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  • inbred strains
  • The finding that sarcomas induced by cancer carcinogens are immunogenic in inbred strains of mice is one of the major milestones in the field of tumor immunology. (pnas.org)
  • Using various carcinogens and different inbred strains of mice, many investigators have confirmed the original observations of Gross ( 1 ), Foley ( 2 ), and Prehn and Main ( 3 ) that mice can be rendered resistant to tumor transplantation by preimmunization with the same tumor (either by previous growth and removal of the tumor or by injection of irradiated tumor cells) ( 4 - 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • murine
  • Because activation of murine leukemia virus is frequently associated with tumorgenesis in the mouse ( 13 ), murine leukemia virus-related antigens frequently are expressed by sarcomas, and their presence has complicated the interpretation of the in vitro specificity analysis of T cells from immunized mice. (pnas.org)
  • The murine differentiation marker heat stable antigen (HSA) is a GPI-anchored surface glycoprotein showing strong expression on immature B- and T-lymphocytes and gradually reduced expression during maturation. (uzh.ch)
  • tumor
  • The molecular basis of the polymorphic tumor rejection antigens of chemically induced sarcomas of inbred mice remains a mystery, despite the discovery of these antigens over 40 years ago and their critical importance to the foundation of tumor immunology. (pnas.org)
  • There have been many attempts to isolate and characterize the tumor antigens eliciting this transplantation immunity, but as yet, none have been defined. (pnas.org)
  • Adoptive T cell immunotherapy has shown promise in treating some cancers, but the challenge of isolating T cells with high avidity for tumor antigens limits large-scale applicability. (washington.edu)
  • In this study, we developed a mouse model of adoptive immunotherapy reflecting immune recognition of syngeneic tumor cells naturally expressing an endogenous rejection Ag. (jimmunol.org)
  • The approach taken was to first generate tumor-specific CTL from mice challenged with the CMS4 sarcoma coadministered with anti-CTLA4 mAb, which has been shown to facilitate the induction of Ag-specific T cell responses in vivo. (jimmunol.org)
  • Furthermore, when MAM-immunized mice were transplanted s.c. with Meth-A/CEA cells expressing human CEA, a suppressed tumor growth was observed. (aacrjournals.org)
  • As indicated by previous studies ( 15 , 17 ), mimotopes have the advantage to imitate antigenic structures without being identical, indicating that they may be ideal antigen surrogates in tumor immunology able to break tolerance toward self. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Utilizing a human papillomavirus transgenic mouse model that develops cutaneous SCC in response to ultraviolet irradiation we identified tumor uptake of PA i n vivo . (frontiersin.org)
  • glycoprotein
  • Mouse CD1.1 is an MHC class I-like, non-MHC-encoded, surface glycoprotein that can be recognized by T cells, in particular NK1.1 + T cells, a subset of αβ T cells with semiinvariant TCRs that promptly releases potent cytokines such as IL-4 and IFN-γ upon stimulation. (jimmunol.org)
  • This study aims to establish an active immunotherapy for the poorly immunogenic CEA glycoprotein by generating antigen surrogates. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Injection with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein Ag fused with DEC205 or Langerin mAbs has been shown to suppress experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice ( 13 , 14 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Antibodies
  • Not only the antibodies have to be engineered as human/mouse chimeric or fully humanized antibodies to prevent production of human anti-mouse antibodies, but also repeated administrations are necessary to obtain adequate serum levels for an appropriate antitumor effect. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To determine if antibodies to EEA1 have a neuropathological effect, mice from three major histocompatability haplotype backgrounds (H2 q , H2 b and H2 d ) were immunized with EEA1 (amino acids 82-1411) that was previously shown to contain the target EEA1 epitopes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Autoantibodies to early endosome antigen 1 (EEA1) were reported in the sera of the patients with neurological disorders [ 6 , 7 ], but the pathological significance of EEA1 antibodies is not known. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The observations in this study indicated that mice bearing anti-EEA1 antibodies developed impaired neurological and behavioral skills. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Consistent with this view, monoclonal antibodies against IsaA were previously shown to be protective against S. aureus infections in mouse models. (eur.nl)
  • immunity
  • Thus, we provide evidence of molecular mimicry between microbial antigens and an islet autoantigen and a novel mechanism by which the diabetogenicity of CD8 + T cells can be regulated by innate immunity and the gut microbiota. (rupress.org)
  • We conclude that human IL-6 knock-in mice represent a novel and improved model for human adaptive immunity without relying on complex surgery to transplant human fetal thymus and liver. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Because many aspects of mammalian biological systems, particularly their immune systems, are species specific, 1 small-animal models that more closely recapitulate human immunity, such as "humanized" mice, are currently required. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Analysis of the protective immunity against infection with Trypanosoma cruzi (TC) in the experimental animalmodel using a HLA-B35 transgenic mouse (HLA-B35-TG). (nii.ac.jp)
  • Importantly, this presentation resulted in a systemic deletion of Ag-specific T cells and prevented these mice from developing delayed-type hypersensitivity, which is critically dependent on Ag-specific T cell immunity. (jimmunol.org)
  • The results suggest that the DCs have a potent immunostimulatory activity, and immunization with DCs transfected with Ag2/proline-rich Ag-cDNA induces protective immunity against C. posadasii in C57BL6 mice. (jimmunol.org)
  • fetal
  • We found that PLVAP-deficient mice have completely normal levels of both yolk-sac- and bone-marrow-derived macrophages, but that fetal liver monocyte-derived macrophage populations were practically missing from tissues. (bxcell.com)
  • C57BL
  • The RMFPNAPYL peptide from WT1 is presented by HLA-A2 in humans, as well as by H-2Db in C57BL/6 mice, and has been shown to be the target of WT1-specific responses in both species. (washington.edu)
  • Some C57BL/6J mice anti-EEA1 sera displayed weak nuclear staining in addition to the vesicular cytoplasmic staining pattern. (biomedcentral.com)
  • cruzi
  • Publications] Kenji Hirayama: 'T-Lympho-proliferative response of the patients with Chagas' disease to epimastigote antigen of T.cruzi in Guatemala' Jpn.J.Trop.Med.Hyg. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Kenji Hirayama: 'T-Lymphoproliferative response of the patients with Chagas' disease to epimastigote antigen of T.cruzi in Gatemala' Jpn.J.Parasit.44 Suppl. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Previous studies have demonstrated that the immune response plays an important role in protection against infection with Trypanosoma cruzi in mice 6 10 15 . (scielo.br)
  • Patterns of susceptibility and resistance to T. cruzi are dependent on the parasite and mouse strains 12 20 . (scielo.br)
  • Cloned segments of T. cruzi genes have been used to produce portions of antigenic proteins in bacteria, and several of these have been used as antigens in serodiagnosis 7 11 or immunoprotection 16 17 assays. (scielo.br)
  • epimastigote
  • We have produced T cell clones reactive to epimastigote antigen. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Kenji Hirayama: 'T-Lymphoproliferative response of the patients with Chagas'desease to epimastigote antigen of T. curuzi in GUATEMALA' Jpn. (nii.ac.jp)
  • CRA (cytoplasmic repetitive antigen) is detected in epimastigote and amastigote forms while FRA (flagellar repetitive antigen) is found in both epimastigote and trypomastigote forms 12 . (scielo.br)
  • receptors
  • Several different BGP isoforms are expressed in tissues of different mouse strains, and we have explored which of these glycoproteins can serve as functional receptors for MHV-A59. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • peptide
  • In addition, elucidation of the structure of mouse CD1.1 revealed a very hydrophobic groove that could potentially accommodate hydrophobic lipid or peptide ligands ( 9 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • chemically
  • These antigens are chemically defined and easy to produce, enabling the assay of various adjuvant and immunizing protocols. (scielo.br)
  • major alterations
  • Adult PLVAP-deficient mice show major alterations in macrophage-dependent iron recycling and mammary branching morphogenesis. (bxcell.com)
  • vaccine
  • Identifying broadly conserved, protective antigens is important to vaccine development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, we investigated the efficacy of a DC-based vaccine against C. posadasii in a mouse model of coccidioidomycosis. (jimmunol.org)
  • cytoplasmic
  • After synthesis and transport to the cell surface, mouse CD1d (mCD1d) molecules are internalized and directed to late endosomes and lysosomes by a tyrosine-containing sequence motif in their cytoplasmic tails ( 7 - 9 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Chagas
  • These antigens have been used, successfully in serological diagnosis of Chagas' disease 7 11 18 . (scielo.br)
  • Tissues
  • Histologically, lung tissues of immunized mice were in better condition than the control mice. (jimmunol.org)
  • However, MECA-32 shows restricted distribution in the skeletal, cardiac and brain tissues of adult and embryonic mice. (bxcell.com)
  • SCID
  • Injection of HAdV-2 into tumours established by NMuMG-T in SCID mice caused reduced tumour growth and signs of intratumoural lesions. (diva-portal.org)
  • bacteria
  • These V segment substitutions occur independently of antigen binding to the B cell receptor (BCR), although gut bacteria provide an antigen-independent proliferative stimulus. (rupress.org)
  • We conclude that despite the conservation of MipA, Skp, and ETEC_2479 among Gram-negative bacteria, vaccination with these antigens fails to alter significantly the host intestinal microbiome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • significantly
  • Upon necropsy after 10 days of infection, fungal burden in lung and spleen of immunized mice was significantly reduced as compared with the control animals. (jimmunol.org)
  • protective
  • In contrast to the humAb 1D9 and IgGs from EB patients, the non-protective IgGs from mice immunized with IsaA were shown to predominantly bind the C-terminal domain of IsaA. (eur.nl)
  • human
  • When a mouse Ly Ag is identified as a human CD homologue, the Ly number for the molecule is withdrawn and reassigned the appropriate CD number. (jimmunol.org)
  • Lyosphosphatidylcholine, a potential self-Ag that activated human i NKT cell lines, did not activate mouse i NKT cell hybridomas. (jimmunol.org)
  • Human adenovirus (HAdV) vectors are promising tools for cancer therapy, but the shortage of efficient animal models for productive HAdV infections has restricted the evaluation of systemic effects to mainly immunodeficient mice. (diva-portal.org)
  • This view was reinforced by the discovery that the human Ig loci were structured and rearranged in a manner essentially identical to that in mice ( 6 ). (rupress.org)
  • Human IL-6 improves T-cell engraftment and serum IgG production in humanized mice. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Humanized mice are a powerful tool for the study of human hematopoiesis and immune function in vivo. (bloodjournal.org)
  • We found that Ag-conjugated human IgE Fc domain (Fcε) effectively delivered Ags to DCs and enhanced Ag presentation by 1000- to 2500-fold in human FcεRIα-transgenic mice. (jimmunol.org)
  • infection
  • In contrast, adult SJL/J mice, which are resistant to infection with MHV-A59, express transcripts and proteins only of the mmCGM2-related isoforms, not MHVR. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Two months after the infection with TC,HLA-B35-TG mice were sacrificed to get the splenocytes. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Yet, mice actively immunized with IsaA were not protected against S. aureus infection. (eur.nl)
  • commensal
  • While the impact of inactivated viral vaccines and live-attenuated bacterial vaccines on the host microbiota have been examined, the potential impact of using subunit vaccines consisting of antigens that are also encoded by commensal organisms has not been investigated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • female mice
  • The female mice are pregnant only 20 days and can give birth to 10 litters of 6-8 mice a year. (anigenetics.com)
  • Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 deficiency ameliorates insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia but not bone loss in obese female mice. (mol-innov.com)
  • vaccination
  • Intraperitoneal vaccination of mice with the microparticles resulted in enhanced SAG1-specific IgG titers as well as lymphocyte proliferation and, more importantly, these enhanced activities were maintained for 10 weeks. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We addressed this issue by characterizing changes to mouse intestinal microbiomes as a function of vaccination. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We failed to observe significant changes to mouse health, to mouse weight gain as a function of time, or to the diversity or richness of mouse intestinal microbiomes, as measured by analyzing alpha- and beta-diversity, as well as overall community structure, before and after vaccination. (biomedcentral.com)
  • nomenclature
  • In addition to an update on mouse nomenclature, there will be a discussion of some known functions of the molecules and brief comments on the use of particular Ags for immunophenotyping of cell subsets. (jimmunol.org)
  • Furthermore
  • Furthermore, mice that rejected CMS4 following a single adoptive transfer of CTL displayed antitumor activity to a rechallenge 45 days later, not only in the lung, but also at a s.c. distal site. (jimmunol.org)
  • Furthermore, 80% (8/10) of mice immunized with PLG-rSAG1 microparticles survived at least 28 days after a lethal subcutaneous tachyzoite challenge. (biomedcentral.com)