Loading...
  • atrial natriur
  • Computer model showing the structure of a molecule of the hormone atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). (sciencephoto.com)
  • BNP acts with ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide) to bring about an increase in cardiac output and a decrease in blood volume and pressure through the homeostatic control of body water, sodium, potassium and fat tissue (adipose tissue). (sciencephoto.com)
  • Solid Phase Syn
  • Although combinatorial chemistry has only really been taken up by industry since the 1990s,[citation needed] its roots can be seen as far back as the 1960s when a researcher at Rockefeller University, Bruce Merrifield, started investigating the solid-phase synthesis of peptides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular
  • Molecular graphic of the digestive enzyme trypsin (blue) complexed with an inhibitor peptide (green). (sciencephoto.com)
  • The molecular basis for these phenomena has not been elucidated, despite extensive characterization of peptide requirements in alloreactivity and the solution of several molecular structures of the 2C and AHIII12.2 TCR allo- and xenomodels ( 2 )( 3 )( 4 )( 5 ). (rupress.org)
  • Computer molecular graphic of part of a molecule of encephalin, a polypeptide found in the human brain. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Until recently, the application of molecular evolution in the laboratory had been limited to display technologies involving biological molecules, where small molecules lead discovery was considered beyond this biological approach. (wikipedia.org)
  • DEL has opened the field of display technology to include non-natural compounds such as small molecules, extending the application of molecular evolution and natural selection to the identification of small molecule compounds of desired activity and function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phage-displayed antibodies can be isolated from large antibody libraries by mimicking molecular evolution: through rounds of selection (on an immobilized protein target), amplification and translation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Houghten branched out to the business world in the 1980s, forming Multiple Peptide Systems in 1986, the Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies (TPIMS) in 1988 and Houghten Pharmaceuticals, Inc. in 1990. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each MHC molecule on the cell surface displays a molecular fraction of a protein, called an epitope. (wikipedia.org)
  • BALL (pronounced "ball") is software consisting of the versatile C++ class framework Biochemical Algorithms Library (BALL), a set of algorithms and data structures for molecular modelling and computational structural bioinformatics, a Python interface to this library, and a graphical user interface to BALL, the molecule viewer BALLView. (wikipedia.org)
  • Atoms
  • The atoms (coloured spheres) of the molecule include carbon (yellow) as well as hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. (sciencephoto.com)
  • The atoms or molecules in the sample can be identified by correlating known masses (e.g. an entire molecule) to the identified masses or through a characteristic fragmentation pattern. (wikipedia.org)
  • stable
  • Writing in the April 19 issue of Chemistry & Biology, the Hopkins scientists reveal that using a simple chemical reaction, first reported in the early 1980s, allows them to convert en masse the naturally occurring amino acids to ones that form more stable peptides. (innovations-report.com)
  • peptoids are molecules closely related to, but more stable than peptides, making them more convenient for testing--but the method could be applied to any class of compound, according to Kodadek. (eurekalert.org)
  • Generally speaking, β-peptides form a more stable helix than α-peptides. (wikipedia.org)
  • β-peptides are stable against proteolytic degradation in vitro and in vivo, an important advantage over natural peptides in the preparation of peptide-based drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first method is to attach each DNA molecule with a biotin group and an additional coding sequence for streptavidin (STABLE display). (wikipedia.org)
  • compounds
  • Further, we have developed a new, extremely sensitive screening system which allows testing of many millions of library compounds within a few hours. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • The concept of DNA-encoding was first described in a theoretical paper by Brenner and Lerner in 1992 in which was proposed to link each molecule of a chemically synthesized entity to a particular oligonucleotide sequence constructed in parallel and to use this encoding genetic tag to identify and enrich active compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the selective amplificability of DNA greatly facilitates library screening and it becomes indispensable for the encoding of organic compounds libraries of this unprecedented size. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The basic principle of combinatorial chemistry is to prepare libraries of very large number of compounds then identify the useful components of the libraries. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Researchers attempting to optimize the activity profile of a compound create a 'library' of many different but related compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • This method was referred to as the "tea-bag" method because deprotected peptides are enclosed in mesh bags and dipped quickly into liquid solutions containing activated amino acids (or other organic compounds). (wikipedia.org)
  • increases
  • Our work dramatically increases the complexity of peptide libraries that can be created and the speed with which they can be made and processed," says Chuck Merryman, Ph.D., a postdoctoral fellow who developed the new technique. (innovations-report.com)
  • This means that the number of peptides increases exponentially with the number of the executed cycles. (wikipedia.org)
  • avidity
  • Stauss and colleagues and our group demonstrated high avidity allorestricted CTLs against tumor-associated peptides and libraries from allogeneic mouse and human repertoires ( 21 )( 26 )( 27 )( 28 ). (rupress.org)
  • vivo
  • In vitro, alloreactive T cells are activated easily by foreign MHC molecules without previous in vivo priming and are detectable in amazingly high frequencies ( 1 ). (rupress.org)
  • It has been shown that injection of peptide amphiphile solutions in vivo leads to in situ gel formation due to the presence of counterions in physiological solutions. (wikipedia.org)
  • repertoire
  • Thus, the peptide repertoire of alloreactive T cells must be influenced by self-MHC molecules during positive or negative thymic selection or peripheral survival, much like the repertoire of the self-restricted T cells. (rupress.org)
  • To analyze the peptide repertoire of alloreactive T cells and the potential influence of self-MHC molecules, we stimulated naive splenic T cells of MHC class I mutant or H2 recombinant mice against RMA-S cells (H2 b ) loaded with defined K b - or D b -specific peptide libraries (K b L, D b L) under limiting dilution conditions. (rupress.org)
  • chains
  • A peptide amphiphile typically comprises a hydrophilic peptide sequence with an attached lipid chains, in this case being a lipopeptide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over time, an osmotic pressure difference drives the reptation of polymer chains through the diffusion barrier into the peptide amphiphile compartment, leading to the formation of fibers perpendicular to the interface that grow over time. (wikipedia.org)
  • CHEMISTRY
  • Strategies that allow identification of useful components of the libraries are also part of combinatorial chemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • combinatorial chemistry exon shuffling - note that although introns are conceptually analogous to inteins, they apply to a different molecule (RNA) and are processed by RNA splicing at a different time and location within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vincent du Vigneaud Award for Excellence in Peptide Science (2000) American Chemical Society's Ralph F. Hirschmann Award in Peptide Chemistry (2004) Bruce Merrifield Award (2005) Fellow of the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists (2006) Dan K. Richardson Entrepreneurship Program's 2011 Entrepreneur of the Year Combinatorial biology is the generation of large numbers of molecules (usually peptides, enzymes or other polypeptides in biology) with non-natural metabolic pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • A corollary to this element of MHC restriction is the consideration that humans have very diverse HLA class II molecules, so that random sampling or clinical monitoring studies may require the use of many different tetramers to include a broad representation of the population. (jimmunol.org)
  • Today, the two models of allorecognition may be seen as two extremes on a scale where MHC and peptide contribute in different degrees to the overall binding energy between the TCR and its ligand. (rupress.org)
  • Each component of this library contains two amino acids arranged in different orders. (wikipedia.org)
  • For both, BALLView offers three-dimensional and stereoscopic visualizing in several different modes, and applying directly the algorithms of the BALL library via its graphical user interface. (wikipedia.org)
  • involvement
  • The involvement of peptides in alloreactivity that are present on stimulator cells in low copy numbers ( 3 )( 13 ) raised the possibility of generating allorestricted CTLs against tumor-associated self-peptides (self as seen from the tumor's host) presented by MHC molecules (nonself for the T cells) for adoptive immunotherapy ( 20 )( 21 )( 22 ). (rupress.org)
  • interactions
  • Such mimetic peptides are available as peptide inhibitors of carbohydrate-protein interactions and peptide mimotopes that are conjugated with adjuvant for vaccination. (hindawi.com)
  • This model explains the strong alloresponse by multiple binary interactions between allorestricted T cell clones and new peptides not presented by self-MHC. (rupress.org)
  • MHC molecules mediate interactions of leukocytes, also called white blood cells (WBCs), which are immune cells, with other leukocytes or with body cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • carbon
  • In α amino acids (molecule at left), both the carboxylic acid group (red) and the amino group (blue) are bonded to the same carbon center, termed the α carbon ( C α {\displaystyle \mathrm {C} ^{\alpha }} ) because it is one atom away from the carboxylate group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Screening
  • These days, most active molecules are discovered through screening of two basic types. (eurekalert.org)
  • A homogeneous method for screening DNA-encoded libraries has recently been developed which uses water-in-oil emulsion technology to isolate, count and identify individual ligand-target complexes in a single-tube approach. (wikipedia.org)
  • Screening of chemical libraries for AR blockers led to the discovery of the first antiandrogen, cyproterone. (wikipedia.org)