have recently reported a vaccination strategy to prevent tumor angiogenesis using epitope peptides derived from VEGFR2 ( 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • necrosis
  • Tumour necrosis factor-induced necrosis versus anti-Fas-induced apoptosis in L929 cells. (nih.gov)
  • The mode of cell death was analysed following treatment either with tumour necrosis factor (TNF) or with agonistic antibodies to Fas. (nih.gov)
  • While triggering of the TNF receptors led to necrosis, clustering of the Fas antigen resulted in apoptotic cell death. (nih.gov)
  • We conclude that either necrosis or apoptosis can occur in the same cell type, depending on the trigger, and that, although both pathways perhaps may share some cellular components, signal transduction is different for the two types of cell death. (nih.gov)
  • The tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-sensitive WEHI164S line was provided by E. Lattime (Thomas Jefferson University) ( 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • vaccines
  • The identification of tumor-associated antigens has enabled the clinical development of peptide-based cancer vaccines with multiple clinical trials ( 7 - 9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Besides enabling the production of biological components of human interest, such as vaccines and hormones, cell cultures help in the advancement of stem cell research by allowing the improvement of the stem cells for cellular therapy. (hindawi.com)
  • poorly
  • We have previously shown that targeted delivery of low doses of IFNγ to tumor vasculature can overcome major counterregulatory mechanisms and delay tumor growth in murine models that respond poorly to IFNγ ( 22 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Publications] Kazuyo Naito: 'Active specific chemoimmunotherapy of lymphーnode metastasis from a poorly immunogenic murine fibrosarcoma' Japanese Journal of Cancer Research. (nii.ac.jp)
  • phenotype
  • Extensive efforts to isolate antigen-loss variants of CMS5 were unsuccessful, suggesting that the mutated mitogen-activated protein kinase is essential for maintenance of the malignant phenotype. (pnas.org)
  • The invasive phenotype of the immortalized cells was also reflected by the consistent expression of several metastasis-associated adhesion molecules, including α5 (eight of nine), α6 (five of nine), αV (nine of nine), β1 (nine of nine), and β3 (nine of nine) integrin subunits and the M r 67,000 laminin receptor (seven of nine). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The invasive phenotype of the immortalized cells was mirrored by their epithelial-mesenchymal transition and the expression of several metastasis-associated molecules, which might be potential candidates for novel therapeutic targets. (aacrjournals.org)
  • vitro
  • Attempts to analyze the in vitro specificity of T cells from immunized donors by cytotoxicity tests have not given clear-cut results. (pnas.org)
  • Peptide-specific CTL clones were also induced in vitro with these identified epitope peptides from peripheral blood mononuclear cells donated by healthy volunteers with HLA-A*0201. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We established CTL clones in vitro from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells with HLA-A*2402 as well. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We have also shown that specific CTLs could be induced in vitro from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of cancer patients using these peptides. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The composition of the culture medium is critical to the success of cell culture and the maintenance of cells for long periods in vitro , often requiring to be supplemented with other factors, such as serum. (hindawi.com)
  • regression
  • Following T-cell transfer therapy, radiographic regression that lasted at least 6 months was demonstrated in two patients with recurrent tumors. (thejns.org)
  • In animals treated with rabbit polyclonal antibodies specific for IP-10 and Mig, the IL-12-induced regression of RENCA tumors was partially abrogated. (bloodjournal.org)
  • epitope
  • Only a single MHC II-presented cancer epitope of a murine cancer has been reported thus far ( 27 ). (pnas.org)
  • the only other identified MHC II-presented epitope of a murine cancer came from an UV-induced squamous cell carcinoma ( 27 ). (pnas.org)
  • adenocarcinoma
  • Although these studies have been conducted in a variety of different experimental models, the use of TS/A mouse murine mammary adenocarcinoma has become a sort of "gold standard" for this approach. (aacrjournals.org)
  • vascular
  • The enhanced permeability and retention effect is a result of defective vascular endothelial linings of growing tumors, resulting in gaps in the endothelium up to ∼800 nm in diameter, which are large enough to permit the extravasation of liposomes with diameters in the range of 100 nm ( 11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Resistance
  • Although the therapeutic efficacy of this protein (called IFNγ-NGR) in animal models is greater than that of IFNγ, frequent administrations of IFNγ-NGR may result in lower efficacy and tumor resistance. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We investigated the role of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), an IFNγ-inducible enzyme that may down-regulate T cells by affecting local tryptophan catabolism in tumor resistance to repeated treatments with IFNγ-NGR. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We conclude that IDO is critically involved in tumor resistance to repeated treatments with IFNγ-NGR, likely causing excessive stimulation of tryptophan catabolism and inhibiting antitumor immune mechanisms. (aacrjournals.org)
  • clinical
  • The gadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) complex, which is commonly used in routine clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), is restricted to the extracellular space and cannot reach the cell nucleus. (aspetjournals.org)
  • NK cells have been used in several clinical trials to control tumor growth. (frontiersin.org)
  • We also summarized various NK cell-based immunotherapeutic strategies used in the past and the possibilities to improve the function of NK cell for the better clinical outcome. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, caution is needed in the clinical application of such cells and this is an issue that demands more studies. (hindawi.com)
  • Cell-based therapies to treat human diseases have become a clinical reality in the light of the advances in research with adult stem cells and embryonic stem cells, the two major divisions of stem cells. (hindawi.com)
  • lysate
  • After 5 days, tumor lysate, CpG-1826, and oligodeoxynucleosides, as control, were added to the culture media and incubated for 2 days. (ac.ir)
  • Pharmacologic
  • Pharmacologic studies in murine fibrosarcoma and lymphoma models have shown that the dose-response curve of IFNγ-GCNGRC conjugate (called IFNγ-NGR) is bell shaped with maximal effects being induced with a dose of 0.005 μg/kg, whereas nontargeted IFNγ induces little or no effect over a range of 0.003 to 250 μg/kg in these models ( 22 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • immune-mediated
  • In light of these disparate outcomes, autoimmunity may be regarded as a "double agent" implicated in both immune-mediated tumor elimination and the cellular, genetic, and epigenetic changes that underlie carcinogenesis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Therefore, the hypothesis was considered that combining IL-12 with rituximab would augment the immune-mediated cell lysis induced by rituximab. (bloodjournal.org)
  • lymphatic
  • In addition, growing tumors have defective lymphatic drainage, which contributes to the extended residence time of extravasated liposomes in the interstitial space of the tumor. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We synthesized a novel fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled gadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) conjugate in which the commonly used gadolinium-DTPA complex is flanked by the nuclear localization sequences of the simian virus-40 T antigen and the acute lymphatic leukemia-1 (ALL-1) protein. (aspetjournals.org)
  • lymphoma
  • A phase 1 study of IL-12 in combination with rituximab was conducted in 43 adults with B-cell lymphoma to determine the optimal immunologic dose of this combination. (bloodjournal.org)
  • These data suggest that IL-12 and rituximab is an active combination and further studies of this combination in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma are warranted. (bloodjournal.org)
  • B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is the sixth most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States and the incidence of this disease is increasing. (bloodjournal.org)