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  • Developmental
  • Developmental program underlying life stages in solitary ancestor is co-opted for group formation (shown in green): differentiation of somatic cells ( V. carteri ), fruiting body formation ( D. discoideum ), and appearance of foundress phenotype ( P. metricus ). (freethoughtblogs.com)
  • occur
  • An important consideration to remember when anlayzing live stem cell populations is that drug efflux due to the high expression or P-glycoprotein and other multi-drug resistance pumps can occur which will prevent DNA saturation and the identification of a clear cell cycle profile. (utoronto.ca)
  • Before division can occur, the genomic information that is stored in chromosomes must be replicated, and the duplicated genome must be separated cleanly between cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The peak of the cyclin attached to the cyclin dependent kinases this system pushes the cell out of interphase and into the M phase, where mitosis, meiosis, and cytokinesis occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromosome replication and cell division only occur in stalked cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • lineages
  • EMT generates transitory mesenchymal cells, which can differentiate into myofibroblasts or pericytes (in the case of endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT)), or feed the progenitor pools of cell lineages (e.g., blood, muscle, bone, adipose, and neuronal). (springer.com)
  • Sox2 + cells became restricted to the labial cervical loop during tooth morphogenesis, and they contributed to the renewal of enamel-producing ameloblasts as well as all other epithelial cell lineages of the tooth. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • cyclin-depende
  • Cell cycle progression is driven by cyclin-CDK (cyclin-dependent kinases) complexes the activities of which being controlled by several activators and inhibitors including CDK inhibitors (CKI), the polo-like and Aurora kinases as well as the CDC25 phosphatases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Progression through the eukaryotic cell cycle is governed by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) in conjunction with their cyclin partners ( Morgan, 1997 ). (plantcell.org)
  • As the amount of cyclin increases, more and more cyclin dependent kinases attach to cyclin signaling the cell further into interphase. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • Endocytosis by coated pits occurs, as in stationary cells, at random. (wikipedia.org)
  • But in motile cells exocytosis now occurs at the front of the cell: It is here that both LDL- and transferrin-receptors emerge from inside the cell and return to the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amoeboid cells do not have a mouth or cytostome, and there is no fixed place on the cell at which phagocytosis normally occurs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apoptosis or Type I cell-death, and autophagy or Type II cell-death are both forms of programmed cell death, while necrosis is a non-physiological process that occurs as a result of infection or injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • Necrosis is cell death caused by external factors such as trauma or infection, and occurs in several different forms. (wikipedia.org)
  • It occurs as a result of repeated stimulation of specific T-cell receptors (TCR) and it helps to maintain the periphery immune tolerance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell division usually occurs as part of a larger cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anaphase is a very short stage of the cell cycle and occurs after the chromosomes align at the mitotic plate. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell's
  • M phase is itself composed of two tightly coupled processes: karyokinesis, in which the cell's chromosomes are divided, and cytokinesis, in which the cell's cytoplasm divides forming two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most important among these is a cell nucleus, an organelle that houses the cell's DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • A cell's decision to enter, or reenter, the cell cycle is made before S-phase in G1 at what is known as the restriction point, and is determined by the combination of promotional and inhibitory extracellular signals that are received and processed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Removal of stimulants before the cell reaches the R-point may result in the cell's reversion to quiescence. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary concern of cell division is the maintenance of the original cell's genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • fluorescence
  • In this assay, cells in S and G 2 will not only have increased DAPI intensity relative to G 1 cells but also fluorescence corresponding to EdU/BrdU S-phase incorporation ( Figure 1 ). (utoronto.ca)
  • smURFP was evolved to covalently attach phycocyanobilin without a lyase and fluoresce, covalently attach biliverdin (ubiquitous to mammalian cells) and fluoresce, blue-shift fluorescence to match the organic fluorophore, Cy5, and not inhibit E. coli growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pioneering work by Atsushi Miyawaki and coworkers developed the fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator (FUCCI), which enables fluorescence imaging of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2008). Tracing the Silhouette of Individual Cells in S/G2/M Phases with Fluorescence. (blogspot.com)
  • genes
  • One of the members of the pathways, MAPK activates a transcription factor Myc, which alters transcription of genes important in cell cycle, among which is cyclin D. In this way, cyclin D is synthesized as long as the growth factor is present. (wikipedia.org)
  • In its un-phosphorylated form, Rb binds a member of E2F family of transcription factors which controls expression of several genes involved in cell cycle progression (example, cyclin E). Rb acts as a repressor, so in complex with E2F it prevents expression of E2F-regulated genes, and this inhibits cells from progressing through G1. (wikipedia.org)
  • checkpoints
  • Here we report how the characteristics of MCTS in association with new technological developments can be used to explore the regionalization and the activation of cell cycle checkpoints in 3D. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our data present the power and the limitation of spheroids made of genetically modified cells to explore cell cycle checkpoints. (biomedcentral.com)
  • New therapeutics strategies that aim at targeting the cell cycle machinery and its checkpoints are currently of a major interest. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cell cycle regulation by checkpoints. (springer.com)
  • To ensure the proper division of the cell, there are control mechanisms known as cell cycle checkpoints. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are checkpoints during interphase that allow the cell to be either progressed or denied further development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fucci
  • Screening cell cycle progression using Fucci cells. (utoronto.ca)
  • B) Fucci cells transfected with pMZS3F-BORF1 and stained for the FLAG tag on BORF1 were FACS sorted into FLAG-positive and FLAG-negative cells (left) and then further separated based on the expression of mKO2-Cdt1 and AG-geminin (middle and right). (utoronto.ca)
  • contrast
  • In contrast, the utilization of mammalian cells requires a dedicated biological safety cabinet and rigorous antiseptic techniques. (asmscience.org)
  • Continuously growing rodent incisors possess epithelial stem cell (SC) niches in contrast to most other mammalian teeth. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In contrast to the labial CL, the lingual CL is thin and largely depleted of SR cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • microscopic
  • Microscopic - The scale of objects, like cells, that are too small to be seen easily by the naked eye and which require a lens or microscope to see them clearly. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetically
  • Play media Meiosis /maɪˈoʊsɪs/ ( listen) is a specialized type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half, creating four haploid cells, each genetically distinct from the parent cell that gave rise to them. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is some evidence that certain symptoms of "apoptosis" such as endonuclease activation can be spuriously induced without engaging a genetic cascade, however, presumably true apoptosis and programmed cell death must be genetically mediated. (wikipedia.org)
  • replication
  • The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA (DNA replication) to produce two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The B period extends from the end of cell division to the beginning of DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • The D period refers to the stage between the end of DNA replication and the splitting of the bacterial cell into two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In meiosis, DNA replication is followed by two rounds of cell division to produce four daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the original parent cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immediately following DNA replication, meiotic cells enter a prolonged G2-like stage known as meiotic prophase. (wikipedia.org)
  • First, the cell undergoes DNA replication, so each homolog now consists of two identical sister chromatids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells then proceed to a second division without an intervening round of DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Meiosis results in four haploid daughter cells by undergoing one round of DNA replication followed by two divisions. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterial
  • Natural transformation is a bacterial adaptation for DNA transfer between two cells through the intervening medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacterial conjugation is the transfer of genetic material between bacterial cells by direct cell-to-cell contact or by a bridge-like connection between two cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • The long term objective of this project is to better understand the genetic basis of multicellular evolution. (ku.edu)
  • Despite multicellular evolution being a fundamental, and cancer relevant process, the genetic pathways required for multicellularity to evolve are poorly understood. (ku.edu)
  • In summary, this project will make significant advancements in our understanding of the genetic determinants of multicellularity, as well as determine the genome-wide architecture of the RB pathway in unicellular Chlamydomonas compared to multicellular Gonium. (ku.edu)
  • Prokaryotes undergo a vegetative cell division known as binary fission, where their genetic material is segregated equally into two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • apoptosis
  • The cells are treated with a high level of a PI3-Kinase inhibitor which induces apoptosis (or programmed cell death). (blogspot.com)
  • It is hypothesized that necroptosis can serve as a cell-death backup to apoptosis when the apoptosis signaling is blocked by endogenous or exogenous factors such as viruses or mutations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Called "non-apoptotic programmed cell-death" (or "caspase-independent programmed cell-death" or "necroptosis"), these alternative routes to death are as efficient as apoptosis and can function as either backup mechanisms or the main type of PCD. (wikipedia.org)
  • In normal cells, conditions such as this would be corrected by mechanisms designed to prevent the uncontrolled growth of cells, internal or external, and would result in apoptosis should the cell be unable In cancerous cells, by some mechanism or other, the control growth of the cell is impeded and mechanisms to kill the cell externally in cases like this fail. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferating cell nu
  • Ki67, phosphohistone H3, PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen), Topoisomerase II and cyclin expression) may also be combined with a stoichiometric DNA-binding dye for increased accuracy and resolution in cell cycle analysis. (utoronto.ca)
  • gene
  • In Aim 1 of this proposal, cell cycle regulated gene expression will be determined by deep sequencing all messenger RNA (RNA-seq) in unicellular Chlamydomonas compared to multicellular Gonium. (ku.edu)
  • Consistently, we found that neither mutants in a previously identified CDC25 candidate gene nor plants in which it is overexpressed display cell cycle defects. (plantcell.org)
  • Active cyclin D/Cdk4 and -6 inhibit Rb by partial phosphorylation, reducing its binding to E2F and thereby allowing E2F-mediated activation of the transcription of the cyclin E gene and the cell progresses towards S-phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • In general, all stages of the cell cycle are chronologically separated in humans and are triggered by cyclin-Cdk complexes which are periodically expressed and partially redundant in function. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • These findings uncover radiosensitivity as a novel, therapeutically viable vulnerability of BRCA1-deficient mouse mammary cells that have acquired drug resistance due to the loss of the 53BP1 pathway. (aacrjournals.org)
  • developmental
  • Gastrulation and later stages of histo- and organogenesis depend on changes in developmental stage, such as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), whereby adherent cells disintegrate their intercellular contacts, organize their motility apparatus, and move to new locations in the developing body. (springer.com)
  • consists
  • Before meiosis begins, during S phase of the cell cycle, the DNA of each chromosome is replicated so that it consists of two identical sister chromatids, which remain held together through sister chromatid cohesion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The DNA of a prokaryotic cell consists of a single chromosome that is in direct contact with the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • mesenchymal
  • Hay, E.D. The mesenchymal cell, its role in the embryo, and the remarkable signaling mechanisms that create it. (springer.com)
  • chromosomes
  • During the final stage, cytokinesis, the chromosomes and cytoplasm separate into two new daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, alternating cycles of meiosis and fertilization enable sexual reproduction, with successive generations maintaining the same number of chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, diploid human cells contain 23 pairs of chromosomes including 1 pair of sex chromosomes (46 total), half of maternal origin and half of paternal origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metaphase is the stage in cell division when the chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell by MTOCs ( microtubule organizing center) by pushing and pulling on centromeres of both chromatids which causes the chromosome to move to the center. (wikipedia.org)
  • At this point, the chromosomes are ready to split into opposite poles of the cell towards the spindle to which they are connected. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell, the spindle fibers will pull them apart. (wikipedia.org)
  • division
  • How do cells know when to start or stop division during development? (keystonesymposia.org)
  • After cell division, each of the daughter cells begin the interphase of a new cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interphase is a series of changes that takes place in a newly formed cell and its nucleus, before it becomes capable of division again. (wikipedia.org)
  • Previously it was called resting stage because there is no apparent activity related to cell division.Typically interphase lasts for at least 90% of the total time required for the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the first meiotic division, the homologs are segregated to separate daughter cells by the spindle apparatus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another hypothesis is that a primitive cell underwent nucleus division, thereby becoming a coenocyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • and their life cycle, division, and death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell division - The process of one parent cell separating into two or more daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • When it is expressed, it causes the outer layers of the heart to respond by increasing division rates and producing new layers of heart muscle cells to replace the damaged ones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both of these cell division cycles are used in the process of sexual reproduction at some point in their life cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the cell proceeds successfully through the M phase, it may then undergo cell division through cytokinesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuronal
  • Using shRNA in utero electroporation in mice, we show that Vrk1 knockdown significantly impairs cortical neuronal migration, and affects the cell cycle of neuronal progenitors. (jneurosci.org)
  • gametes
  • A zygote (from Greek ζυγωτός zygōtos "joined" or "yoked", from ζυγοῦν zygoun "to join" or "to yoke") is a eukaryotic cell formed by a fertilization event between two gametes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Firstly just after fertilization and secondly, in the developing primordial germ cells, the precursors to future gametes. (wikipedia.org)
  • During fertilization the male and female gametes join in different cell cycle states and with different configuration of the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • As these molecules are vital for life, metabolic reactions either focus on making these molecules during the construction of cells and tissues, or by breaking them down and using them as a source of energy, by their digestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • development
  • In the present study, we review the spatiotemporal dynamics of autophagic fluxes in plant cells and discuss their possible significance in PCD and metabolic regulation, with particular focus on plant reproductive development. (go.jp)
  • Through the processes of compaction, cell division, and blastulation, the conceptus takes the form of the blastocyst by the fifth day of development, just as it approaches the site of implantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem Cells and Development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glial cells (also known as glia or neuroglia) come in several types, and perform a number of critical functions, including structural support, metabolic support, insulation, and guidance of development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two categories of advantages have been attributed to the early development of multicellular existence: advantages related to size, and advantages related to functional specialization and division of labor. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • With the finding that DNA methylation and histone modifications are stable, heritable, and also reversible processes that influence gene expression without altering DNA primary structure, a mechanism for the observed variability in cell gene expression was provided. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuron
  • The length of an axon can be extraordinary: for example, if a pyramidal cell, (an excitatory neuron) of the cerebral cortex were magnified so that its cell body became the size of a human body, its axon, equally magnified, would become a cable a few centimeters in diameter, extending more than a kilometer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The neuron then propagates an electrical signal down a specialized axon extension to the synapse, where neurotransmitters are released to propagate the signal to another neuron or effector cell (e.g., muscle or gland). (wikipedia.org)
  • The polarity of the neuron thus facilitates the directional flow of information, which is required for communication between neurons and effector cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • form
  • During its life cycle, P. atlantis can form sphaerical cystic cells which cointain an embedded extracellular coat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Almost all cell types exhibit some form of polarity, which enables them to carry out specialized functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the evolutionary history of myxozoans is still an active area of research, it is now understood that myxozoans are highly modified Cnidarians that have undergone dramatic evolution from a free swimming, self-sufficient jellyfish-like creature into their current form of obligate parasites composed of a mere handful of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The adaptive or "specific" immune system in its fully qualified form (i.e. based on major histocompatibility complex (MHC), T-cell receptors (TCR), and antibodies) exists only in jawed vertebrates, but an independently evolved adaptive immune system has been identified in hagfish and lampreys (non-jawed vertebrates). (wikipedia.org)
  • Somatic growth represents a form of altruism, where somatic cells give up reproduction helping germline cells reproduce. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigen
  • B cells specifically can divide when they encounter an antigen matching their immunoglobulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • During replication, DNA polymerases working on the leading and lagging strands are coupled by the DNA processivity factor proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), which has also been implicated in patterning and strand crosstalk that allows for copy fidelity of epigenetic marks. (wikipedia.org)
  • extracellular
  • During the vegetative portion of their life cycles, swarming enables coordinated masses of myxobacteria to pool their secretions of extracellular digestive enzymes which are used to kill and consume prey microorganisms, a bacterial "wolfpack" effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • In addition to the Ca 2+ wave, the RT-PCR results indicated variability in the purinergic receptors and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor subtypes within G 1 -phase cells. (go.jp)
  • HSP90 chaperone cycle for steroid hormone receptors (SHR). (uniprot.org)
  • Such functions are all carried out by the innate immune system, which employs evolutionarily conserved pattern recognition receptors to eliminate cells displaying "nonself markers. (wikipedia.org)
  • morphology
  • Cell morphology and the content of hemoglobin were examined with Wright-Giemsa staining and benzidine staining, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • undergo
  • The p97 hexameric assembly can undergo dramatic conformational changes during nucleotide hydrolysis cycle, and it is generally believed that these conformational changes generate mechanical force, which is applied to substrate molecules to influence their stability and function. (wikipedia.org)
  • signals
  • The property that makes neurons unique is their ability to send signals to specific target cells over long distances. (wikipedia.org)
  • They send these signals by means of an axon, which is a thin protoplasmic fiber that extends from the cell body and projects, usually with numerous branches, to other areas, sometimes nearby, sometimes in distant parts of the brain or body. (wikipedia.org)
  • While animals produce internal signals that can drive the cell cycle forward, external mitogens can cause it to progress without these signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • dependent
  • Antagonizes MYC transcriptional activity by competing for MAX and suppresses MYC dependent cell transformation. (uniprot.org)
  • early
  • This adaptive ability appears to have developed early in the history of multicellular life, and it's been built upon ever since. (drsophiayin.com)
  • Compared with placebo, butyrate therapy led to the early reduction of macrophages, pus cells, IL-8 and IL-1β in the stool and improvement in rectal histopathology. (springer.com)
  • Recognition of the importance of epigenetic programming to the establishment and fixation of cell line identity during early embryogenesis has recently stimulated interest in artificial removal of epigenetic programming. (wikipedia.org)
  • example
  • We are interested in the spontaneous symmetry breaking, as an example of self-organization phenomena in living cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some cells split via budding (for example baker's yeast), resulting in a "mother" and "daughter" cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • exhibit
  • These models predict that malignant cells in the marrow and peripheral blood exhibit the tendency to evolve toward population levels that enable them to replace normal cells in these compartments in the untreated case. (aimsciences.org)
  • plants
  • this type of life cycle is also found in plants. (psu.edu)
  • most of the DNA can be found in the cell nucleus and, in plants and algae, also in plastids such as chloroplasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • In seedless plants, the archegonium is usually flask-shaped, with a long hollow neck through which the sperm cell enters. (wikipedia.org)
  • The individual plants are usually composed of simple leaves that are generally only one cell thick, attached to a stem that may be branched or unbranched and has only a limited role in conducting water and nutrients. (wikipedia.org)
  • single
  • Their leaves are simple, usually only a single layer of cells with no internal air spaces, often with thicker midribs. (wikipedia.org)
  • individual
  • The operations of individual brain cells are now understood in considerable detail but the way they cooperate in ensembles of millions is yet to be solved. (wikipedia.org)
  • Others may yet be elucidated, but currently self-sustaining feedback loops, spatial templating, chromatin marking, and RNA-mediated pathways modify epigenes at the level of individual cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • stages
  • Research has shown that cells are capable of regulating gene expression at several stages: mRNA transcription, processing and transportation as well as in protein translation, post-translational processing and degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • walls
  • in some the cell walls are darkly pigmented, providing resistance to damage by ultraviolet radiation. (wikipedia.org)