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  • physiological
  • We studied whether apelin, a bioactive peptide present in the gut, regulates ENS-evoked contractions, thereby identifying a new physiological partner in the control of glucose utilisation via the hypothalamus. (bmj.com)
  • This review seeks to provide an understanding of the biochemistry and physiological actions of serotonin and its termination of action through the serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT). (springer.com)
  • Functional similarities, such as mimicking natural hormonal actions, have been observed between the endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and ENMs, which supports the view that different types of NMs may be capable of altering the physiological activity of the endocrine system. (frontiersin.org)
  • Skeletal
  • Skeletal muscle is an essential regulator of energy homeostasis and a potent coordinator of exercise-induced adaptations in other organs including the liver, fat or the brain. (frontiersin.org)
  • Recent observations in rodents and humans have demonstrated the ability of contracting myofibers to produce and release cytokines and other peptides, so-called myokines, which play a crucial role in the skeletal muscle crosstalk with other tissues and, together with muscle-controlled synthesis and degradation of metabolites, represent an essential mechanism to control whole-body homeostasis ( 14 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • 5 In addition, HDL may also increase glucose disposal through direct effects in skeletal muscle, the major site of glucose disposal in the body. (ahajournals.org)
  • AMPK is regulated by nutritional status, exercise, and adipokines 9 and plays a pivotal role in skeletal muscle glucose disposal. (ahajournals.org)
  • In addition to their well-established function as safe storage for lipids, adipocytes are now understood to be indispensable endocrine regulators of insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis [ 5 , 6 ], in large part through their capacity to synthesize and secrete adiponectin, which promotes insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues, such as skeletal muscle and liver, thereby mediating whole-body glucose homeostasis [ 7 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • pathologies
  • Nevertheless, a sedentary life-style is a strong and independent risk factor for a range of medical conditions such as cardiovascular pathologies, diabetes, certain types of cancer, depression, neurological disorders or stroke, for which the prevalence can be significantly reduced by being active and fit ( 7 - 9 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • hypothalamus
  • Conclusions Here, we identify a novel mode of communication between the intestine and the hypothalamus that controls glucose utilisation. (bmj.com)
  • Mammalian
  • Cloning and characterization of a novel mammalian zinc transporter, zinc transporter 5, abundantly expressed in pancreatic beta cells. (springer.com)
  • Conserved nutrient sensing mechanisms exist between mammal and fruit fly where peptides resembling mammalian insulin and glucagon, respectively function to maintain glucose homeostasis during developmental larval stages 1,2 . (jove.com)
  • regulates
  • Glucose regulates free cytosolic Zn2+ concentration, Slc39 (ZiP), and metallothionein gene expression in primary pancreatic islet {beta}-cells. (springer.com)
  • Gem, a member of the RGK (Rad/Gem/Kir) family regulates calcium channel handling in other cell types, and Gem over-expression inhibits insulin release in insulin-secreting Min6 cells. (jove.com)
  • hypothalamic
  • This process may occur via hypothalamic neurons modulating central release of nitric oxide (NO), which in turn controls glucose entry into tissues. (bmj.com)
  • An understanding of the contributions of different neuronal and non-neuronal cell types to hypothalamic inflammatory processes, and delineation of the differences and similarities between acute and chronic activation of these inflammatory pathways, will be critical for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome. (jci.org)
  • evidence suggests
  • Increasing evidence suggests that changes in the expression or activity of specific zinc transporters might play a role in regulating the general zinc homeostasis. (springer.com)
  • New evidence suggests two types of thermogenic adipocytes with distinct developmental and anatomical features: classical brown adipocytes and beige adipocytes. (hindawi.com)
  • metabolic disorders
  • In this article and the accompanying poster, we provide an overview of current knowledge regarding coordinated system-wide connections that maintain energy homeostasis, highlighting how disruptions in metabolic sensing and integration between the brain, white adipose tissue (WAT) and the gastrointestinal system can contribute to metabolic disorders. (biologists.org)
  • Thus, adult fruit flies hold great promise as a suitable genetic model system for metabolic disorders including type II diabetes. (jove.com)
  • rats
  • Based on its traditional use, we evaluated the anti-diabetic effect of LM in the spontaneously diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat, a model of type 2 diabetes and in Wistar (W) rats as healthy control. (mdpi.com)
  • LM increased both serum insulin levels (2.4-fold in GK rats and 2.5-fold W rats), and the glucose-induced (16.7 mM glucose) insulin release in isolated islets from treated animals (6.7-fold in GK rats, and 6.6-fold in W rats). (mdpi.com)
  • In MS splenocytes the capacity of anti-Glut 1 antibodies to inhibit control and insulin-dependent glucose transport was less significant, and we found that in MS rats, glucose internalization was dependent on Glut 3 and Glut 4. (biomedcentral.com)
  • anatomical
  • Bariatric surgery refers to three parts of anatomical gastrointestinal tract modulations-gastric restriction, exclusion of duodenum and upper intestine, and rapid delivery of food to the distal intestine or short common channel. (mdpi.com)
  • endothelial
  • This is not a fixed structure but its function depends on the complex interplay between the different cell types such as the endothelial cells, astrocytes, pericytes, and the extracellular matrix of the brain and blood flow maintained in the microvessels or brain capillaries. (hindawi.com)
  • More specifically, the endothelial cells also possess transporters which show permeability characteristics and allow transport of oxygen and CO 2 across the BBB, bu these selectively prevent other substances from crossing [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • intake
  • Changing lifestyle trends such as a tendency to nocturnality and intake of excessively rich diets, cause disturbance of the sleep/wake cycle along with other circadian rhythms ( 2 ). (scielo.br)
  • Total zinc intake may modify the Glucose-Raising effect of a zinc transporter (SLC30A8) variant: a 14-cohort meta-analysis. (springer.com)
  • energy
  • For survival and reproduction, the body has developed an intricately balanced system to efficiently control energy homeostasis at multiple levels. (biologists.org)
  • In yeast cells, the secondary active transport of inorganic ions and diverse nutrients relies on the existence of an electrochemical gradient of protons across the plasma membrane, which is generated by P 2 -type, energy-consuming H + -ATPases. (asm.org)