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  • PBMCs
  • These cells can be extracted from whole blood using ficoll, a hydrophilic polysaccharide that separates layers of blood, and gradient centrifugation, which will separate the blood into a top layer of plasma, followed by a layer of PBMCs and a bottom fraction of polymorphonuclear cells (such as neutrophils and eosinophils) and erythrocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequently, PBMCs are challenged with tumor antigens such as tumor stem cell antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inflammation
  • The differentially abundant proteins involved in disease and disorder network of inflammation (Figure S1), and disease and bio-function network of increased cell death and decreased cell survival (Figure S2) in heart failure (HF) subjects are presented. (hindawi.com)
  • protein
  • In addition to this, following SDSC's Biology Workbench's SAPS kNN-Prediction, the CXorf66 protein for humans and the mouse homolog have a 47.8% likelihood to end up in the nuclear region of a cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein is constitutively expressed and secreted in mononuclear cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • S. pyogenes has a cell wall composed of branched polymers which sometimes contain M protein, a virulence factor that is highly antigenic. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • The immunosuppressive effects of measles virus on T cell function-failure to affect IL-2 release or cytotoxic T cell activity in vitro. (springer.com)
  • apoptosis
  • Further, the differentially S-NO-modified proteins involved in migration of phagocytes and inhibition of cell spreading (Figure S3) and in organismal death and cell apoptosis with production of free radicals (Figure S4) in HF subjects are presented. (hindawi.com)
  • The success of the isolation can be analyzed by cell viability test (Trypan Blue exclusion test) and by flow cytometric analysis to assess apoptosis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • human
  • The ATCC Cell Biology Collection is one of the largest bioresources in the world, and offers a complex array of human, animal, insect, fish and stem cell lines from which to choose. (atcc.org)
  • blood cells
  • Assessing CD3 versus CD45 helps enumerate what percentage of white blood cells within the sample are T cells. (hemacare.com)
  • Assessing CD19 vs. CD45 will enumerate what percentage of the white blood cells within the sample are B cells. (hemacare.com)
  • A centrifuge apparatus is used for collecting white blood cells (WBC), primarily mononuclear cells, from whole blood stratified into layers. (google.es)
  • A thin mononuclear (MNC) layer is formed at the interface of red blood cells and plasma. (google.es)
  • Since blood cells sediment over time, during conditioning, HPP can be passively separated from the blood cell components without centrifugation, a requirement for sampling normal blood plasma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Male Alzheimer's patients have shown a decrease in expression of C21orf59 in their blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • helper
  • CD4 and CD8 are co-receptors that can be used to distinguish the two major classes of T cells - helper and cytotoxic, respectively. (hemacare.com)
  • Helper T2 cells subsequently activate the B cells to become plasma cells and induce the production of antibodies against the cell wall of Streptococcus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protocol
  • This protocol details a method to isolate LP cells and characterize freshly isolated cells by quality control experiments to obtain cells that can be used for further investigations. (biomedsearch.com)
  • marker
  • We examined lipid peroxidation (LPO) in blood mononuclear cells (BMCs) and plasma, as a marker of oxidative damage, and its association to clinical symptoms in Fibromyalgia (FM) patients. (prohealth.com)
  • It is the most frequently used cell surface marker for stem cells. (hemacare.com)
  • The ratio of CD4 and CD8 cells can be used as a marker of immune activation and immune senescence. (hemacare.com)
  • It can be used as a marker for the identification and quantification of B cells within the sample. (hemacare.com)
  • plasma
  • This study was undertaken to determine whether measuring LPO in the cells themselves - specifically blood mononuclear cells - rather than in the plasma would result in a more consistent correlation between LPO and the clinical symptoms of FM. (prohealth.com)
  • Partial correlation analysis controlling for age and BMI, and sex, showed that both LPO in cells and plasma were independently associated to clinical symptoms. (prohealth.com)
  • However, LPO in cells, but not LPO in plasma, was independently associated to clinical symptoms when controlling for depression (BDI scores). (prohealth.com)
  • For more distant homologs, like Bos taurus, that do not have nuclear localization signals however, CXorf66 has a 34.8% likelihood to end up in the extracellular, including cell wall region, or plasma membrane regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypoxia preconditioned plasma or hypoxia pre-conditioned plasma (abbreviated as HPP), is the term used to describe the (cell-free) plasma obtained after extracorporeal conditioning (i.e. culturing) of anticoagulated blood under physiological temperature (37 °C) and physiological hypoxia (1-5 %O2). (wikipedia.org)
  • The term 'hypoxia preconditioned plasma' was first described by Hadjipanayi & Schilling, when they proposed that hypoxia can provide a useful tool for enhancing the angiogenic potential of blood plasma by generating compositions based on blood cell natural responses to a wound-like microenvironment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Type
  • The predominant type of cell present should be indicated in the diagnosis as a modifier (e.g. (nih.gov)
  • If there is an even mix of cell types (i.e., no one cell type predominates), the modifier "mixed" may be used. (nih.gov)
  • immune system
  • The outcome of an infection is thus dependent on a two-way interaction between the pathogen and cells of the immune system. (springer.com)
  • survival
  • IL-24 appears to control in cell survival and proliferation by inducing rapid activation of particular transcription factors called STAT1 and STAT3. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients
  • RATIONALE: Measuring the number of radiolabeled white blood cells in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma tumors may help doctors predict how well patients will respond to treatment, and may help the study of cancer in the future. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • PURPOSE: This study is measuring radiolabeled white blood cells in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Assess the relationship between response at 8-12 weeks and the magnitude of baseline effector cell trafficking or the magnitude of post-rituximab effector cell trafficking in these patients. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Patients then undergo full-body single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT) scan 4 hours after cell infusion and on day 2. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • however, some patients fail to respond to this cell therapy. (ahajournals.org)
  • We coupled diversity profiles with unsupervised (hierarchical clustering) and supervised (support vector machine and feature selection) machine learning approaches in order to correlate patients' immunological statuses with their B- and T-cell repertoire data. (beds.ac.uk)
  • 50 cells/ μ L. With the increasing longevity of these patients due to the use of HAART, treatment of IRU may become an issue in the future. (hindawi.com)
  • HIV-1 Tat protein is released from HIV-infected cells and is found circulating in the blood of HIV-1-infected patients [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Further characterization revealed that these patients were neutropenic and NK cell deficient. (jci.org)
  • Patients with evidence of a vaccine-induced, tumor-specific T-cell proliferative or IFNγ response 1 week after vaccination had a markedly better recurrence-free survival (RFS) at 5 years (63% versus 18%, P = 0.037) than nonresponders. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A tumor vaccine consisting of irradiated autologous tumor cells plus Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) has been used in phase III trials to treat patients after resection of primary colon cancer ( 6 , 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Langhans cells are often found in transbronchial lung biopsies or lymph node biopsies in patients suffering from sarcoidosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibodies
  • Tests for T cell function: skin tests for delayed-type hypersensitivity, cell responses to mitogens and allogeneic cells, cytokine production by cells Tests for B cell function: antibodies to routine immunisations and commonly acquired infections, quantification of IgG subclasses Tests for phagocyte function: reduction of nitro blue tetrazolium chloride, assays of chemotaxis, bactericidal activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The spleen synthesizes antibodies in its white pulp and removes antibody-coated bacteria and antibody-coated blood cells by way of blood and lymph node circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • responses
  • A clinical study subsequently confirmed that an intranodal DC injection was more likely to induce peptide-specific T-cell responses than intradermal or intravenous injections ( 11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Blood
  • The distribution and absolute count of the different types of blood cells are assayed. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The retina is protected by the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) which is composed of human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs) and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). (hindawi.com)
  • The initial work, published in the JCI in 2000, described the method enabling successful attainment of blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOEC). (jci.org)
  • CD34+ cells may be isolated from blood samples using immunomagnetic or immunofluorescent methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is a type of lymphoma, which is generally believed to result from white blood cells of the lymphocyte kind. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dendritic cells that circulate in blood do not have all the typical features of their counterparts in tissue, i.e. they are less mature and have no dendrites. (wikipedia.org)
  • The spleen plays important roles in regard to red blood cells (also referred to as erythrocytes) and the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • It removes old red blood cells and holds a reserve of blood, which can be valuable in case of hemorrhagic shock, and also recycles iron. (wikipedia.org)
  • Creation of red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In horses, roughly 30% of the red blood cells are stored there. (wikipedia.org)
  • The red blood cells can be released when needed. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, up to a cup (240 ml) of red blood cells can be held in the spleen and released in cases of hypovolemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • vascular
  • 10 The role of IL-8 in atherosclerosis may be through its chemoattractant and mitogenic effects on vascular smooth muscle cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • lymph node
  • It is expressed on lymph node endothelia, whereas the L-selectin to which it binds is on the T cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The spleen is a center of activity of the mononuclear phagocyte system and can be considered analogous to a large lymph node, as its absence causes a predisposition to certain infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • Simultaneously, they upregulate cell-surface receptors that act as co-receptors in T-cell activation such as CD80 (B7.1), CD86 (B7.2), and CD40 greatly enhancing their ability to activate T-cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem cells
  • It is important to mention that Long-Term Hematopoietic Stem Cells (LT-HSCs) in mice and humans are the hematopoietic cells with the greatest self-renewal capacity. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] CD34 is expressed in roughly 20% of murine hematopoietic stem cells, and can be stimulated and reversed. (wikipedia.org)
  • i.e., they are multipotential hemopoietic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beyond unicellular organisms) Telomerase is active in normal stem cells and most cancer cells, but is normally absent from, or at very low levels in, most somatic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells express telomerase, which allows them to divide repeatedly and form the individual. (wikipedia.org)
  • hematopoietic
  • By contrast, follicular dendritic cells (FDC) are probably of mesenchymal rather than hematopoietic origin and do not express MHC class II, but are so named because they are located in lymphoid follicles and have long "dendritic" processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenotypes
  • These phenotypes were unexpectedly linked to mutations in the gene encoding a subunit of the Go-Ichi-Ni-San (GINS) complex, which is essential for DNA replication prior to cell division. (jci.org)
  • Thus
  • On the other hand, in rapidly dividing cells, unrepaired DNA damages that do not kill the cell by blocking replication will tend to cause replication errors and thus mutation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, in a population of cells comprising a tissue with replicating cells, mutant cells will tend to be lost. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed
  • citation needed] In estimates made for mice, DNA lesions occur on average 25 to 115 times per minute in each cell, or about 36,000 to 160,000 per cell per day. (wikipedia.org)
  • regardless
  • However, the tax gene transcript could not be detected in fresh ATL cells regardless of hyperacetylated histone H3 in 5'-LTR. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Regardless of its mode of action, under all circumstances CD34, and its relatives podocalyxin and endoglycan, facilitates cell migration. (wikipedia.org)
  • types
  • The accumulation of unrepaired DNA damage is more prevalent in certain types of cells, particularly in non-replicating or slowly replicating cells, such as cells in the brain, skeletal and cardiac muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • absent
  • In normal circumstances, absent telomerase, if a cell divides recursively, at some point the progeny reach their Hayflick limit, which is believed to be between 50-70 cell divisions. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • V-ATPase 116 kDa isoform a2 is a subunit of the vacuolar ATPase (v-ATPase), an heteromultimeric enzyme that is present in intracellular vesicles and in the plasma membrane of specialized cells, and which is essential for the acidification of diverse cellular components. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immature dendritic cells may also phagocytose small quantities of membrane from live own cells, in a process called nibbling. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumors
  • Gather important data regarding the inter- and intra-patient variability of effector cell trafficking into these tumors. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • skeletal
  • In baboon skeletal muscle, which consists of fully differentiated post-mitotic cells, less than 3% of myonuclei contain damaged telomeres and this percentage does not increase with age. (wikipedia.org)
  • replication
  • Together, the results of this study lay the groundwork for future studies to explore the role of DNA replication in immune cell generation and function. (jci.org)
  • Replication may also be blocked and/or the cell may die. (wikipedia.org)
  • however
  • However, infrequent mutations that provide a survival advantage will tend to clonally expand at the expense of neighboring cells in the tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • As the HIV infection progresses, a loss of CD4+ memory cells accompanied by an inability to activate and afterwards replicate new CD4+ cells is observed. (hindawi.com)