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  • mice
  • Many animals, especially mice, are greatly expanding our understanding of the complex disease of addiction. (utah.edu)
  • Taconic, who has been in the mouse model business since 1952 , are also spreading transgenic mice throughout India through a distribution agreement made earlier this month with Vivo Bio Tech, who gained rights to breed and distribute select Taconic mouse and rat models there. (genengnews.com)
  • Further studies on the mutant mice already prove the model to be very powerful. (news-medical.net)
  • Behaviors measured in these models include "approach to olfactory pheromones emitted by other mice, approach to familiar and new conspecifics, reciprocal social interactions, ultrasonic vocalizations, communal nesting, sexual and parenting behaviors, territorial scent marking, and aggressive behaviors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Laboratory mice derived from the house mouse are by far the most common mammalian species used in genetically engineered models for scientific research. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tail is also used for balance when the mouse is climbing or running, or as a base when the animal stands on its hind legs (a behaviour known as tripoding), and to convey information about the dominance status of an individual in encounters with other mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice with persistent gastrointestinal Candida albicans as a model for antifungal therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • laboratory
  • Again, depression is a heterogeneous disorder and its many symptoms are hard to be produced in laboratory animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • A primary focus of this core is to provide tests that allow investigators to make transitions from laboratory findings to clinical applications by enabling the modeling of human diseases and the development of medications and other treatment strategies. (scripps.edu)
  • MK-801) Delay: Whereas in animal studies the time of incidence onset is known and therapy can be started early, patients often present with delay and unclear time of symptom onset "Age and associated illnesses: Most experimental studies are conducted on healthy, young animals under rigorously controlled laboratory conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • i J Hau & SJ Schapiro (red), Handbook of Laboratory Animal Science: Vol. II. (wikipedia.org)
  • The house mouse has been domesticated as the pet or fancy mouse, and as the laboratory mouse, which is one of the most important model organisms in biology and medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • What this means is that if you are a drug company and want to show that your drug is safe, you can always find a strain or species of animals that can take kilograms of the drug without adverse reactions. (opposingviews.com)
  • When different species and strains respond very differently, one must question the value of using animals to test for human response. (opposingviews.com)
  • Even when the mechanisms of metabolism for the drug are known and a species can be found that reproduces this, scientists cannot get around the fact that humans and animals are differently complex . (opposingviews.com)
  • More recent research has used the house mouse (Mus musculus) to model autism because it is a social species. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2012, a researcher from the University of Nebraska at Kearney published a study reviewing research that had been done using the songbird as a model for autism spectrum disorders, noting that the neurobiology of vocalization is similar between humans and songbirds, and that, in both species, social learning plays a central role in the development of the ability to vocalize. (wikipedia.org)
  • These encumbrances are e.g. social stress during single or multiple animal caging (depending on the species), transport, animal handling, food deprivation, pain after surgical procedures, neurological disabilities etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several models in different species are currently known to produce cerebral ischemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Today the zoo houses a collection of about 1380 animals of 136 species. (wikipedia.org)
  • By 2010, the zoo was home to about 1280 trees of 71 species and 1380 animals of 136 species including 996 birds of 82 species, 49 reptiles of 8 and 336 mammals of 45 species. (wikipedia.org)
  • inbred strains
  • To implement this approach Michael Festing has repeatedly proposed the use of multiple inbred strains - without increasing the total number of animals in the bioassay - to mimic some of the diversity of genotypes and sensitivities to induction of toxic endpoints within human populations. (bio.net)
  • preclinical
  • Current strategies rely on cell- and animal-based assays during preclinical and clinical stages of drug development. (opposingviews.com)
  • This paper briefly reviews the wide pathophysiological and molecular mechanisms associated with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, particularly focusing on the challenges associated with the evaluation and predictive validation of these models as ideal animal models for preclinical assessments and discovering new drugs and therapeutic agents for translational application in humans. (hindawi.com)
  • organism
  • Antidepressant screening tests, not like the models which can be defined as an [organism] or a particular state of an organism that reproduces aspects of human pathology, provide only an end-point behavioral or physiological measure designed to assess the effect of the genetic, pharmacological, or environmental manipulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • So when researchers discover a gene in a model organism that plays a role in addiction, they can then identify the counterpart gene in humans by searching a DNA database for similar sequences. (utah.edu)
  • Researchers testing the effectiveness of drugs on the pain threshold often use the tail flick test to measure the extent to which the drug being tested has reduced the amount of pain felt by the model organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathology
  • By using animal models, the underlying molecular alterations and the causal relationship between genetic or environmental alterations and depression can be examined, which would afford a better insight into pathology of depression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Affecting over a hundred million individuals worldwide, retinal diseases are among the leading causes of irreversible visual impairment and blindness, and appropriate study models, especially animal models, are essential to furthering our understanding of the etiology, pathology, and progression of these endemic diseases. (springer.com)
  • limitations
  • The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI) have acknowledged the limitations of animal models as a major bottleneck in the development of efficacious and safe medicines across many therapeutic areas, including asthma. (opposingviews.com)
  • Each extreme has its limitations, with whole-syndrome modelling often failing due to the complexity and heterogeneous nature of schizophrenia, and antipsychotic-specific modelling being often not useful for discovering drugs with unique mechanisms of action. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans and animals
  • However, the typical stroke patient is elderly with numerous risk factors and complicating diseases (for example, diabetes, hypertension and heart diseases)" (Dirnagl 1999) Morphological and functional differences between the brain of humans and animals: Although the basic mechanisms of stroke are identical between humans and other mammals, there are differences. (wikipedia.org)
  • experiments
  • Currently there are no in vitro methods that could satisfactorily simulate the complex interplay of vasculature, brain tissue, and blood during stroke, and thus could replace the greater part of animal experiments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Refinement: Experiments have to be best planned and to be conducted by trained personnel to minimize the suffering of animals on the one hand and to gain as much knowledge as possible out of the utilized animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Replacement: Whenever possible animal experiments have to be replaced by other methods (e.g. cell culture, computed simulations etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • researchers
  • Today, researchers are still studying some of these animal lines and strains. (utah.edu)
  • This similarity makes animals a convenient tool for researchers who study addiction. (utah.edu)
  • The development of an animal model of autism is one approach researchers use to study potential causes of autism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Given the complexity of autism and its etiology, researchers often focus only on single features of autism when using animal models. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2013, a study was published by Swiss researchers which concluded that 91% (31 out of the 34 studies reviewed) of valproic acid-autism studies using animal models suffered from statistical flaws-specifically, they had failed to correctly use the litter as a level of statistical analysis rather than just the individual (i.e., an individual mouse or rat). (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, as described before, this assay produces a response in two discrete stages, allowing researchers to model both acute and tonic pain using a single noxious chemical. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whereas
  • Whereas previous models were only able to reproduce the skin lesions, the new strain also develops psoriatic arthritis. (news-medical.net)
  • symptom
  • It is not necessary for an "ideal" animal model of depression to exhibit all the abnormalities of depression-relevant behaviors, just as not all patients manifest every possible symptom of depression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Developing models based on a particular sign or symptom of schizophrenia has been one approach. (wikipedia.org)
  • mouse
  • 1974. Liver abscess production by non-sporeforming anaerobic bacteria in a mouse model. (springer.com)
  • The companies believe the combined marketing of both genetically and tissue humanized mouse models by Taconic could provide seamless access to a large portfolio of translational mouse models, in vitro tools, and related services. (genengnews.com)
  • Taconic says their tADMET™ portfolio contains a collection of genetically humanized mouse models for genes involved in drug metabolism and disposition and allows for improved predictions of drug responses in humans. (genengnews.com)
  • Also, in November, the Central Institute for Experimental Animals (CIEA) granted rights for Taconic to produce and distribute the BRG mouse. (genengnews.com)
  • Assays are designed for mouse phenotyping or for drug intervention in mouse models, and a wide range of behavioral paradigms is available. (scripps.edu)
  • Although a wild animal, the house mouse mainly lives in association with humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Animal model - a BIG mouse. (wikipedia.org)
  • symptoms
  • It is difficult to develop an animal model that perfectly reproduces the symptoms of depression in patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Social withdrawal One of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia is social withdrawal, this has been modelled by socially isolating animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Persistent treatment of rodents with amphetamine models some symptoms of schizophrenia including hyperactivity, enduring prepulse inhibition abnormalities, and cognitive abnormalities associated with the prefrontal cortex including attention deficits. (wikipedia.org)
  • disease
  • On this basis, animal models should be carefully selected for diabetes investigations depending on what aspects of the disease are being studied. (hindawi.com)
  • Due to the close resemblance of the clinical and histological picture of human psoriasis, the new disease-model is ideally suited to study in detail all aspects of pathogenesis. (news-medical.net)
  • We strongly believe that this model will be highly suitable for future pre-clinical studies ultimately aimed at understanding and curing this widespread disease. (news-medical.net)
  • The disease-prone animals which were generated at the IMP carry a double mutation which can be induced by tamoxifen. (news-medical.net)
  • studies
  • But animal studies have revealed that aspartame can cause adverse reactions and conditions, some of which could be life threatening. (opposingviews.com)
  • Other animal studies have not shown these reactions. (opposingviews.com)
  • Never mind that animal studies give results like the above, people with a vested interest will still set up the old false dichotomy of your dog or your child . (opposingviews.com)
  • During animal experimentation the following prerequisites have to be fulfilled to maintain the ethical justification ("the three Rs"): Reduction: Animal numbers have to be kept as little as possible (but as high as necessary - to avoid underpowered studies -) to draw scientific conclusions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disorders
  • However, depression, as other mental disorders, consists of endophenotypes that can be reproduced independently and evaluated in animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • So scientists commonly study a variety of animals to learn about different aspects of human biology, including the reward pathway and addiction. (utah.edu)
  • analogous
  • Naturally-occurring or experimentally-induced animal diseases with pathological processes analogous to human diseases. (nih.gov)
  • Experimental
  • Included in a service package is experimental design advice, assistance with IACUC animal protocol submission, assistance with writing descriptions of these tests in grant proposals and manuscripts, data analysis, and results interpretation. (scripps.edu)
  • cerebral
  • Middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion is achieved in this model by injecting particles like blood clots (thrombembolic MCAO) or artificial spheres into the carotid artery of animals as an animal model of ischemic stroke. (wikipedia.org)
  • generate
  • Yecuris technologies, according to the firm, have been used to generate animals that allow the engraftment of human primary cells, specifically liver and immune, that replaces the native animal organ systems. (genengnews.com)
  • critical
  • Distribution of the animals and the education to use them is a critical step in the maturation of this field, which has been hindered by a lack of access. (genengnews.com)
  • criteria
  • Actually, few models of depression fully fit these validating criteria, and most models currently used rely on either actions of known antidepressants or responses to stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vital
  • Animal models are emerging as vital tools to this end, facilitated by the advent of new models and improved understanding of the utility of existing models. (hindawi.com)
  • Furthermore, animal models play a vital role in the understanding of diabetes pathogenesis as they allow the combination of genetic and functional characterization of the syndrome [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • motivational
  • Some of the better known dog training procedures include the Koehler method, clicker training, motivational training, electronic training, model-rival training, dominance-based training, and relationship-based training. (wikipedia.org)
  • test
  • Instead of determining toxicity of xenobiotics in test animals by using the 'dose response' approach, I would like to bring up the concept of 'response to dose' for discussion. (bio.net)
  • This concept proposes that an array of genotypes, conferring different degrees of susceptibility of the animals to the toxic endpoint of interest, be exposed to the same dose level of the test agent. (bio.net)
  • This would be an improvement over the MTD which, in many if not most cases, overwhelms the normal defensive processing mechanisms in both humans and test animals - and would make extrapolation to human populations exposed to far lower dose levels more meaningful. (bio.net)
  • NMDA receptor gene expression Variations in the expression of the NR2B and NR1 subunits of the NMDA receptor are used to test developmental animal models. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the tail-immersion test, a container of liquid is heated or cooled to a nociceptive temperature - normally 50-55 °C or below 0 °C. The animal subject is then placed with its tail immersed in the liquid, and the latency to withdraw the tail from the liquid is measured. (wikipedia.org)
  • Animal subjects used must be restrained to a fairly high degree when performing the tail withdrawal test due to the exact positioning necessary to direct the noxious stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tail flick test is a test of the pain response in animals, similar to the hot plate test. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tail flick test is one test to measure heat-induced pain in animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • Since the animals used to study type 1 diabetes are highly inbred with a limited number of pathways to T1D, the relevance to human T1D has been questioned [ 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • tail
  • When the animal flicks its tail, the timer stops and the recorded time (latency) is a measure of the pain threshold. (wikipedia.org)
  • reactions
  • Normal reactions for the animal include withdrawing or licking or shaking the paw, and possible vocalization, but these can depend on variability within the experiment. (wikipedia.org)
  • insight
  • The combination of the two companies' portfolios of technologies represents a significant advance in the mainstreaming of these next-generation models, and provides some insight into the future direction of scientific advances. (genengnews.com)
  • functional
  • Very little is known about the functional mechanics of nociceptive afferents in murine subjects, thus the translation of any pain response observed from these animals to humans is questionable. (wikipedia.org)