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  • specific
  • The molecules being transported are only specific to carrier proteins. (prezi.com)
  • Uniporter channels open in response to a stimulus and allow the free flow of specific molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are 2 main steps involved: the protein binds to a non-specific site on the DNA and then it diffuses along the DNA chain until it locates a target site, a process referred to as sliding. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] In addition to its gradient in specific mRNA molecules, Acetabularia exhibits concentration gradients in several types of molecules, such as ascorbic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research has correlated defects in specific carrier proteins with specific diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipid signaling, broadly defined, refers to any biological signaling event involving a lipid messenger that binds a protein target, such as a receptor, kinase or phosphatase, which in turn mediate the effects of these lipids on specific cellular responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • These disorders are characterized by specific metabolic dysfunctions, depending on the physiological role of the affected carrier in intermediary metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • phosphate
  • On the other hand, studies in cells have shown that ceramide-inducing agents such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha α (TNFα) and palmitate induce the ceramide-dependent removal of a phosphate group (dephosphorylation) of the retinoblastoma gene product RB and the enzymes, protein kinases B (AKT protein family) and C α (PKB and PKCα). (wikipedia.org)
  • Defects of mitochondrial carriers that supply mitochondria with the substrates of oxidative phosphorylation, inorganic phosphate and ADP, are responsible for diseases characterized by defective energy production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transporter reversal typically occurs when a membrane transport protein is phosphorylated by a particular protein kinase, which is an enzyme that adds a phosphate group to proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • Attack of ammonia via an amidotransferase enzyme releases the carrier protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The last step involves a carbomyltransferase enzyme that carbamolates the released molecule giving the final product. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, in insects, the desaturase is critical in the formation of ceramide, and for complex signalling molecules (pheremones), while in fungi, the function of the enzyme, and concentration of unsaturated lipids is regulated in response to function of growth temperature by controlling membrane fluidity in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthase
  • Acyl carrier proteins (ACP) (such as ACP synthase and ACP degradation) are also used to produce 4′-phosphopantetheine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, condensation of 2,3-diaminopropionate with the carried molecule by a second nonribosomalpeptide synthase produces the zwittermicin A backbone. (wikipedia.org)
  • have devised a procedure to reconstitute E.Coli Fatty Acid Synthase using purified protein components ( including FabD) and reported a detailed kinetic analysis of this in-vitro reconstituted system. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrophilic
  • Our results suggest that the oocyte-derived chemoattractant is a hydrophobic nonpeptide molecule that, in an oocyte-conditioned medium, is associated with a carrier protein that enables its presence in a hydrophilic environment. (fertstertforum.com)
  • hydrophobic
  • Treating oocyte-conditioned media with proteases and hexane provided evidence for the oocyte derived chemoattractant being a hydrophobic nonpeptide molecule that, in an oocyte-conditioned medium, is associated with a carrier protein. (fertstertforum.com)
  • receptors
  • The majority of synthetic receptors used in the carrier-based anion-selective electrodes employ transition elements or metalloids as anion carriers, although simple organic urea- and thiourea based receptors are known. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • Although the interior of the nucleus does not contain any membrane-bound sub compartments, its contents are not uniform, and a number of sub-nuclear bodies exist, made up of unique proteins, RNA molecules, and particular parts of the chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • amphipathic
  • Liposomes are vesicles composed of a bilayer (uni-lamellar) and/or a concentric series of multiple bilayers (multi-lamellar) separated by aqueous compartments formed by amphipathic molecules such as phospholipids that enclose a central aqueous compartment. (gmp-compliance.org)
  • kinase
  • Purpose Review aberrations of insulin signaling to atypical proteins kinase C (aPKC) in muscles and liver that generate cardiovascular risk elements, including, weight problems, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, insulin level of resistance and blood sugar intolerance in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and obesity-associated metabolic symptoms (MetSyn). (biomasswars.com)
  • as well as the downstream molecule extracellular indication regulated proteins kinase (ERK) 1/2, which induced the upregulation of p53 and Bcl-2-linked X proteins, mediating the next mobile apoptosis and proliferation in IECs. (biomasswars.com)
  • genes
  • To investigate whether common variants associated with DAE were involved in breast cancer susceptibility among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, a list of 175 genes was developed based of their involvement in cancer-related pathways. (springer.com)
  • Using data from a genome-wide map of SNPs associated with allelic expression, we assessed the association of ~320 SNPs located in the vicinity of these genes with breast and ovarian cancer risks in 15,252 BRCA1 and 8211 BRCA2 mutation carriers ascertained from 54 studies participating in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 . (springer.com)
  • The TATA box is the binding site of the TATA-binding protein (TBP) and transcription factors in some eukaryotic genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The TATA box was found in protein coding genes transcribed by RNA polymerase II. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleus contains DNA otherwise known as Deoxyribonucleic acid, a long spiral shaped molecule that stores the genes that determine hair color, eye color, whether or not the person is right or left handed, and many more traits. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both of these genes provide instructions for making proteins called Alpha goblin which is a component of hemoglobin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chimeric RNA, sometimes referred to as a fusion transcript, is composed of exons from two or more different genes and have the potential to encode novel proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human genome encodes approximately 25,000 genes but there are significantly more proteins produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • The exons of these 25,000 genes can be spliced in many different ways to create countless combinations of RNA transcripts and ultimately countless proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disturbance
  • Expression of mislocalized mutant syntaxin 3 in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells leads to basolateral mistargeting of apical membrane proteins, disturbance of tight junction formation, and loss of ability to form an organized polarized epithelium. (rupress.org)
  • mRNA
  • Intron A may sometimes be included to improve mRNA stability and hence increase protein expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through a series of experiments involving E. coli and the T4 phage in 1960, it was shown that messenger RNA (mRNA) carriers information from DNA to the ribosomal sites of protein synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • After DNA is transcribed into RNA, the molecule is known as pre-messenger RNA (mRNA) and it consists of exons and introns that can be split apart and rearranged in many different ways. (wikipedia.org)
  • archaea
  • Dolichols are found in eukaryotes and in archaea, although similar polyprenols molecules are found in bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The archaea protein exhibits a greater symmetry in its primary sequence and in the distribution of electrostatic charge, which is important because the higher symmetry lowers the protein's ability to bind the TATA box in a polar manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogen
  • Pneumolysin (PLY), an associate from the category of Gram-positive bacterial, cholesterol-dependent, -barrel pore-forming cytolysins, may be the main proteins virulence aspect from the dangerous respiratory pathogen, (pneumococcus). (biomasswars.com)
  • This interest has been fueled in part by the recent discovery of a family of highly conserved pattern recognition receptor proteins known as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) believed to be involved in innate immunity as receptors for pathogen- associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). (allindianpatents.com)
  • They contain DNA that codes for specific proteins (antigens) from a pathogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxygen
  • First, hydrogen is abstracted from carbon 13 of arachidonic acid, and then two molecules of oxygen are added by the PTGS2 (COX-2), giving PGG2. (wikipedia.org)
  • The possibility that the entire molecule is assembled as a single polyketide with a Baeyer-Villiger oxidation inserting an oxygen into the carbon backbone has been ruled out because C1 of monic acid and C9' of 9-hydroxy-nonanoic acid are both derived from C1 of acetate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hemoglobin is a protein found in red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • These abnormal hemoglobin molecules cannot effectively carry oxygen to the body's tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • Dolichols play a role in the co-translational modification of proteins known as N-glycosylation in the form of dolichol phosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • First, a cis (or Z) -prenyltransferase catalyzes the condensation of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) with a varying number (dependent on the particular cis-prenyltransferase) of isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) molecules, resulting in the formation of a polyprenyl diphosphate (also known as dehydrodolichyl diphosphate). (wikipedia.org)
  • Biochemical and biotechnological development has allowed novel approaches to this issue, in the form of engineered O2 carriers, widely known as "blood substitutes. (wikipedia.org)
  • These inorganic phosphates are then bound to carrier proteins which deliver the inorganic phosphates to a specific high-affinity transport system, known as the Pst system, which transports phosphate across the cytoplasmic membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • This sequence was originally called Box A, which in now known to be the sequence that interacts with the homologue of the archaeal TATA-binding protein (TBP). (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Taking a systems approach, we develop and summarise the view that "serum ferritin" actually originates from damaged cells (and thus reflects cellular damage), that it contains some iron but has lost or liberated most of its normal content, and that since the protein part of ferritin is assumed to be benign, that it is this (initially) free iron that correlates with and is causative of disease. (rsc.org)
  • found
  • Serum ferritin" presents a paradox, as the iron storage protein ferritin is not synthesised in serum yet is to be found there. (rsc.org)
  • It is found in all proteins and in some artificial sweeteners. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mupirocin cluster exhibits an atypical acyltransferase (AT) organization, in that there are only two AT domains, and both are found on the same protein, MmpC. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune responses
  • Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because these proteins are recognised as foreign, when they are processed by the host cells and displayed on their surface, the immune system is alerted, which then triggers immune responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • As these molecules are vital for life, metabolic reactions either focus on making these molecules during the construction of cells and tissues, or by breaking them down and using them as a source of energy, by their digestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • One way of enhancing protein expression is by optimising the codon usage of pathogenic mRNAs for eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • As such, the main purpose of dephosphorylation by alkaline phosphatase is to increase the rate of diffusion of the molecules into the cells and inhibit them from diffusing out. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each cell has many DNA molecules, but because cells are very small and DNA molecules are long, the DNA is packaged very tightly in each cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • Four large multi-domain type I polyketide synthase (PKS) proteins are encoded, as well as several single function enzymes with sequence similarity to type II PKSs. (wikipedia.org)
  • essential
  • These results indicate that SNARE proteins contribute to the overall specificity of membrane trafficking in vivo, and that the polarity of syntaxin 3 is essential for epithelial cell polarization. (rupress.org)
  • These biochemicals can be joined together to make polymers such as DNA and proteins, essential macromolecules of life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the plasmid is the "vehicle" from which the immunogen is expressed, optimising vector design for maximal protein expression is essential. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription
  • Like most transcription factors, the HIF transcription factor is responsible for the expression of a protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The TATA-binding protein (TBP) could also be targeted by viruses as a means of viral transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike replication, where a complete copy of DNA is made, transcription copies only the gene that is to be expressed as a protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Release
  • Encapsulation aims at the protection and controlled release of active molecules when immersed in an environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alkaline phosphatase in E. coli is located in the periplasmic space and can thus be released using techniques that weaken the cell wall and release the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • surface
  • We investigated the interaction of PEGylated and un-PEGylated PLGA NPs with Recombinant Human Mannose-Binding Protein (HMBP) in an effort to understand the effect of surface modification on their binding to the protein. (scirp.org)
  • type
  • These AT domains are the only domains present on MmpC, while the other three type I PKS proteins contain no AT domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • domain
  • Both the cyclooxygenase and the peroxidase active sites are located in the catalytic domain, which accounts for approximately 80% of the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • increase
  • The increase in the sugar carrier dolichyl phosphate may reflect an increased rate of glycosylation in the diseased brain, and the increase in the endogenous anti-oxidant ubiquinone an attempt to protect the brain from oxidative stress, for instance, induced by lipid peroxidation. (wikipedia.org)
  • process
  • In addition, dolichols can be adducted to proteins as a posttranslational modification, a process in which branched carbohydrate trees are formed on a dolichol moiety and then transferred to an assembly of proteins to form a large glycoprotein in the rough endoplasmic reticulum. (wikipedia.org)
  • instructions
  • Aceruloplasminemia is caused by a mutation (a five-base pair insertion in exon 7) in the CP gene, which provides instructions for making a protein called ceruloplasmin, a protein involved in iron transport and processing. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is caused by mutations in the HBB gene which make instructions for making the protein beta globin. (wikipedia.org)
  • show
  • Most often, the parents of an individual with an autosomal recessive disorder are carriers of one copy of the altered gene but do not show signs and symptoms of the disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • People who are carriers of a thalassemia gene show no thalassemia symptoms and might not even know they are carriers. (wikipedia.org)
  • factor
  • Together with histone acetylases (HATs), HDACs regulate acetylation level of histones (H3, H2AK5, H4K5, H4K12, H2B, H4K8, and H4K16) as well as some other proteins (p65 and myocyte enhancer factor 2) [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Deposition of matricellular proteins modulates growth factor signaling and contributes to the spatial and temporal regulation of the reparative response. (jci.org)
  • Study
  • In this study, we used protein mass spectrometry to analyze protein alterations in LPS-treated primary microglia with the application of RGFP966. (hindawi.com)
  • iron
  • The protein in serum ferritin is considered benign, but it has lost ( i.e. dumped) most of its normal complement of iron which when unliganded is highly toxic. (rsc.org)
  • whose
  • Compound semiconductors and germanium, whose carrier mobility is superior to that of silicon, are called post-silicon materials, and research into them is proceeding in various countries as next-generation channel materials. (nanowerk.com)
  • energy
  • In some species, the luciferase requires other cofactors such as calcium or magnesium ions, and sometimes also the energy-carrying molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (wikipedia.org)