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  • proteins
  • As intracellular calcium levels rise, the motor proteins responsible for the contractile response are able to interact, as shown in Figure 3, to form cross-bridges and undergo shortening. (lumenlearning.com)
  • Myosins (/ˈmaɪəsɪn, -oʊ-/) comprise a superfamily of motor proteins best known for their roles in muscle contraction and in a wide range of other motility processes in eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The discovery of small chemical inhibitors of human Kinesin-5 through a pioneering in vitro phenotypic screening on cancer cell lines has led to both the development of new anticancer therapeutic agents, and to novel tools to probe the mechanism of microtubule motor proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • microtubule
  • He also created a number of tools that are used today: atypical hydrolysable GTP analog GMPCPP various fluorescent tubulin derivatives assays for motors and microtubule polarity While at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) Hyman along with Rebecca Heald and Eric Karsenti combined their work to create an impact on the current understanding of how the meiotic spindle self assembles. (wikipedia.org)
  • This motor is essential for mitosis in most organisms, wherein it participates in the self-assembly of the microtubule-based mitotic spindle, but is not otherwise required for cell viability. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many models that attempt to explain the self-assembly of the mitotic spindle based upon microtubules as a structural element, and a set of microtubule motors, including Kinesin-5 to move and order them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent data, however, finds that aspects of the 'force balance' model that posit spindle length and stability to be mediated by a balance between the minus-end directed microtubule sliding and plus-end directed microtubule sliding by opposing motors in insect cells, seems not to be the case in mammalian cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process of self-assembly of the mitotic spindle remains a major unsolved question in cell biology, and a robust model awaits further details of the regulation and behavior of various microtubule motors and structural elements that compose this machinery. (wikipedia.org)
  • discharge
  • Units deprived of their adequate somatic, vestibular, and auditory stimuli showed undiminished discharge rates during motor activity. (sciencemag.org)
  • The motor output from lumbosacral segments was characterized by recording the pattern of ventral root and muscle nerve discharge in 6-14-d-old embryos. (jneurosci.org)
  • Following hindlimb muscle innervation, each cycle of activity was initiated by a brief, intense discharge that coincided with the rising phase of the ventral root potential. (jneurosci.org)
  • The developmental changes in the coordination of antagonist activity were documented by recording the pattern of discharge in sartorius (flexor) and caudilioflexorius (extensor) muscle nerves between stage 30 and stage 36. (jneurosci.org)
  • The second discharge was delayed in flexor, but not in extensor, motoneurons, which led to an alternating pattern of activity. (jneurosci.org)
  • neuron
  • A neuromuscular junction is the junction between the axon terminal of a motor neuron and the plasma membrane of the motor end plate of a muscle fiber. (lumenlearning.com)
  • A neuromuscular junction is the synapse or junction of the axon terminal of a motor neuron with the motor end plate, as shown in Figures 1 and 2. (lumenlearning.com)
  • some of these long-term effects include: increased neuron growth, increased neurological activity (e.g., c-Fos and BDNF signaling), improved stress coping, enhanced cognitive control of behavior, improved declarative, spatial, and working memory, and structural and functional improvements in brain structures and pathways associated with cognitive control and memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • Rhythmic bursting activities of the antennal motor nerves in in vitro preparations were also elicited by bath application of pilocarpine. (springer.com)
  • Of more than 20 classified pyrrole antibiotics, PBP is the most active member in its class, and demonstrates a high in vitro activity (IC50 = 0.1 μM) against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). (wikipedia.org)
  • spatial
  • Cross-correlation analyses of the bursting spike activities revealed significant couplings among certain motor units, implying the spatial regularity of the antennal trajectory. (springer.com)
  • Overall, this theory suggests that difficult speech, such as describing motor and spatial information, will increase the amount of representational gestures produced by a speaker. (wikipedia.org)
  • opposite
  • This shows that the cargo (Rab6) binding end of BICD2 extends out through the pointed end complex at the opposite end away from the dynein motor domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • 6. Same or Different Activity Sheet (laminate and use with dry erase markers). (teacherspayteachers.com)
  • It is concluded that in healthy subjects taking a regular diet, motor activity is not different between the uncleansed and cleansed colon with PEG, except for the high amplitude propagated contractions, which occur more frequently in the cleansed colon. (bmj.com)
  • Presumably this is so the myosins may interact, via their tails, with a large number of different cargoes, while the goal in each case - to move along actin filaments - remains the same and therefore requires the same machinery in the motor. (wikipedia.org)
  • dopamine
  • This therapy consists on transferring the TH and GTP cyclohydrolase 1 genes into the MSNs because the endogenous AADC activity is able to convert the L-dopa into dopamine. (wikipedia.org)
  • coordination
  • This could be due to the divergent motor demands associated with postural control and muscle strength on the one hand and the complex coordination of a golf swing on the other. (frontiersin.org)
  • Human motor control is based on the complex interaction of dynamic processes comprising, e.g., diverse sensory systems, intermuscular and intramuscular synergy, and, thereby, coordination of several joints with several degrees of freedom ( Horak, 2006 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • muscle
  • A variety of activities is essential to keeping the attention of the toddler and to work various muscle groups. (reference.com)
  • Gross motor activities should allow the toddler to exercise the large muscles in his legs, arms and entire body to further develop strength, but also to hone muscle control. (reference.com)
  • In recent decades, numerous researches on human motor control have suggested the potential effect of dental occlusion and muscle activity of the craniomandibular system (CMS). (frontiersin.org)
  • known
  • Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, also known as hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy, encompasses a group of hereditary disorders that damage peripheral nerv. (reference.com)
  • These receptors open to allow sodium ions to flow in and potassium ions to flow out of the muscle's cytosol, producing a local depolarization of the motor end plate, known as an end-plate potential (EPP). (lumenlearning.com)
  • Still, it is not clear whether all the structural elements required for spindle assembly are known, or how the motors, including Kinesin-5, might be regulated in space and time. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • Despite many advances, the precise signaling mechanisms that regulate motor function in the striatum, that part of the brain responsible for motor activity, remain unknown. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The primary symptoms of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy include impaired motor function, loss of sensation and a symmetric weakness in th. (reference.com)
  • This toolkit of allosteric inhibitors has been used to probe the specific role of Kinesin-5 in mitotic spindle assembly as well as fine dissection of motor domain function. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Human motor control is based on complex sensorimotor processes. (frontiersin.org)
  • A manometric method was developed to study the motor activity in the unprepared human colon, and the results in eight healthy subjects were compared with those obtained in the same subjects after bowel cleansing with a non-absorbable solution containing polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG). (bmj.com)
  • processes
  • The motor may also play a role in the proper development of mammalian neuronal processes, including growth cone navigation and elongation. (wikipedia.org)
  • oral motor
  • These reports are highly contradictory, however, and the oral motor task performed is often unclear. (frontiersin.org)
  • Statistical analysis revealed that oral motor activity did not systematically affect golf performance in respect of shot precision or shot length for 60m, 160 m, or driving distance. (frontiersin.org)
  • apart
  • Kinesin-5 motors assemble into a bipolar homotetrameric structure that is capable of sliding apart bundles of anti-parallel oriented microtubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • high
  • In agreement with previous investigations using immobilized preparations, we found that these cells had high rates of activity in rapid eye movement sleep, and responded in waking to somatic, auditory, and vestibular stimuli at short latencies, many having polysensory responses and exhibiting rapid "habituation. (sciencemag.org)
  • essential
  • Dynactin is often essential for dynein activity and can be thought of as a "dynein receptor" that modulates binding of dynein to cell organelles which are to be transported along microtubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Results
  • These results indicate that the activation of the antennal motor system is mediated by muscarinic receptors. (springer.com)
  • Our results demonstrate that multiple UAW motor outputs can be uncoupled from phrenic bursting, and this response is associated with bursting of EI nerve fibers. (biomedsearch.com)
  • loss
  • People with catatonia may experience an extreme loss of motor skill or even constant hyperactive motor activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • As Alzheimer's disease progresses, the patient's ability to copy objects becomes increasingly impaired and they may lose the ability to correctly draw simple figures due to a motor loss in routine memories. (wikipedia.org)
  • chronic
  • However, some of erythromycin's properties, including antibiotic activity, are not appropriate for a drug designed for chronic use over a patient's lifetime. (wikipedia.org)
  • Development
  • In new findings that could have an impact on the development of therapies for a number of currently untreatable brain disorders such as Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases, scientists from the Florida campus of The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have found, for the first time, that a specific signaling circuit in the brain is deeply involved in motor activity. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • system
  • The antennal motor system is activated by the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine in the American cockroach Periplaneta americana , and its output patterns were examined both in restrained intact animals and in isolated CNS preparations. (springer.com)
  • Baba Y, Comer CM (2008) Antennal motor system of the cockroach, Periplaneta americana . (springer.com)
  • Bräunig P, Allgäuer C, Honegger H-W (1990) Suboesophageal DUM neurones are part of the antennal motor system of locusts and crickets. (springer.com)
  • brain
  • GSA posits that imagining an object or event stimulates the same brain areas - the motor and visual cortices - involved in using or viewing objects and events, and thus facilitates the production of a representational gesture. (wikipedia.org)
  • allow
  • By clicking "Accept and Continue" below, (1) you consent to these activities unless and until you withdraw your consent using our rights request form, and (2) you consent to allow your data to be transferred, processed, and stored in the United States. (medicalnewstoday.com)