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  • maturation
  • Most blood cells develop and mature in the bone marrow, with the exception of T cells, which develop in the bone marrow and migrate to the thymus for final maturation. (qiagen.com)
  • In the process of red blood corpuscle maturation, a cell undergoes a series of differentiations. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the process of maturation, a basophilic pronormoblast is converted from a cell with a large nucleus and a volume of 900 fL to an enucleated disc with a volume of 95 fL. (wikipedia.org)
  • Essential for the maturation of red blood cells are Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) and Vitamin B9 (Folic acid). (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] It is important for proliferation during certain stages of B-cell maturation, T and NK cell survival, development and homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • Single-cell RNA sequencing reveals molecular and functional platelet bias of aged haematopoietic stem cells. (pubfacts.com)
  • These cells present receptors contained on the surface or within the cell, named pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which recognize molecules that are broadly shared by pathogens but distinguishable from host molecules, collectively referred to as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). (wikipedia.org)
  • It is believed that the molecular distinction between symmetric and asymmetric divisions lies in differential segregation of cell membrane proteins (such as receptors) between the daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • niche
  • During this time, the field exploded with studies aimed at determining the components of the "hematopoietic stem cell niche" that made this possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • These studies and others supported the idea that bone cells create the HSC niche, and all the research that elucidated this specialized hematopoietic microenvironment stemmed from these landmark studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • Publications] 井上 達他: 'Hemopoietic stem cell growth and microenvironment of the senescent mice. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] T. Inoue, Y. Hirabayashi, H. Sasaki, H. Kuramoto, S. Matsuyama, M. Kanisawa: 'Hemopoietic stem cell growth and microenvironment of the senescent mice. (nii.ac.jp)
  • EC-induced PSC-MPP engrafted at a markedly higher level in NOD/SCID/IL-2 receptor γ chain-null (NSG) mice compared with cytokine-induced cells, and low-dose chemotherapy-based selection further increased engraftment. (angiocrinebioscience.com)
  • The hemangioblast theory, which posits that the RBCs and ECs derive from a common progenitor cell, was developed as researchers observed that receptor knockout mice, such as flk1-/-, exhibited defective RBC formation and vessel growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells were isolated in mice in 1981, and in humans in 1998. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice models have shown that heterozygous mutations can cause fatality due to hemorrhaging while homozygous mutations can prevent proper stem cell differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Knockout studies in mice suggested that this cytokine plays an essential role in lymphoid cell survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • Knockout mice which genetically lack IL-7 receptor exhibit thymic atrophy, arrest of T-cell development at the double positive stage, and severe lymphopenia. (wikipedia.org)
  • In September 2013, a team from the Spanish national Cancer Research Centre was able for the first time to make adult cells from mice retreat to the characteristics of embryonic stem cells, thereby achieving totipotency. (wikipedia.org)
  • NSG branded mice lack mature T cells, B cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The compound immunodeficiencies in NSG branded mice permit the engraftment of a wide range of primary human cells, and enable sophisticated modeling of many areas of human biology and disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice homozygous for the mutation have severely reduced numbers of mature T and B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was only natural to ask where these two great classes of cells arose, and after much work two cell types with some strong stem cell properties were isolated and defined - CMP, the common myeloid progenitor and CLP, the common lymphoid progenitor for mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • glial cells
  • Brain tumors, uncontrolled cellular growth in the cranium or spinal column, arise from any of the cell types found in the brain, such as neurons, glial cells, astrocytes, or cells of the meninges. (qiagen.com)
  • Multipotency or multidifferentiative potential, which is the ability to generate progeny of several distinct cell types, (for example glial cells and neurons) as opposed to unipotency, which is the term for cells that are restricted to producing a single-cell type. (wikipedia.org)
  • AS their differentiation into neural and glial cells as well as hepatocyte precursors was observed. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • The proteins work together to: trigger the recruitment of inflammatory cells "tag" pathogens for destruction by other cells by opsonizing, or coating, the surface of the pathogen form holes in the plasma membrane of the pathogen, resulting in cytolysis of the pathogen cell, causing the death of the pathogen rid the body of neutralised antigen-antibody complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once a BCR binds a TD antigen, the antigen is taken up into the B cell through receptor-mediated endocytosis, degraded, and presented to T cells as peptide pieces in complex with MHC-II molecules on the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Afterwards, different membrane markers (Sca-1, Abcg-2, Flk-1) and transcription factors (Isl-1, Nkx2.5, GATA4) have been employed to identify and characterize these cells in the embryonic and adult life. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, it was demonstrated that the combination of Flt1+/Flt4+ membrane markers identifies an Isl1+/Nkx2.5+ cell population in the developing heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amniotic stem cells are the mixture of stem cells that can be obtained from the amniotic fluid as well as the amniotic membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • At around the same time, it was determined that stem cells from the amniotic membrane also have multipotent potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • Distinct
  • Distinct myeloid progenitor-differentiation pathways identified through single-cell RNA sequencing. (pubfacts.com)
  • Distinct signaling properties of the TrkB neurotrophin receptor explain differential control of developmental cell death in the central and peripheral nervous systems. (sciencemag.org)
  • However, Ueno and Weissman provided the earliest contradiction to the hemangioblast theory when they saw that distinct ES cells mixed into a blastocyst resulted in more than 1 ES cell contributing to the majority of the blood islands found in the resultant embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • This view was first challenged by the 2002 discovery by the Muller-Sieburg group in San Diego, who illustrated that different stem cells can show distinct repopulation patterns that are epigenetically predetermined intrinsic properties of clonal Thy-1lo Sca-1+ lin− c-kit+ HSC. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL2Rγ is a common component of the cell surface receptors that bind and transduce signals from six distinct interleukins. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • HIV-1 utilizes the CXCR4 chemokine receptor to infect multipotent hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • CD117 is a cytokine receptor expressed on the surface of hematopoietic stem cells as well as other cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • When this receptor binds to stem cell factor (SCF) it forms a dimer that activates its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity, that in turn phosphorylates and activates signal transduction molecules that propagate the signal in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the BCR can bind strongly to self-antigen, then the B cell undergoes one of four fates: clonal deletion, receptor editing, anergy, or ignorance (B cell ignores signal and continues development). (wikipedia.org)
  • B cell activation is enhanced through the activity of CD21, a surface receptor in complex with surface proteins CD19 and CD81 (all three are collectively known as the B cell coreceptor complex). (wikipedia.org)
  • T helper (TH) cells, typically follicular T helper (TFH) cells, that were activated with the same antigen recognize and bind these MHC-II-peptide complexes through their T cell receptor (TCR). (wikipedia.org)
  • This cytokine is found to be a cofactor for V(D)J rearrangement of the T cell receptor beta (TCRß) during early T cell development. (wikipedia.org)
  • erythroid
  • Here, we show that TET2 deficiency leads initially to stem cell factor (SCF)-dependent hyperproliferation and impaired differentiation of human colony-forming unit-erythroid (CFU-E) cells, which were reversed by a c-Kit inhibitor. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The CMP can then further differentiate into the megakaryocyte-erythroid progenitor cell (MEP), which goes on to make RBCs and platelets, or the granulocyte/macrophage progenitor (GMP), which gives rise to the granulocytes of the innate immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, some evidence on macrocytosis in hypoxic stress (when Epo can increase 1000-fold) suggests that mitosis is actually skipped in later erythroid stages, when EpoR expression is low/absent, in order to provide emergency reserve of red blood cells as soon as possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • megakaryocytes
  • Megakaryocytes usually account for 1 out of 10,000 bone marrow cells in normal people, but can increase in number nearly 10-fold during the course of certain diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, megakaryocytes are 10 to 15 times larger than a typical red blood cell, averaging 50-100 μm in diameter. (wikipedia.org)