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  • substrates
  • Further classification into mono- and dioxygenases in based on whether the enzyme causes transfer of just one atom to the substrate (S) (eq. 1) or whether the whole molecule is incorporated into a single substrate (eq. 2a) or is shared by a pair of substrates (S, S′) (eq. 2b) ( 1, 2 ) 1 . (springer.com)
  • In contrast, when measured using peptide substrates, denaturants inhibit the enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • The substrates bind sequentially (ordered) with acetyl-CoA binding to the free enzyme followed by the binding of serotonin to form the ternary complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • The computation core performs in silico docking to generate rank-ordered lists of predicted substrates for targeted enzymes using both experimentally determined and/or homology modeled protein structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enolase superfamily contains evolutionarily related enzymes with a (β/α)7β‑barrel (TIM‑barrel) fold which primarily catalyze metal-assisted epimerization/racemization or β-elimination of carboxylate substrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • DOI: 10.1002/anie.200705159 Enzyme Catalysis Enantiocomplementary Enzymes: Classification, Molecular Basis for Their Enantiopreference, and Prospects for Mirror-Image Biotransformations Paul F. Mugford, Ulrike G. Wagner, Yun Jiang, Kurt Faber,* and Romas J. Kazlauskas* asymmetric synthesis · biotransformations · enantioselectivity · protein engineering · protein structures One often-cited weakness of biocatalysis is the lack of mirror-image enzymes for the formation of either enantiomer of a product in asymmetric synthesis. (docme.ru)
  • The formation of humulene from FPP is catalyzed by sesquiterpene synthesis enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The catalytic mechanism of CPSase involves the diffusion of carbamate through the interior of the enzyme from the site of synthesis within the N-terminal domain of the large subunit to the site of phosphorylation within the C-terminal domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is the penultimate enzyme in the melatonin synthesis controlling the night/day rhythm in melatonin production in the vertebrate pineal gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • First proposed in 1963 by Linus Pauling and Emile Zuckerkandl, ancestral reconstruction is the inference and synthesis of a gene from the ancestral form of a group of genes, which has had a recent revival thanks to improved inference techniques and low-cost artificial gene synthesis, resulting in several ancestral enzymes-dubbed "stemzymes" by some-to be studied. (wikipedia.org)
  • reductase
  • Interestingly, although the amino acid sequence of mouse quinone reductase is more homologous to that of the rat enzyme, we found that the mouse enzyme behaves similarly to the human enzyme in its ability to reduce these compounds and to generate drug-induced DNA damage. (aspetjournals.org)
  • To determine the region of quinone reductase that is responsible for the catalytic differences, two mouse-rat chimeric enzymes were generated. (aspetjournals.org)
  • MR-P, a chimeric enzyme that has mouse amino-terminal and rat carboxy-terminal segments of quinone reductase, was shown to have catalytic properties resembling those of rat quinone reductase, and RM-P, a chimeric enzyme that has rat amino-terminal and mouse carboxyl-terminal segments of quinone reductase, was shown to have catalytic properties resembling those of mouse quinone reductase. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Reduction of the iron (Fe3+ to Fe2+) occurs in conjunction with this cleavage, but no FeEnt bacterial reductase enzyme has been identified, and the mechanism for this process is still unclear. (wikipedia.org)
  • catalytic
  • Catalytic properties of NAD(P)H:quinone acceptor oxidoreductase: study involving mouse, rat, human, and mouse-rat chimeric enzymes. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Although enzymes are remarkably specific catalysts, they can often perform side reactions in addition to their main, native catalytic activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such factors may include the quantity of catalytic enzymes present, the amount of reactants present, the amount of products present, and the presence of molecules that bind to and thus alter the chemical reactivity of any of the aforementioned factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • consists
  • The EFI consists of six scientific cores which provide bioinformatic, structural, computational, and data management expertise to facilitate functional predictions for enzymes of unknown function targeted by the EFI. (wikipedia.org)
  • stability
  • Although calcium ions do not affect the enzyme activity, they do contribute to its stability. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon removal of the calcium ions, the stability of the enzyme is reduced, but the proteolytic activity remains. (wikipedia.org)
  • uracil
  • In order to carry out its function, the UDG enzyme first identifies the damaged DNA by locating uracil residues and then attaches itself to the DNA to repair it. (innovations-report.com)
  • daltons
  • Arylkylamine N-acetyltransferase is a monomeric polypeptide with a length of 207 amino acid residues, and with a molecular weight of 23,344 daltons. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1974
  • The enzyme was discovered in 1974 in extracts of the fungus Engyodontium album (formerly Tritirachium album). (wikipedia.org)
  • structures
  • They are a valuable source of industrially important enzymes, and recent research has revealed novel mechanisms and biomolecular structures with a broad range of potential applications in biotechnology, biomining and bioremediation. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this Minireview, X-ray crystal structures of enantiocomplementary enzymes are surveyed and classified into four groups according to how the mirror-image active sites are formed. (docme.ru)
  • Several structures have been solved for this class of enzymes, with PDB accession codes 1CJW​, 1B6B​, 1L0C​, and 1KUV​/1KUX​/1KUY​. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • to understand the rationale for extreme adaptations and molecular mechanisms under extreme adaptations. (frontiersin.org)
  • Although papers related to these sub-topics are especially welcome, quality manuscripts exploring other aspects of "Extremophilic Industrially Important Enzymes and Molecular Mechanisms", for example the evolutionary context of adaptations, will also be considered. (frontiersin.org)
  • Hayaishi, O.: In "Molecular Mechanisms of Oxygen Activation" ( O. HAYAISHI, ed.), pp. 1-28. (springer.com)
  • Hamilton, G. A.: In "Molecular Mechanisms of Oxygen Activation" ( O. Hayaishi, ed.), pp. 405-451. (springer.com)
  • Given the nature of these biochemical systems to be regulated through many different mechanisms, one can engineer a chemical pathway comprising a set of molecular components that react to produce one particular product under one set of specific chemical conditions and another particular product under another set of conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • family
  • After seven years of work, researchers have succeeded in deducing the three-dimensional structure of an elusive and complex protein enzyme that is central to regulating the body's largest family of receptors. (innovations-report.com)
  • His laboratory identified that enzyme as GRK, but a central mystery was how the family of GRK enzymes fulfills their intricate regulatory duties. (innovations-report.com)
  • In the latest work the researchers deduced the structure of GRK2, the member of the GRK enzyme family that is active in heart muscle and many other tissues. (innovations-report.com)
  • This enzyme belongs to Peptidase family S8. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is an acetyl-CoA-dependent enzyme of the GCN5-related family of N-acetyltransferases (GNATs). (wikipedia.org)
  • However, using extant enzymes to determine how the family of enzymes evolved has the drawback that the newly evolved enzyme is compared to paralogues without knowing the true identity of the ancestor before the two genes divereged. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those acyltransferases transferring groups other than aminoacyl groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • Propanoyl-CoA C-acyltransferase belongs to the thiolase family of enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) (EC 1.11.1.9) is the general name of an enzyme family with peroxidase activity whose main biological role is to protect the organism from oxidative damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • It is one of the three enzyme functions coded by the CAD gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene is translated into a 23 kDa large enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • This means firstly that a specialist enzyme (monofunctional) when evolved goes through a generalist stage (multifunctional), before becoming a specialist again-presumably after gene duplication according to the IAD model-and secondly that promiscuous activities are more plastic than the main activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evidence gained from reconstructed enzyme suggests that the order of the events where the novel activity is improved and the gene is duplication is not clear cut, unlike what the theoretical models of gene evolution suggest. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ancestral sequence reconstruction (ASR) - also known as ancestral gene/sequence reconstruction/resurrection - is a technique used in the study of molecular evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phosphoglycerate kinase 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PGK1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • Mammalian GPx1, GPx2, GPx3, and GPx4 have been shown to be selenium-containing enzymes, whereas GPx6 is a selenoprotein in humans with cysteine-containing homologues in rodents. (wikipedia.org)
  • laboratory
  • T oday, it is difficult to imagine a time when our laboratory freezers were not well stocked with restriction enzymes, when DNA sequencing was not possible, or when genes were only accessible to the geneticists and could not be simply cloned out by recombinant DNA technology. (pnas.org)
  • bacteria
  • Working with Haemophilus influenzae bacteria, this group isolated an enzyme, called HindII, that always cut DNA molecules at a particular point within a specific sequence of six base pairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • secondary
  • The helical ribbons, arrows and sheets show the secondary structure (the shape of the enzyme). (sciencephoto.com)
  • On the other, enzymes may evolve an increased secondary activity with little loss to the primary activity ("robustness") with little adaptive conflict (§ Robustness and plasticity below). (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • Another reason to study enantiocomplementary enzymes is to identify the molecular basis of catalysis. (docme.ru)
  • In one study, the activity of glutathione peroxidase along with other antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase was not associated with coronary heart disease risk in women. (wikipedia.org)
  • experiments
  • Their experiments show that the protein p56 conceals the part of the UDG enzyme that interacts with the damaged DNA so that there is no possibility of attachment. (innovations-report.com)
  • The first experiments demonstrating the utility of restriction enzymes were carried out by Danna and Nathans and reported in 1971. (pnas.org)
  • proteins
  • Kinases are enzymes that act as molecular switches by adding phosphates to other proteins. (innovations-report.com)
  • Activated by calcium, the enzyme digests proteins preferentially after hydrophobic amino acids (aliphatic, aromatic and other hydrophobic amino acids). (wikipedia.org)
  • It is highly suited to this application since the enzyme is active in the presence of chemicals that denature proteins, such as SDS and urea, chelating agents such as EDTA, sulfhydryl reagents, as well as trypsin or chymotrypsin inhibitors. (wikipedia.org)
  • active
  • I am wondering about the 'strict caution' about enzyme storing at -20°C. Manufacturers often say that we have to keep enzymes (e.g Taq) upon reception at -20°C. Yet, this enzyme is used in PCR at 95°C for at least 2 h and stay active after alternative cycles of 95/55°C! (protocol-online.org)
  • Also, if we look at dishwashers liquid, all enzymes are kept at room temperature and stay active! (protocol-online.org)
  • known
  • Aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) (EC 2.3.1.87), also known as arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase or serotonin N-acetyltransferase (SNAT), is an enzyme that is involved in the day/night rhythmic production of melatonin, by modification of serotonin. (wikipedia.org)
  • A nuclease (also archaically known as nucleodepolymerase or polynucleotidase) is an enzyme capable of cleaving the phosphodiester bonds between monomers of nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino
  • Due to the very low number of amino acid changes, these provide an excellent model to investigate enzyme evolution in nature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chorismic acid, an aromatic amino acid precursor, is converted to 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) by a series of enzymes, EntA, EntB and EntC. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • In that paper, Kathleen Danna and Daniel Nathans of Johns Hopkins University (Baltimore) showed for the first time that the restriction enzyme called "endonuclease R," discovered by Hamilton Smith and Kent Wilcox ( 2 ), could be used to produce specific fragments of simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA. (pnas.org)