• In this review, we describe in detail the generation of chemically induced pluripotent stem cells using small molecule inhibitors and activators that target either downstream protein kinases or modify chromatin structure to promote somatic cell reprogramming. (uthsc.edu)
  • The generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) through the use of small molecule compounds has evolved as a potential cellular reprogramming strategy. (uthsc.edu)
  • Individually, specific small molecule compounds have previously been shown to replace reprogramming transcription factors or enhance the efficiency of cellular reprogramming. (uthsc.edu)
  • More recently, a combination of small molecule compounds can replace all of the reprogramming factors. (uthsc.edu)
  • In addition, epigenetic modulating small molecule compounds that enhance cellular reprogramming and functionally replace some reprogramming factors are discussed. (uthsc.edu)
  • All drugs work by sticking to specific molecules in your body and interfering with those molecules. (ucsf.edu)
  • Researchers from MIT's Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS) and Terahertz Integrated Electronics Group have now built an on-chip clock that exposes specific molecules - not atoms - to an exact, ultrahigh frequency that causes them to spin. (scienceblog.com)
  • Using fluorescent molecules enabled the researchers to see if the molecules ended up in their intended locations. (caltech.edu)
  • For the separation, the researchers made use of the fact that para and ortho water molecules do not have the same quantum states. (innovations-report.com)
  • The advance, developed by researchers at the University of Missouri-Rolla, is rooted in straightforward geometry -- just as human hands come in left and right varieties, so do many molecules. (upi.com)
  • Given that the ensemble of biomarkers in OC includes more than 50 molecules the interest of the researchers focuses on the possible validation of each one's potential as prognosis markers and/or therapeutic targets. (hindawi.com)
  • Researchers merge two atoms into a molecule that has a precise, reversible quantum state and that lives long enough to measure. (aps.org)
  • But first, researchers need to develop techniques for creating these molecules. (aps.org)
  • A team of researchers from the four research centers -- Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Moscow State University, National University of Science and Technology (MISIS), and the Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology (Skoltech) -- provided an overview of molecules capable of assisting in the fight against prostate cancer and in the diagnosis of this illness. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Sometimes researchers spend more than ten years before they can produce a new registered drug from a promising molecule. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • JILA researchers have made a long-lived, record-cold gas of molecules that follow the wave patterns of quantum mechanics instead of the strictly particle nature of ordinary classical physics. (nist.gov)
  • Chilling the gas to the lowest temperatures gives researchers maximum control over the molecules. (nist.gov)
  • NIST researchers at JILA have been working for years to understand and control ultracold molecules, which are more complex than atoms because they not only have many internal energy levels but also rotate and vibrate. (nist.gov)
  • This is the conclusion that researchers at the University of Tokyo in Japan reached after studying these molecules in cells and mice. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Researchers looking at glowing AIE-gen molecules in the bloodstream of mice. (nytimes.com)
  • MSCs work by producing a range of signalling molecules, and the researchers have found several likely candidates that might be influencing islet function. (diabetes.org.uk)
  • The researchers will measure the signalling molecules produced by MSCs, test their ability to influence the survival of mouse and human islets, and test their ability to produce insulin in the lab. (diabetes.org.uk)
  • The researchers' chip functions similarly to an atomic clock but relies on measuring the rotation of the molecule carbonyl sulfide (OCS), when exposed to certain frequencies. (scienceblog.com)
  • The inflammatory molecule interleukin-17A (IL-17A) triggers immune cells that in turn reduce IL-17A's pro-inflammatory activity, according to a study by National Eye Institute researchers. (news-medical.net)
  • Researchers are trying to mimic Nature by constructing nanochannels in order to be able to manipulate single molecules in, predominantly biomedical, applications. (medgadget.com)
  • By examining the light reflected from the crystal, researchers can tell when molecules are added to or removed from the crystal surface. (photonics.com)
  • No typical molecule can be defined for ionic crystals ( salts ) and covalent crystals ( network solids ), although these are often composed of repeating unit cells that extend either in a plane (such as in graphene ) or three-dimensionally (such as in diamond or sodium chloride ). (princeton.edu)
  • Zoom in on a tiny blob -- this is the size of a typical molecule the virus is built from. (ucsf.edu)
  • The first step in this process is specific adhesion to venular endothelial cells in selected organs, a process mediated by tumor cell surface molecules such as Sialyl LewisX or the VLA-4 (alpha 4 beta 1) integrin that mediate binding to endothelial adhesion molecules such as the E-selectin or the vascular cell adhesion molecule, VCAM-1. (nih.gov)
  • Site-specific endothelial determinants such as the lung endothelial cell adhesion molecule, LuECAM, may additionally specify particular sites for preferential adhesion and subsequent site-specific metastasis of particular tumor types. (nih.gov)
  • Finally, metastatic tumor cell adhesion to connective tissue elements such as fibronectin, type I collagen and hyaluronan, mediated by molecules such as the beta 1 integrins and by the CD44 cell surface adhesion molecule, are required for movement of tumor cells into the subendothelial stroma and subsequent growth at these new sites. (nih.gov)
  • They are the coldest molecules ever achieved through direct cooling, and they represent a physics milestone likely to prompt new research in areas ranging from quantum chemistry to tests of the most basic theories in particle physics. (innovations-report.com)
  • A major goal at the interface of synthetic biology, chemistry, and personalized medicine is to create molecules that can specifically regulate genes and thereby dictate cell fate ( 1 - 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • This new book is by two knowledgeable and expert popularizers of chemistry and deals exclusively with molecules and compounds rather than with the simpler atoms and elements. (routledge.com)
  • a wonderful and easy-to-read book that would be of interest to a wide audience, ranging from chemistry faculty to high school teachers to anyone who is simply interested in learning about a variety of molecules that have impacted the human condition. (routledge.com)
  • The examples presented in this book provide a wealth of educational material that relate both molecules, and many of the principles of chemistry, to a wide variety of contextual situations of interest to the general public. (routledge.com)
  • Domains as varied as optical microscopy, quantum optics, nanophotonics, material science and soft-matter physical chemistry all have benefited from the new, average-free insights provided by the optical isolation of single molecules, quantum dots, metal nanoparticles, and other nanometre-sized objects. (rsc.org)
  • Atomsmith Molecule Lab - Middle School Edition is a tool that will improve your understanding of physical science and introductory chemistry. (apple.com)
  • Learning (and teaching) chemistry presents a unique challenge: it depends on the ability to 'see' 3D shapes and interactions of molecules we can't actually see -- they are too small. (apple.com)
  • Atomsmith Molecule Lab - Middle School Edition makes these particle models accessible to introductory physical science and chemistry students, enabling them to interact virtually with molecules and to perform experiments at the atomic scale. (apple.com)
  • Onscreen Tutorials walk you through the steps of how to use Atomsmith Molecule Lab - Middle School Edition to explore a broad range of introductory chemistry concepts. (apple.com)
  • Note: If you are teaching or studying chemistry at the high school or college levels, you should check out the 'full' edition of Atomsmith Molecule Lab. (apple.com)
  • Sumith Kularatne, a graduate student in Purdue's chemistry department and first author of both papers, compared the targeting molecule to a homing device. (medgadget.com)
  • Firstly, the electron rearrangement dynamics in dissociating multiply charged iodine molecules is studied in an experiment that made it possible to access charge transfer in a thus far unexplored quasimolecular regime relevant for plasma and chemistry applications of the FEL. (springer.com)
  • In a strong inhomogeneous electric field, the accelerated water molecules are deflected from their flight path by a different amount depending on their quantum state. (innovations-report.com)
  • Quantum mechanics allows us to both cool things down and apply force that leaves the molecules levitating in an almost perfect vacuum," DeMille said. (innovations-report.com)
  • Now Jessie Zhang at Harvard University and colleagues demonstrate such a technique for forming a long-lived single NaCs molecule in a specific, reversible quantum state. (aps.org)
  • Both of these approaches created molecules in precisely characterized quantum states, using lasers to associate the atoms. (aps.org)
  • The latest method overcomes both of these problems, producing molecules that lived for 4.7 ms. Zhang says that further work is needed to create usable molecules for quantum science applications, but this longer lifetime makes that work possible. (aps.org)
  • Artist's impression of JILA's record-cold quantum gas of potassium-rubidium molecules. (nist.gov)
  • In a quantum gas, all of the molecules' properties are restricted to specific values, or quantized, like rungs on a ladder or notes on a musical scale. (nist.gov)
  • JILA's latest gas temperature record is much lower than (about one-third of) the level where quantum effects start to take over from classical effects, and the molecules last for a few seconds-remarkable longevity, Ye said. (nist.gov)
  • This is the first quantum degenerate gas of stable molecules in bulk, and the chemical reactions are suppressed-a result that nobody had predicted," Ye said. (nist.gov)
  • they represent unique capabilities in cold molecules, controlled quantum dynamics, spectroscopy, atomic traps, Rydberg physics and technological applications. (epsrc.ac.uk)
  • To this extent we are working on methods to cool and control neutral diatomic molecules. (rug.nl)
  • This book explores the relaxation dynamics of inner-valence-ionized diatomic molecules on the basis of extreme-ultraviolet pump-probe experiments performed at the free-electron laser (FEL) in Hamburg. (springer.com)
  • Numerous novel targets that are crucial for the survival of cancer cells can be attacked by small molecules such as protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors. (springer.com)
  • Molecules such as E-cadherin that promote homotypic tumor cell adhesion function to maintain intercellular contacts that confine cells to the primary tumor site and are negatively correlated with metastatic potential. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, metastatic potential can be influenced both positively and negatively by a variety of cell surface adhesive molecules that act both independently and in concert to direct tumor cells to particular tissues, allowing them to arrest in those tissues, migrate across the vessel wall and grow at the secondary site. (nih.gov)
  • CTLA-4 Ig) or mAb against coinhibitory molecules suppresses the responses of self-reactive T cells in autoimmune diseases. (hindawi.com)
  • We are also puzzled by how molecules are put together into cells which then form organs and eventually living organisms. (chalmers.se)
  • Molecules, Vol. 23, Pages 3329: RNA-Protein Interactions Prevent Long RNA Duplex Formation: Implications for the Design of RNA-Based Therapeutics Molecules doi: 10.3390/molecules23123329 Authors: Eckart Bindewald Lisheng Dai Wojciech K. Kasprzak Taejin Kim Shuo Gu Bruce A. Shapiro Cells frequently simultaneously express RNAs and cognate antisense transcripts without necessarily leading to the formation of RNA duplexes. (medworm.com)
  • Depletion of CD133 or BMI1 effectively induced neurite elongation and marker molecules for differentiation in NB cells. (nih.gov)
  • Diagram of the shape of the hemoglobin molecule found in red blood cells that carries the oxygen. (smartdraw.com)
  • A genomescape of a synthetic DNA binding molecule provided insight into its differential regulatory activity in cultured cells. (pnas.org)
  • This class of molecules has been shown to regulate target genes in human cells and in mouse models of disease ( 13 , 17 , 18 ). (pnas.org)
  • We also examined the specificity of an engineered ZF protein (ZFP-1, Fig. 1 B ). This protein domain has been utilized, not only to create molecules that regulate gene expression ( 5 - 7 ), but also to generate site-specific nucleases that greatly improve homologous recombination in mammalian cells ( 20 , 21 ). (pnas.org)
  • PSMA, which is found only on prostate cancer cells and tumor blood vessels, acts as the homing signal that the molecule targets. (medgadget.com)
  • Shuichi Takayama and associates from the University of Michigan are working on constructing nanochannels that are designed to transport and manipulate molecules for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications, in a way that is similar to the one that happens inside cells. (medgadget.com)
  • Introduction to Molecules, Cells and Organisms: This course aims to introduce students to the underlying principles and concepts of biology at the level of the molecule and cell. (studiesabroad.com)
  • Also it is important to measure the dissociation energy and oscillator strengths (how strongly the molecule interacts with electromagnetic radiation). (wikipedia.org)
  • Then we see how that biomolecule interacts with other molecules, including drugs," said Cunningham, who also is affiliated with the university's Beckman Institute, Micro and Nanotechnology Laboratory, and Institute for Genomic Biology. (photonics.com)
  • Experiments confirm that photonionized molecules get a backward kick, as predicted by theory. (aps.org)
  • In all the experiments, the molecules shone brighter. (nytimes.com)
  • Because Atomsmith Molecule Lab - Middle School Edition's models are 3D, physically accurate, and interactive (NOT 2D animated cartoons or videos to be passively watched), you can use it to do real science, and by performing hands-on experiments yourself, you learn real science. (apple.com)
  • Then perform experiments on the molecules as you vary the composition, temperature, volume and pressure of the simulation. (apple.com)
  • In case that we have studied, there is a fundamental stage which is called ground state, and then there is another interesting state which is called intermediate state and the intermediate state has a much lower probability of being present but is essential because it's the state that the molecule that is acted upon by enzymes as to go through in order to be released. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • They've also discovered that human islets have over 290 different types of molecules called receptors to detect these signals. (diabetes.org.uk)
  • Natural byproducts of cellular respiration, molecules called "reactive oxygen species" have long been described as stress signals that can cause tissue damage if left unchecked. (eurekalert.org)
  • Antibodies can recognize and bind very specifically to foreign molecules, such as toxins or parts of invading microbes. (umass.edu)
  • Marti and his team created ruthenium complexes by combining the element with ligands, stable molecules that bind to metal ions. (redorbit.com)
  • The ligands strongly bind to nanotubes while the attached ruthenium molecules interact with water to maintain the tubes in solution and keep them apart from one another. (redorbit.com)
  • I'm having troubles finding a description or picture of how chitin molecules bind together to form the exoskeletons of arthropods, crustaceans, etc. (madsci.org)
  • Antibiotic (poly)peptides are positively charged molecules that bind to the negatively charged surface of microorganisms and kill bacteria through lysis. (els.net)
  • These molecules bind in the minor groove of DNA with high affinity recognizing naked or chromatinized DNA with modest perturbation of the DNA groove geometry ( 19 ). (pnas.org)
  • When the environment is right, atoms can join together and form molecules , which give rise to most materials studied in materials science . (wikipedia.org)
  • But certain environments, such as high temperatures, don't allow atoms to form molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • We were doing a survey of the dust in several bright supernova remnants using Herschel, one of which was the Crab Nebula," Barlow said, adding that the discovery was "unexpected" because they did not expect argon "to form molecules, and you wouldn't expect to find them in the harsh environment of a supernova remnant. (redorbit.com)
  • However, the study authors report that the gases can form molecules under the right circumstances. (redorbit.com)
  • These macromolecules are large molecules that make up most of the b. (reference.com)
  • Along the way, as the robot encounters cargo molecules tethered to pegs, it grabs them with its "hand" components and carries them around until it detects the signal of the drop-off point. (caltech.edu)
  • Currently, the deciphering of the signaling pathways brings about new advances in the understanding of the pathogenic mechanism of ovarian carcinogenesis, which is based on the interaction of several molecules with different biochemical structure that, consequently, intervene in cell metabolism, through their role as regulators in proliferation, differentiation, and cell death. (hindawi.com)
  • Putative CSCs using primary tumor sphere formation from NB patients were reported previously, and several molecules will be elucidated from the tumor sphere to develop CSC-targeting therapies. (nih.gov)
  • Conceptual illustration of two DNA robots collectively performing a cargo-sorting task on a DNA origami surface, transporting fluorescent molecules with different colors from initially unordered locations to separated destinations. (caltech.edu)
  • Because fluorescent molecules are almost always used as a group, the problem of quenching, as this phenomenon is known, prevented many otherwise promising compounds from reaching real-world applications. (nytimes.com)
  • Conventional fluorescent molecules are flat, and they stack on top of one another like pancakes when they are too close, killing the light. (nytimes.com)
  • It includes amusing anecdotes, historical curiosities, and entertaining facts about each molecule, thereby balancing educational content with entertainment. (routledge.com)
  • In the current review, I discuss the nature of the adhesion molecules that have been implicated in the metastatic process, emphasizing those molecules that have been shown to correlate with metastasis in clinical human tumors or that have been shown to influence metastatic potential in in vivo experimental assays. (nih.gov)
  • For each molecule, the text is built as follows: (i) general remarks, (ii) structural details, and (iii) particularities in expression, from different tumors to landmarks in ovarian carcinoma. (hindawi.com)
  • The interaction between two particular molecules may be the reason why melanoma tumors grow and are likely to spread to other parts of the body. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A lot of new drugs are being designed to destroy the vasculature of solid tumors, and, if they could be linked to this new targeting molecule, we could have a two-pronged attack for prostate cancer," he said. (medgadget.com)
  • There also is potential for the targeting molecule to be used to attack the vasculature of solid tumors of other types of cancers, Low said. (medgadget.com)
  • Understanding oxytocin - and molecules like it - might shed light on a number of brain disorders. (eurekalert.org)
  • Remarkably, the GFP molecule folded and was fluorescent at room temperature, without the need for exogenous cofactors specific to the jellyfish. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such formations can take place when the temperature is low enough for molecules to form - typically around 6000 K or cooler. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the Sun is a star, its photosphere has a low enough temperature of 6,000 kelvins , and therefore molecules can form. (wikipedia.org)
  • Secondly the temperature can be determined, as the temperature will change the numbers of molecules in the different vibrational and rotational states. (wikipedia.org)
  • We have proved that the temperature of a mass of gas is determined by the mean kinetic energy of the molecules. (oreilly.com)
  • With the invisible intermolecular forces turned ON, change the temperature and see the molecules transform from solids to liquids to gases - and back again. (apple.com)
  • Before now, the coldest two-atom molecules were produced in maximum numbers of tens of thousands and at temperatures no lower than a few hundred nanokelvin. (nist.gov)
  • PEPTIDES/bionet.molecules.peptides is ready! (bio.net)
  • The PEPTIDES/bionet.molecules.peptides newsgroup is ready for operation. (bio.net)
  • If you do not see bionet.molecules.peptides in your newsreader within another day or two, ask your news system administrator to act on our 'newgroup' message to enable the group at your site. (bio.net)
  • Subscribing to this group: -------------------------- IF YOU USE USENET NEWS: you need do nothing other than participate in bionet.molecules.peptides when it appears in your newsreader. (bio.net)
  • You might also try the command 'g bionet.molecules.peptides' in rn-like newsreaders. (bio.net)
  • How to post a message to the group: ----------------------------------- If you use news, simply post a message into bionet.molecules.peptides. (bio.net)
  • Rotational transitions occur mostly between rotational levels of the same vibrational state, although there are many examples of combination vibration-rotation transitions for light molecules. (gsu.edu)
  • The opinion distinguishes isolated DNA over purified DNA because isolated DNA either has been "cleaved (i.e. had covalent bonds in it's backbone chemically severed) or synthesized to consist of just a fraction of a naturally occurring DNA molecule" ( Id at 17). (martindale.com)
  • The invention pertains to a single polypeptide chain binding molecule which has binding specificity and affinity substantially similar to the binding specificity and affinity of the light and heavy chain aggregate variable region of an antibody, to genetic sequences coding therefor, and to recombinant DNA methods of producing such molecule and uses for such molecule. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Evaluating the specificity spectra of DNA binding molecules is a nontrivial challenge that hinders the ability to decipher gene regulatory networks or engineer molecules that act on genomes. (pnas.org)
  • The approach we describe will accelerate the creation of precision-tailored DNA therapeutics and uncover principles that govern sequence-specificity of DNA binding molecules. (pnas.org)
  • Another approach has focused on engineering DNA binding small molecules, imidazole/pyrrole hairpin polyamides, to increase their sequence specificity ( 8 - 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • In other words, these molecules hang around until the formation of planetesimals and planets, and this mechanism could have been guarded the constituents of life from the ravages of the Sun in our own Solar System. (universetoday.com)
  • With that molecule, a different mechanism was at work. (nytimes.com)
  • The only intermolecular forces acting between alkane molecules are very weak London forces (also known as dispersion forces ) which result from the attractions between instantaneous dipoles formed as a result of random fluctuations of electrons in nonpolar molecules. (angelo.edu)