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  • cell
  • Epigenetics, which can be described as heritable, cell-specific modifications of the DNA and its associated proteins, which can alter the expression of genes, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of T2D and other complex age-related diseases ( 6 - 15 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • behavior modification
  • Behavior modification refers to behavior-change procedures that were employed during the 1970s and early 1980s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although there were certain historical instances in which behavior modification did change behavior after initially assessing the behavior-environment interactions, there was not any research identifying the most effective ways to change behavior until the mid-1980s. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first use of the term behavior modification appears to have been by Edward Thorndike in 1911. (wikipedia.org)
  • Behavior modification relies on the following: Reinforcement (Positive and Negative) Punishment (Positive and Negative) Extinction Shaping Fading Chaining Functional behavior assessment forms the core of applied behavior analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • With children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), one study showed that over a several year period, children in the behavior modification group had half the number of felony arrests as children in the medication group. (wikipedia.org)
  • These findings have yet to be replicated, but are considered encouraging for the use of behavior modification for children with ADHD. (wikipedia.org)
  • A recent meta-analysis found that the use of behavior modification for ADHD resulted in effect sizes in between group studies (.83), pre-post studies (.70), within group studies (2.64), and single subject studies (3.78) indicating behavioral treatments are highly effective. (wikipedia.org)
  • Behavior modification programs form the core of many residential treatment facility programs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent efforts have seen a push for the inclusion of more behavior modification programs in residential re-entry programs in the U.S. to aid prisoners in re-adjusting after release. (wikipedia.org)
  • A behavior modification facility (or youth residential program) is a residential educational and treatment institution enrolling adolescents who are perceived as displaying antisocial behavior, in an attempt to alter their conduct. (wikipedia.org)
  • The behavior modification methodologies used vary, but a combination of positive and negative reinforcement is typically used. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the late 1960s, behavior modification or practice referred to as applied behavior analysis began to move rapidly into residential treatment facilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, these authors found that behavior modification was more prone to leading to poor relationships with the clients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over time interest faded in Cohen's CASE project Other studies found that in proper supervision of staff in behavior modification facilities could lead to greater use of punishment procedures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each home has from 6-8 boys in it with two "parents" trained in behavior modification principles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gradually, behavior modification /applied behavior analysis within the penal system including residential facilities for delinquent youth lost popularity in the 1970s-1980s due to a large number of abuses (see Cautilli & Weinberg (2007) ), but recent trends in the increase in U.S. crime and recent focus on reduction of recidivism have given such programs a second look . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cranial
  • Tongue cutting: Lingual frenectomy Tongue splitting - bisection of the tongue similar to a snake Body modifications occurring as the end result of long term activities or practices Corsetry or tightlacing - binding of the waist and shaping of the torso Cranial binding - modification of the shape of infants' heads, now extremely rare Breast ironing - Pressing (sometimes with a heated object) the breasts of a pubescent female to prevent their growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cranial modification was a procedure that occurred when an individual was still young, usually during infancy because the cranial bones are still soft at this stage and capable of morphing. (wikipedia.org)
  • loan modification
  • Loan modification is the systematic alteration of mortgage loan agreements that help those having problems making the payments by reducing interest rates, monthly payments or principal balances. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the so-called " Great Recession " of the early 21st century, loan modification became a matter of national policy, with various actions taken to alter mortgage loan terms to prevent further economic destabilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, any loan can be modified, and the process is referred to as loan modification or debt rescheduling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following the 2007 real estate recession, the government mandated program, Making Home Affordable (MHA), and its loan modification aspect, Home Affordable Modification Program (HAMP) became the answer for both the struggling borrower and the lender. (wikipedia.org)
  • refers
  • As used here, modification of physical properties refers to changes in one or more characteristics affecting root growth in the soil profile, chiefly but not entirely below the plow layer or Ap horizon. (springer.com)
  • molecules
  • To identify diverse post-transcriptional modifications of RNA molecules and determine the transcriptome-wide landscape of RNA modifications by means of next generation RNA sequencing, recently many studies have developed conventional or specialised sequencing methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • researchers
  • Fibre modification is a research field in which researchers aim at developing and applying technologies to impart new properties to natural fibres such as those in paper, in order to increase their functionality. (wikipedia.org)
  • types
  • More than 100 types of RNA modifications have been described so far, recent studies have revealed they are abundant in mRNAs and in regulatory non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs, e.g. lncRNAs, miRNAs, snoRNAs) as well as in tRNAs, rRNAs and snRNAs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some types of implants may be performed by doctors or other medical professionals, while others are performed by body modification artists. (wikipedia.org)
  • System
  • The restriction modification system (RM system) is found in bacteria and other prokaryotic organisms, and provides a defense against foreign DNA, such as that borne by bacteriophages. (wikipedia.org)
  • mortgage terms
  • Modification of mortgage terms was introduced by IRS staff addressing the crisis called the HAMP TEAMS that went across the United States desiring the new products to assist homeowners that were victims of predatory lending practices, unethical staff, brokers, attorneys and lenders that contributed to the crash. (wikipedia.org)
  • Any change to the mortgage terms is a modification. (wikipedia.org)
  • type
  • There are four categories of restriction modification systems: type I, type II, type III and type IV, all with restriction enzyme activity and a methylase activity (except for type IV that has no methylase activity). (wikipedia.org)
  • Type I systems are the most complex, consisting of three polypeptides: R (restriction), M (modification), and S (specificity). (wikipedia.org)
  • Steve Haworth invented this type of modification. (wikipedia.org)
  • sites
  • A novel database, RMBase (http://mirlab.sysu.edu.cn/rmbase/), has provide various web interfaces to show all RNA modification sites identified from above-mentioned sequencing technologies. (wikipedia.org)
  • make
  • But before you run out and get a lovely bit of metal in your eyebrow, or a gorgeous portrait of Bugs Bunny indelibly inked onto your shoulder, take a moment to read up on body modification, and make sure you know what it's all about. (scarleteen.com)
  • Indeed, ritual practices that included many forms of body modification is key in the list of tenets that are cultural traits shared that make Mesoamerica a "culture area," an idea proposed by anthropologist Paul Kirchhoff. (wikipedia.org)
  • include
  • a red circle indicates that you have entered an invalid chartfield combination or a chartfield which you are not authorized to include in a budget modification request. (nyu.edu)
  • For these body modification enthusiasts, that eye may be tattooed black and that beauty may include a lot of ink and a. (nypost.com)
  • process
  • Modification owners either ordered by The United States Department of Housing, The United States IRS or President Obamas letters from Note Holders came to those various departments asking for the Democratic process to help them keep their homes and protection them from explosion. (wikipedia.org)
  • work
  • By 2003, Hollywood reacted against these unauthorized modifications, as it considered them to be a destruction of the filmmakers work, and a violation of the controls an author has over his or her works. (wikipedia.org)
  • Werner Arber, Daniel Nathans, and Hamilton Smith were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1978 for their work on restriction-modification. (wikipedia.org)
  • early
  • citation needed] In the early 90's, body modification artist Steve Haworth conceived of inserting 3D art implants in various shapes under the skin to create a decorative appearance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Program
  • The lender is motivated to offer modification under this Program by the expectation that a loan in default will become a performing (current) loan which will be more valuable than the proceeds obtained from a foreclosure sale, along with receipt of financial incentives from the government. (wikipedia.org)