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  • Earth's
  • Well into the Cenozoic Era, by the start of the Quaternary Period some 2.6 million years ago, Earth's continents assumed their modern configuration. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The Eastern highlands and plateaus are the oldest geological region of South America, and are thought to have bordered on the African continent at one time, before the motion of the earth's crust and continental drift separated the continents. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The Andes Mountains were thrust upwards by this motion, and can still be considered "under construction" by the earth's crust. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, geologists assumed that the Earth's major features were fixed, and that most geologic features such as mountain ranges could be explained by vertical crustal movement, as explained by geosynclinal theory. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • He suggested that the present continents once formed a single land mass that drifted apart, thus releasing the continents from the Earth's core and likening them to "icebergs" of low density granite floating on a sea of more dense basalt . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • tribes
  • The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (hereinafter, Service or we) proposes special migratory bird hunting regulations for certain Tribes on Federal Indian reservations, off-reservation trust lands, and ceded lands for the 2019-20 migratory bird hunting season. (federalregister.gov)
  • We developed the guidelines for establishing special migratory bird hunting regulations for Indian Tribes in response to tribal requests for recognition of their reserved hunting rights and, for some Tribes, recognition of their authority to regulate hunting by both tribal and nontribal hunters on their reservations. (federalregister.gov)
  • I have not seen a single specimen that looks in the least like the best of the Sioux, or indeed of any of the tribes to the east of the Rocky Mountains. (ca.us)
  • [ 3 ] [ 4 ] These early Paleo-Indians soon spread throughout the Americas, diversifying into many hundreds of culturally distinct nations and tribes. (thefullwiki.org)
  • The campaign's secondary objectives were scientific and economic: to study the area's plants, animal life, and geography, and to establish trade with local Native American tribes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Jefferson also placed special importance on declaring U.S. sovereignty over the land occupied by the many different tribes of Native Americans along the Missouri River , and getting an accurate sense of the resources in the recently completed Louisiana Purchase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ship would carry on a trade with Indians and with Russian fur posts along the northwest coast, and the land-based personnel would build other trading posts among tribes in promising fur regions found by the overland party in the interior. (americanheritage.com)
  • 16th
  • for instance, in North America between the 16th and 19th centuries, the Northwest Coast culture area was characterized by traits such as salmon fishing, woodworking, large villages or towns, and hierarchical social organization. (britannica.com)
  • coastlines
  • It has coastlines on both the Caribbean Sea, in the east, and the North Pacific Ocean, in the west, and has Costa Rica to the southeast and Honduras to the northwest. (wikitravel.org)
  • People had to learn to live on frozen tundra, in forests, on grassy plains, and in arid deserts, in high mountains and in deep canyons, along rugged coastlines and lakeshores, and in fertile river valleys. (sherpaguides.com)
  • colonial
  • You can purchase crafts in markets, venture into the Sahara with a Tuareg caravan, visit pygmy villages, hike through jungle to watch gorillas, relax on tropical islands in the Indian Ocean, experience arguably the world's best wildlife safaris, snack on exotic treats, travel down a river in a dugout "pirogue", travel across savannah on a colonial-era railway, and much more. (wikitravel.org)
  • Granada was founded as one of the oldest colonial cities in the American continent. (wikitravel.org)
  • India
  • Separated by the straits of Indonesia , the Indian Ocean filled the basin between Africa, India , Asia, and Australia. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The five largest tobacco producers are China 3.16mt, US 0.76mt, Brazil 0.58mt, India 0.58mt and Turkey 0.32mt, Between them they account for nearly two-thirds of global output. (corpwatch.org)
  • Indeed significant arguments will arise from the perspectives of science and the Developing World e.g. it controversially suggests a rapid, epigenetics-based, neo-Lamarckian evolution of human intelligence in recent centuries, and minimizes the horrendous, de-industrializing and deadly impact of genocidal British colonialism that robbed India of $45 trillion and caused 1,800 million premature Indian deaths over 2 centuries. (countercurrents.org)
  • history
  • This history of injustice largely explains why Indians are among the most impoverished groups in the United States and other countries. (britannica.com)
  • So before he passed away he suggested to Beacon Press that they do different versions of Peoples's histories that his book couldn't cover, to go in more depth like African America or Black People's History of the United States, Women's History of the United States. (ratical.org)
  • So I'm very proud that this book is a part of Beacon's ReVisioning American History Series. (ratical.org)
  • It's so dramatic where the Great Plains meet the Rocky Mountains, with beautiful blue lakes, nice green forests and a vast cultural history of Blackfeet people. (loe.org)
  • Comte de Paris, History of the Civil War in America. (tufts.edu)
  • History of the Civil War in America. (tufts.edu)
  • Because while you may have heard about the Amazon or the stunning beaches of Rio de Janeiro, you have probably also heard that Brazil has high crime, was swept by a Zika outbreak and that its politicians have concocted the largest graft scheme in Latin American history. (voanews.com)
  • The year 1540 was a crucial turning point in American history. (kineticvideo.com)
  • Before it reached its goal, its members experienced hunger, thirst, and madness, suffering perhaps the most extreme privations and hardships of any westering expedition in American history. (americanheritage.com)
  • Those known today as Sioux (the Dakota, the Lakota, and the Nakota), living primarily in the upper Great Plains region, are among the best-known Indians within American popular culture due to their participation in what Americans perceive to have been dramatic events within their own history, such as the Battle of the Little Big Horn in the late nineteenth century. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A chain of barrier islands off North Carolina's shore, he Outer Banks offer sandy beaches, plenty of history, and southern hospitality. (yourtango.com)
  • Bone up on American history by visiting Roanoke Island,where a group of early settlers mysteriously disappeared, and the Graveyard of the Atlantic Museum, dedicated to the 1,000 ships that have sunk off the coast. (yourtango.com)
  • The land between the Flint River and the river it historically fed into, the Chattahoochee, is a region that is tightly intertwined with the history of Georgia and America. (sherpaguides.com)
  • peak
  • on the lofty peak of Laramie mountain, which I estimated to be about two thousand feet above the fort, or six thousand five hundred above the sea. (encyclopedia.com)
  • 5,000
  • I am here to research the Spine of the Continent, a landscape conservation initiative named for the entire Rocky Mountain expanse it aims to protect, 5,000 miles from the Yukon down through Mexico. (utne.com)
  • Lewis and C
  • The Lewis and Clark Expedition from May 1804 to September 1806, also known as the Corps of Discovery Expedition , was the first American expedition to cross what is now the western portion of the United States . (wikipedia.org)
  • Both the 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition , in St. Louis, and the 1905 Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition , in Portland, Oregon, showcased Lewis and Clark as American pioneers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first men to follow Lewis and Clark across the continent to the Pacific were John Jacob Astor's fur traders. (americanheritage.com)
  • The reports of Lewis and Clark, confirming the existence of rich beaver streams in the Rockies and the Northwest, had excited him, and more than any other American he possessed the resources and the experience with fur markets to attempt to monopolize the new area before others could overrun it. (americanheritage.com)
  • Australian
  • Freed from competition with placental mammals, the marsupials diversified into every ecological niche across the whole of the Australian continent. (encyclopedia.com)
  • One of the most remarkable adventures on record, ONCE A FOOL -- From Tokyo to Alaska by American journalist Boye Lafayette De Mente recounts his experiences aboard the the jeep Half-Safe, with Australian Ben Carlin--a voyage that took precisely four months and involved encounters with Russians, Japanese fishing nets, huge walruses, a tidal wave, a Yellow Monster, water colder than ice, and each other! (google.com)
  • dramatic
  • Historic photographs and graphics, dramatic reenactments, maps, haunting music, and their own words of four of the greatest Native American leaders. (kineticvideo.com)
  • The lands of the Sioux have also been a focal point for some of the most dramatic events in the American Indian Movement of recent times, especially the 71-day occupation of Wounded Knee, South Dakota , in 1973, which brought national media attention to the Pine Ridge Reservation. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Discovery
  • That the Indian of today is not in general a counterpart of the native resident at the time of the discovery of America by Columbus is clearly demonstrated both by the skeletal material and by the early records. (journeytoforever.org)
  • geographic
  • Many of Arizona's most amazing attractions-cultural, geographic, historical and recreational-are in its Indian Country! (google.com)
  • Canadians
  • Another plank will allow Americans, Canadians, Japanese and Australians - all of whom need visas to visit Brazil - to apply for visas online, instead of at a consulate. (voanews.com)
  • When the Canadians ultimately turned him down, he went ahead on his own, setting up the Pacific Fur Company and taking into partnership four Americans from the St. Louis area and five experienced Nor'Westers who, for various reasons, had severed connections with the Canadian company. (americanheritage.com)
  • Contrary to their general expectation, both Canadians and Americans have found the flesh of the whale palatable and appetizing. (blogspot.com)
  • Civilization
  • The pre-Colombian Indian civilization was almost completely destroyed by population losses due to infectious diseases, enslavement and deportation. (wikitravel.org)
  • settlers
  • Smohalla, North American Indian prophet, preacher, and teacher, one of a series of such leaders who arose in response to the menace presented to Native American life and culture by the encroachment of white settlers. (britannica.com)
  • AMERICAN settlers took more Indian scalps, all told, than the Indians ever lifted from heads of the whites, for the white men were determined and allowed by law to exterminate the whole Indian race. (blogspot.com)
  • Although histories seldom mention the fact, scalp-hunting was a regular and quite remunerative industry of the early American settlers, especially in New England . (blogspot.com)
  • Rocky Mountain
  • In order to find Indians as little changed as possible by reason of their contact with the white man, particularly with the white man's foods, I went to northern Canada to the region inside the Rocky Mountain range to study the Indians of Northern British Columbia and the Yukon territory. (journeytoforever.org)
  • Here a truck was chartered which took us over a trail across the Rocky Mountain Divide to the headwaters of the rivers flowing north to the Arctic. (journeytoforever.org)
  • The Spine of the Continent is a landscape conservation initiative named for the entire Rocky Mountain expanse from the Yukon down through Mexico. (utne.com)
  • begun
  • Although still separated by a shallow straight of water, the impending collision of the plates that would eventually form the Himalayan mountain chain had begun. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Inhabitants
  • When Pangaea, driven by the forces of plate tectonics , began to break up into separate continents, each chunk of land took with it a random cargo of the original inhabitants. (encyclopedia.com)
  • regions
  • The specific number of culture areas delineated for Native America has been somewhat variable because regions are sometimes subdivided or conjoined. (britannica.com)
  • Travels
  • In all my travels I never heard a cross, fault-finding word, or anything like scolding inflicted on an Indian child, or ever witnessed a single case of spanking, so common in civilized communities. (ca.us)
  • In "The Spine of the Continent," author Mary Ellen Hannibal travels the length of the Spine, an area that describes the Rocky Mountains all the way from Canada down through Mexico. (utne.com)
  • area
  • The South American continent stretches from about 10 ° above the equator to almost 60 ° below it, encompassing an area of 6,880,706 sq mi (17,821,028 sq km). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Nicaragua is the largest country in Central America with an area of 130,373 km 2 and contains the largest freshwater body in Central America, Lago de Nicaragua (Lake Nicaragua) or Cocibolca . (wikitravel.org)
  • Roughly one quarter of the nation's population lives in the Nicaraguan capital, making it the second largest city and metropolitan area in Central America . (wikitravel.org)
  • The Indians stayed in one place for only a few days, eating the animals and plants in the area and moving on. (sherpaguides.com)
  • Country
  • The following narrative is an excerpt from Frémont's expedition into the country between the Missouri River and the Rocky Mountains from May to October of 1842. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The Obama Administration and industry co-operate to cancel oil and gas leases in Montana's sacred and stunning Blackfeet Indian Country. (loe.org)
  • This made it possible, in the summer of 1933, to make contact with large bands of Indians who had come out of the Pelly mountain country to exchange their catch of furs at the last outpost of the Hudson Bay Company. (journeytoforever.org)
  • Twenty-eight percent of Arizona, the 6th largest of the American states, is INDIAN COUNTRY. (google.com)
  • That's about half the number that go to the tiny city-state of Singapore, and this in a continent-sized country that the World Economic Forum ranks No. 1 in natural resources and No. 8 in cultural resources. (voanews.com)
  • Nicaragua is a country in Central America . (wikitravel.org)
  • This remains an excellent source for news from all around American Native Country. (tahtonka.com)
  • people
  • The first people to live in the Americas were the Indians. (britannica.com)
  • Nevertheless, many native people of North America continue to identify themselves as Indians. (britannica.com)
  • In fact, it was probably inhabited for a long time before people moved into North America itself. (britannica.com)
  • However, it was his accurate surveys and exciting reports that encouraged large numbers of people to settle the American West. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Smoking-caused disease kills around 2 million people a year in the North, and most people in industrialised countries now recognise that smoking can kill them. (corpwatch.org)
  • This is a historical, economic, social, cultural and recreational guide to the state's Native American people. (google.com)
  • It is estimated that at the time of first European contact, more than 90 million people inhabited North and South America. (sherpaguides.com)
  • The Indian societies occupying land from the Atlantic coast west to central Texas were dubbed the Southeastern culture and included the Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Seminole, and Creek people-the Creeks being the Indians who lived in the valleys and river bottoms of the Flint and Chattahoochee rivers. (sherpaguides.com)
  • Yukon
  • This treaty, however, was never signed by the Indians of the British Columbia and Yukon Territory. (journeytoforever.org)
  • Wilf spent two field seasons (1955-56) with Crum collecting bryophytes in the Rocky Mountains, from Waterton Lakes to the Yukon Territory. (ou.edu)
  • Lyons Press, 2012) introduces readers to the most ambitious conservation effort ever undertaken: to create linked protected areas extending from the Yukon to Mexico, the entire length of North America. (utne.com)
  • iconic
  • Peter Dykstra and host Steve Curwood discuss how the recent US elections brought unexpected outcomes for environmental groups and fossil fuel companies alike, and remember the events that inspired an iconic American folk song that became a Thanksgiving tradition. (loe.org)
  • latitude
  • The first of these appears between latitude 6 ° north and 2 ° south, straddles Colombia and Ecuador , and contains active volcanoes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Sir J. Ross has shown that there is a large prevalence of north winds over the southern ones in the middle of North America as low down as latitude 70° and longitude 91°58' west, not merely in winter, but in every month in the year. (wikisource.org)
  • Featherstonhaugh was measuring latitude by the guidance of Polaris, the north star, in the days before GPS, before satellites, on behalf of the British Empire. (utne.com)
  • expedition
  • In 1842 John C. Frémont (1813-1890), known as "The Pathfinder," led an expedition between the Missouri River and the Rocky Mountains . (encyclopedia.com)
  • President Thomas Jefferson commissioned the expedition shortly after the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 to explore and to map the newly acquired territory, to find a practical route across the western half of the continent, and to establish an American presence in this territory before Britain and other European powers tried to claim it. (wikipedia.org)
  • As of 1984, no U.S. exploration party was more famous, and no American expedition leaders are more instantly recognizable by name. (wikipedia.org)
  • earthquakes
  • The geological instability of the region makes earthquakes common all along the western region of the continent, particularly along the southern half of Peru . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Canada
  • Indian words dot the maps of the United States, Canada, and the rest of the Americas. (britannica.com)
  • Most of the Indians of Canada are under treaty with the Canadian Government whereby that government gives them an annual per capita bounty. (journeytoforever.org)
  • merely
  • They consequently ranged themselves with almost perfect indifference under the flag of either of the parties contending for the supremacy of the continent, merely taking care to be on the side of the stronger, in order to be surer of shedding the blood of the whites. (tufts.edu)
  • No longer needed as allies, and looked upon as merely being in the way, Indians entered a perilous time of being regarded as dependent domestic minorities. (encyclopedia.com)
  • migration
  • In 1843 the first major migration of emigrants staked out claims to land west of the Rocky Mountains after traveling more than two thousand miles along the Oregon Trail . (encyclopedia.com)
  • According to the still-debated New World migration model , a migration of humans from Eurasia to the Americas took place via Beringia , a land bridge which connected the two continents across what is now the Bering Strait . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Customs
  • Each of Warwick's 30 distinctive villages has something to offer the sightseer - historic Pawtuxet Village is the oldest in New England and was home to the rabble-rousers who burned the British customs ship, The Gaspee, at the start of the American Revolutionary War. (encyclopedia.com)
  • peaceful
  • 1521) sailed out of the stormy passage of the strait at the southern tip of South America into the Pacific Ocean and named it the peaceful, calm, quiet ocean. (encyclopedia.com)
  • time
  • Pangea completed its breakup into present day continents , although their positions were substantially different at the time. (mcgill.ca)
  • In time, the ship would take the furs collected in the Northwest to China, dispose of them there, and return to New York or Boston with tea, silk, and other goods for the American market. (americanheritage.com)
  • At this time Indians in the region were hunters and gatherers who utilized the new foods as well as shellfish and seasonal plants. (sherpaguides.com)
  • The rugged rock which here and there breaks through the thin soil of the infertile north has lain on the spot from the very dawn of time. (wikisource.org)
  • Outside of this territory there was at the dawn of time no other 'land' where North America now is, except a long island of rock that marks the backbone of what are now the Selkirk Mountains and a long ridge that is now the mountain chain of the Alleghanies beside the Atlantic slope. (wikisource.org)
  • native
  • The Indians found uses for such native American plants as rubber, tobacco, the sugar maple, and the cinchona tree (for quinine). (britannica.com)
  • In these countries Native American soon became the preferred term. (britannica.com)
  • And then suddenly, Native Americans appear again in 1969 with the seizure of Alcatraz. (ratical.org)
  • As the Standing Rock Sioux continue to protest the construction of the Dakota Access Pipeline in a watershed they consider sacred, another Native American nation is celebrating a win for its own holy lands. (loe.org)
  • and Sidebar: Native American Self-Names . (britannica.com)
  • and Native American arts . (britannica.com)
  • A discussion of the efforts to preserve Native American culture, from the documentary Native Voice: Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian . (britannica.com)
  • Video classes are hosted by Dr. Jacquelyn Kilpatrick of Governors State University, and feature interactive discussion between students and major contemporary Native American authors. (kineticvideo.com)
  • The authors provide insights to their fiction and poetry, and explain the impact of Native American philosophy, culture, and concerns on their work. (kineticvideo.com)
  • Common discussion themes include the context in which the writers practice their craft and what it means to be a Native American author. (kineticvideo.com)
  • WINNER OF MANY AWARDS including CINE Golden Eagle and BEST DOCUMENTARY - TELLY AWARDS Hosted and narrated by actor Wes Studi (Dances With Wolves), this is the compelling documentary on Ely Parker (Seneca), a 19th-Century Native American who defied racial barriers to succeed in two very different worlds. (kineticvideo.com)
  • From that point forward, the series of battles between the military and civilian forces of the United States and the native American Indians began when blood was shed and ultimately tens of thousands of lives were lost on both sides. (kineticvideo.com)
  • central
  • With designs on conquering the rest of Central America, Walker and his filibustero army marched on Costa Rica before he was turned back at the battle of Santa Rosa. (wikitravel.org)
  • great
  • At first thought it might seem impossible that such groups can exist, but as a matter of fact there are still great areas of the American continent inhabited by the original stock living in areas still unexplored. (journeytoforever.org)
  • We must therefore interrupt our narrative for an instant in order to show how, by the side of the great conflagration which the civil war had kindled all over the Union , the Indian war was perpetuated like a slow-burning fire, occasionally mingling with the general struggle, without, however, becoming confounded with it. (tufts.edu)
  • The great mountain range of South America is the Andes Mountains, which extends more than 5,500 mi (8,900 km) all the way down the western coast of the continent. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Great ridges, the mountain chains of to-day, were furrowed on its skin. (wikisource.org)
  • Pacific
  • [ 9 ] Another route proposed is that, either on foot or using primitive boats , they migrated down the Pacific Northwest coast to South America . (thefullwiki.org)
  • To cope with the demand for fresh whale meat, all the more important whaling stations on the Pacific coast of America have erected special cold-storage plants. (blogspot.com)
  • As navigator, Urdaneta guessed correctly that from the Philippines a ship could sail north toward Japan and catch the prevailing winds that would return it across the northern Pacific to the coasts of North America . (encyclopedia.com)
  • present
  • at how Indian, Moorish and Spanish influences molded the character of present-day Mexicans, and how these influences continue to play a role in sexual moral-ity, courting and marriage in Mexico. (google.com)