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  • growth
  • The results further indicate that cells become committed mainly during the logarithmic rather than the stationary phase of the growth cycle. (aacrjournals.org)
  • When logarithmic growth was maintained continuously, the rate of the spontaneous differentiation increased (20- to 100-fold) due to the higher probability of cell commitment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Angiogenesis is initiated by binding of specific growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF), to their cell surface receptors. (diva-portal.org)
  • Because the activity of CaM in cells is tightly controlled and pools of otherwise free CaM are sequestered so as to restrict its availability for activating Ca 2+ /CaM-dependent enzymes, the name "calpacitin" was given to a family of neuronal proteins including Ng, growth associated protein 43 (GAP-43) and the small cerebellum-enriched peptide PEP-19. (ijbs.com)
  • Transformation of mouse BALB/c 3T3 cells with human basic fibroblast growth factor cDNA. (asm.org)
  • bone
  • A series of chimeric receptors containing tyrosine mutations to phenylalanine, either individually or collectively, was constructed and expressed in primary bone marrow cells from G-CSF-deficient mice. (edu.au)
  • The localization and differentiation status of the donor B cells within spleen, bone marrow and mesenteric lymph nodes of recipients were determined during one week after transfer via flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy. (fu-berlin.de)
  • Molecular
  • Dept . Cell and Molecular Biology, Lund. (diva-portal.org)
  • Molecular characterization of the murine thymidylate kinase gene -- Liang et al. (aacrjournals.org)
  • model continues to be invaluable in regards to to translation of the complex, multifactorial adaptation response into identification of key molecular targets for subsequent, more mechanistic experiments employing cell culture 4,5. (sprentland.com)
  • 2002
  • 2002). Requirement for Foxd3 in maintaining pluripotent cells of the early mouse embryo. (patentgenius.com)
  • For the development of antibody responses, DCs not only promote Tfh differentiation but also directly support B cell survival and class-switching through their expression of B cell stimulatory ligands such as BAFF and APRIL ( MacLennan and Vinuesa, 2002 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • protein
  • 2009) Unifying Fluorescence Microscopy and Mass Spectrometry for Studying Protein Complexes in Cells. (patentgenius.com)
  • Cholesterol sulfate activates multiple protein kinase C isoenzymes and induces granular cell differentiation in cultured murine keratinocytes -- Denning et al. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Western blot experiments confirmed the expression of α-tubulin and microtubule- associated protein 1B (MAP 1B) was dramatically reduced in Neuro-2a-Ng cells compared to control. (ijbs.com)
  • The investigation revealed that dendritic cells that produce a protein called CD301b suppress the activity of T follicular helper cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • gene
  • Together, our results provide first evidence for a specific effect of EE on T cell differentiation and its associated changes in gene expression profile. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this study, we showed that the evaluated compounds affected osteoblast differentiation both at the level of calcium concentrations in the culture as well as on multiple gene expression. (uu.nl)
  • In addition to preventing HMBA induced MEL cell differentiation, APAH also inhibited the second phase of repression of c- myc gene expression, a hallmark of induced differentiation. (pacific.edu)
  • Murine TMK gene expression in nontransformed BALB/c 3T3 cells was shown to be regulated during Go to S-phase transit at both mRNA and enzyme activity levels. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here we show that murine AG pNPCs give rise to neuron-like cells , which then generate sodium-driven action potentials while maintaining fidelity of imprinted gene expression. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Different cis-acting DNA elements control expression of the human apolipoprotein AI gene in different cell types. (asm.org)
  • A fetal globin gene mutation in A gamma nondeletion hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin increases promoter strength in a nonerythroid cell. (asm.org)
  • However, these cells demonstrated an isolated defect in switching to IgG3, which was associated with a decrease in γ3 germline C H gene expression. (jimmunol.org)
  • Because C H gene expression is thought to be a prerequisite for class switching 15 , 16 , it is not surprising that in B cells lacking p50 there are alterations in expression of C H γ3 and C H ε, while in B cells lacking the transactivation domain of c-Rel, there are alterations in expression of C H γ3 and C H γ1. (jimmunol.org)
  • effector
  • A fraction of effector CD8 + T cells remains during the contraction phase and differentiate into memory T cells critical for mounting robust recall responses in response to secondary infection. (bio-protocol.org)
  • The production of such "class switched" antibodies is important for optimizing the immune response to particular antigens, since the antibody class defines its effector functions, such as complement activation, opsonization, neutralization of bacterial toxins and mast cell activation. (fu-berlin.de)
  • In line with this, both naive human CD4 + T cells and differentiated T H 17 effector cells from MS patients were highly sensitive toward B7-H1-Ig-mediated T H 17 suppression. (jimmunol.org)
  • Adoptive transfer and genetic manipulation revealed a previously unknown sub-population of PLZFhi CCR7+ iNKT cells as precursors for all three iNKT effector subsets in both thymus and periphery in mice. (elifesciences.org)
  • pathogen
  • Upon pathogen encounter, naïve CD8 + T cells are primed and undergo massive clonal expansion. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Sentinel mice housed in the dirty room, which does not require any special access access for animal workers, experienced positive serologies for the following murine pathogen strains: coronavirus, minute computer virus of mice, norovirus, and parvovirus. (sprentland.com)
  • responses
  • Previous studies of signaling from the 4 G-CSF-R cytoplasmic tyrosine residues used model cell lines that may have idiosyncratic, nonphysiological responses. (edu.au)
  • Together, we propose the existence of a novel B7-H1-mediated immune-regulatory pathway in T cells, which selectively limits murine and human T H 17 cell responses and might be therapeutically exploited to control T H 17-mediated autoimmunity. (jimmunol.org)
  • Multiple mechanisms exist that avoid damaging T cell responses to the fetus, whereas activation of uNK cells is probably physiological. (jci.org)
  • Molecules called antibodies are a key component of most immune responses because they can bind to invading microbes and either neutralize them or mark them for destruction by immune cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • It was not clear whether there are types of dendritic cell that specifically activate - or suppress - the responses of T follicular helper cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • Through presenting processed antigens on their MHC molecules, dendritic cells (DCs) are primarily responsible for initiating T cell-mediated cellular immunity, which is also required for T cell-dependent antibody responses. (elifesciences.org)
  • concentrations
  • Furthermore, we showed that the effect on calcium concentrations appeared to be primarily mediated by a general apoptotic effect and not by a specific effect on differentiation. (uu.nl)
  • 2-APB, a store operated channel (SOC) regulator, at higher concentrations (50,75 μM) prevented HMBA induced differentiation while at lower concentrations (5,10 μM) potentiated induced differentiation. (pacific.edu)
  • EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: DOX-resistant SW480/DOX cells were derived from non-resistant SW480 cells by stepwise exposure to increasing concentrations of DOX, and P-glycoprotein overexpression induced by DOX was confirmed by Western blotting. (biomedsearch.com)
  • assays
  • Permeabilized cell assays demonstrated that DAH mobilized Ca 2+ from intracellular IP 3 sensitive stores in the ER. (pacific.edu)
  • markers
  • Some molecules are particularly useful as phenotyping markers for different cell subpopulations. (jimmunol.org)
  • undergo
  • The results indicate that murine erythroleukemic cells destined to undergo spontaneous differentiation first undergo commitment, an irreversible process characterized by cells becoming ( a ) capable of producing hemoglobin coupled with ( b ) a loss of their ability to undergo more than six subsequent cell divisions. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We generated small resting B cells lacking p65 or p50 alone, or lacking both p50 and p65, then evaluated the ability of these cells to proliferate, secrete Ig, and undergo Ig class switching. (jimmunol.org)
  • stimulation
  • Stimulation of purified small resting B cells represents a powerful system for studying the role of NF-κB/Rel proteins during activation programs. (jimmunol.org)
  • defect
  • PGC-1α mediates the vasculogenic differentiation defect of circulating EPCs in T1 and T2 DM, in sharp contrast to the anti-migratory effect of EC PGC-1α in mediating diabetic angiostasis. (ahajournals.org)
  • tyrosine
  • The SH2-domain of Shb was found to bind to tyrosine 1175 in the VEGFR-2 in a phosphotyrosine dependent manner using PAE cells expressing VEGFR-2. (diva-portal.org)
  • This study shows that an ethanol extract of MAK-A induced morphological (neurite formation) and biochemical (increase of activity of tyrosine hydroxylase by about 15-fold) differentiation in murine neuroblastoma (NBP2) cells in culture, whereas an aqueous extract of MAK-A increased only the activity of tyrosine hydroxylase but to a much lesser extent. (heilpflanzen-welt.de)
  • These observations have suggested novel roles for the G-CSF-R tyrosine residues in primary cells that were not observed previously in studies in cell lines. (edu.au)
  • affinity
  • In the present study, we performed proteomics analysis of the induced compositional changes due to the expression of Ng in murine neuroblastoma (Neuro-2a) cells using isotope coded affinity tags (ICAT) combined with 2-dimensional liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (2D-LC/MS/MS). We found that 40% of identified proteins were down-regulated and most of these proteins are microtubule components and associated proteins that mediated neurite outgrowth. (ijbs.com)
  • A number of micro-evolutionary processes occur within the GCs, leading to the production of high-affinity B cells which acquire the necessary survival signals from T cells and leave the GCs in order to differentiate into plasma cells and memory B cells. (fu-berlin.de)
  • Supposedly, such a scheme could lead to faster affinity maturation and a higher diversity of GC B cells. (fu-berlin.de)
  • If germline B cells that initiate affinity maturation have high affinity for the conserved residues of the targeted epitope, framework mutations increase antibody rigidity as affinity maturation progresses to evolve bnAbs. (elifesciences.org)
  • If the germline B cells exhibit weak/moderate affinity for conserved residues, an initial increase in flexibility via framework mutations may be required for the evolution of bnAbs. (elifesciences.org)
  • secondary lymphoid organs
  • GCs are transient structures which arise after challenge with a T cell-dependent antigen within secondary lymphoid organs, such as the spleen and lymph nodes. (fu-berlin.de)
  • During the immune response activated B cells migrate to the T cell zones within the secondary lymphoid organs and acquire help from the residing antigen-specific, activated T cells. (fu-berlin.de)
  • The obtained results showed that the blood derived GC B cells immigrate into secondary lymphoid organs and are recruited to the already existing GC reaction. (fu-berlin.de)
  • 3\. To address the question whether the capability to immigrate into secondary lymphoid organs is a GC B cell specific feature, additional transfer experiments were conducted with blood derived CD38hiIgG1+ and CD38hiIgM+ potential memory B cells, which correspond to later stages of GC B cell ontogeny. (fu-berlin.de)
  • subsets
  • This work delivers a deeper insight into the mentioned topics by performing the following analyses: i) A kinetic of the GC B cell subsets was conducted by means of flow cytometric analyses and immunofluorescence microscopy methods. (fu-berlin.de)
  • ii) To monitor the migratory behavior of GC B cell emigrants, different B cell subsets, corresponding to distinct stages of GC B cell ontogeny were isolated and enriched from blood. (fu-berlin.de)
  • In addition to an update on mouse nomenclature, there will be a discussion of some known functions of the molecules and brief comments on the use of particular Ags for immunophenotyping of cell subsets. (jimmunol.org)