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  • mucosal
  • The dense "sugar coating" of mucins gives them considerable water-holding capacity and also makes them resistant to proteolysis, which may be important in maintaining mucosal barriers. (wikipedia.org)
  • saliva
  • A baseline excretion of Neu5Gc exists, and it is incorporated into all body parts, some of which-mucins, hair, saliva, serum and blood, are commonly excreted. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • MUC-4 has been found to play various roles in the progression of cancer, particularly due to its signaling and anti-adhesive properties which contribute to tumor development and metastasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • MUC-4 is thought to play a role in cancer progression by repressing apoptosis and consequently increasing tumor cell proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • and (4) failure to trigger an immune-mediated mechanism to destroy tumor cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • anti-adhesive
  • In normal functioning, MUC-4 is known to play anti-adhesive roles in the body, such as in lubricating the reproductive lining. (wikipedia.org)
  • The repulsive forces applied by the mucin creates anti-adhesive properties which can suppress cell adhesion to surfaces. (wikipedia.org)
  • distinct
  • This process allowed the identification of breast cancer subsets with distinct biology ( 1 - 4 ), as well as the development of targeted therapies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Mature mucins are composed of two distinct regions: The amino- and carboxy-terminal regions are very lightly glycosylated, but rich in cysteines. (wikipedia.org)
  • fibrous
  • Mucin is a fibrous matrix with gel-like properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 2004 revision of the WHO classification noted that the tumors tend to be well circumscribed by a partial fibrous tissue capsule with central cystic change and copious mucin pooling. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) infection of susceptible BALB/c mice produces inflammatory heart disease that is similar to the disease observed in humans, with development of acute myocarditis from days 7 to 14 postinfection (p.i.) that progresses to chronic myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy ( 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Currently, eight different mucins have been identified for humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • abnormal
  • It should be noted that MUC-4 is not found in the gallbladder, pancreas, or liver except in abnormal conditions such as cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abnormal deposits of mucin are responsible for the non-pitting facial edema seen in untreated hypothyroidism. (wikipedia.org)
  • lumen
  • Mucins are stored in granules inside the goblet cells before being released to the lumen of the organ. (wikipedia.org)
  • Electron microscopic studies in 3 cases described intracytoplasmic mucin, convoluted oval nuclei, prominent nucleoli, homogeneous euchromatin with peripheral chromatin condensation, microvilli, junctional complexes, and primitive lumen formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • cystic
  • Mucins are also overexpressed in lung diseases such as asthma, bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or cystic fibrosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • malignancies
  • Mucins are under investigation as possible diagnostic markers for malignancies and other disease processes in which they are most commonly over- or mis-expressed. (wikipedia.org)
  • surfaces
  • Mucins interact with surfaces in a unique way due to the amphiphilic properties the molecules exhibit. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most mucins adsorb to solid surfaces fairly easily without surface preparation due to the attractive interaction of the surface with the non-glycosylated region of the molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surface force measurements reveal that long range steric repulsion forces exist between mucin coated surfaces and can be detected at a distance of up 100 nm or more. (wikipedia.org)
  • The efficiency of mucin adherence to hydrophobic surfaces has been analyzed by applying a coating of mucin and measuring the number of mucins remaining on the hydrophobic material after rinsing. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Human and some bacterial GALE isoforms reversibly catalyze the conversion of UDP-GlcNAc to UDP-GalNAc through an identical mechanism, inverting the stereochemical configuration at the sugar's 4' hydroxyl group. (wikipedia.org)
  • large
  • The cytoplasm of goblet cells tends to be displaced toward the basal end of the cell body by the large mucin granules, which accumulate near the apical surface of the cell along the Golgi apparatus, which lies between the granules and the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gel-like properties of mucins are given by its glycans (bound carbohydrates) attracting relatively large quantities of water. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • Receptors (such as CTLA-4), cytokines (such as TGF-β), and specialized cells (such as CD4 + CD25 + T regulatory cells) work together to keep immune responses in check. (jimmunol.org)
  • We show in this study that reducing Tim-3 signaling during the innate immune response to viral infection in BALB/c mice reduces CD80 costimulatory molecule expression on mast cells and macrophages and reduces innate CTLA-4 levels in CD4 + T cells, resulting in decreased T regulatory cell populations and increased inflammatory heart disease. (jimmunol.org)
  • Microbial recognition through pattern-recognition receptors induces the expression and release of many different immune mediators, such as chemokines and pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokines which contribute to orchestrating both the innate and the adaptive immune response [ 3 , 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • tears
  • In the conjunctiva goblet cells are a source of mucin in tears and they also secrete different types of mucins onto the ocular surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • roles
  • In these roles, MUC-4 serves to protect and lubricate the epithelium, which facilitates transport and traps foreign particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • The costimulatory molecules CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2) on APC bind both CD28 and the regulatory molecule CTLA-4. (jimmunol.org)
  • Because mucin is amphiphilic, the non-glycosylated regions of the molecule interacts with the surface and the glycosylated region interacts with the ambient solution causing the steric repulsion. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • N-linked oligosaccharides are also found on mucins, but in less abundance than O-linked sugars. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mucins, an increase was seen from day 1 to 4, with increased also found in hair after ingestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzyme UDP-glucose 4-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.2), also known as UDP-galactose 4-epimerase or GALE, is a homodimeric epimerase found in bacterial, fungal, plant, and mammalian cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mucicarmine stains, deep red mucin is found within goblet cell bodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abstracts
  • Upon binding UDP-galactose, a conserved tyrosine residue in the active site abstracts a proton from the 4' hydroxyl group. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • These receptors have a unique hybrid structure in which an extracellular epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domain is fused to a GPCR domain through a mucin-like stalk. (wikipedia.org)