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  • inflammation
  • Here, we show that healthy monocytes can induce the expression of these defensins via Wnt ligands, especially in patients with Crohn's disease (CD), who normally display reduced levels of human α-defensin 5 (HD5) and HD6, resulting in impaired host defense and, consequently, mucosal inflammation. (pnas.org)
  • Here we identify a blood cell not normally encountered in the healthy brain, called a monocyte, which invades brain tissue after seizures and contributes to inflammation. (pnas.org)
  • We examined the cellular components of innate immune inflammation in the days following SE by discriminating microglia vs. brain-infiltrating monocytes. (pnas.org)
  • antigen
  • The increase of antigen expression on LeuM3 + monocytes was more than 50% (1.5-fold) in seven of 22 patients for MHC Class II antigens, in seven of 16 patients for complement receptor and in six of 12 patients for Fc receptor. (aacrjournals.org)
  • cytokine
  • Although no differences were observed in receptors expression (IL-4R and IL-10R) between groups of patients, the expression of IL-12 was lower in monocytes from individuals with moderate to severe fibrosis, suggesting a protective role of this cytokine in the development of fibrosis. (hindawi.com)
  • The induction of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β was greater in FACS-isolated microglia than in brain-invading monocytes. (pnas.org)
  • However, Ccr2 knockout mice displayed greatly reduced monocyte recruitment into brain and reduced levels of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β in hippocampus after SE, which was explained by higher expression of the cytokine in circulating and brain monocytes in wild-type mice. (pnas.org)
  • chronic
  • The most common reasons for a high level of monocytes are chronic inflammatory disease, leukemia, parasitic infection and tuberculosis. (reference.com)
  • Monocyte-induced osteoclastic bone resorption may play an important role in physiologic bone remodeling and in bone destruction that occurs in chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and periodontal disease. (springer.com)
  • Monocytosis and increased expression of monocyte cell surface antigens described for a large portion of patients might be causally involved in the immunodeficiency in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (aacrjournals.org)
  • patients
  • However, monocytes from these patients are lacking this defensin-inducing capability, which seems to be based on compromised expression of Wnt ligands. (pnas.org)
  • Accordingly, analysis of PBMC subtypes showed that monocytes of patients with CD express significantly lower levels of canonical Wnt ligands, including Wnt3, Wnt3a, Wnt1, and wntless Wnt ligand secretion mediator (Evi/Wls). (pnas.org)
  • molecules
  • Two-color fluorescence was used for the analysis of cell surface expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class II molecules, complement receptors, and Fc receptors on the LeuM3 + monocytes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • study
  • The aim of this study was to characterize the subsets of monocytes in individuals with different degrees of periportal fibrosis secondary to schistosomiasis. (hindawi.com)
  • clinical
  • Before monocyte-directed therapies can be fully harnessed for clinical use, understanding of monocyte-driven angiogenesis in tissue development and homeostasis, as well as malignancy, is required. (aacrjournals.org)
  • various
  • Monocytes, for instance, participate in the development of fibrosis through various mechanisms including secretion of cytokines and generation of products related to oxidative stress [ 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • brain
  • Inhibiting brain invasion of CCR2 + monocytes could represent a viable method for alleviating the deleterious consequences of SE. (pnas.org)