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  • 1983
  • Philip Johnson-Laird published Mental Models: Towards a Cognitive Science of Language, Inference and Consciousness in 1983. (wikipedia.org)
  • Walter Kintsch and Teun A. van Dijk , using the term situation model (in their book Strategies of Discourse Comprehension , 1983), showed the relevance of mental models for the production and comprehension of discourse . (wikipedia.org)
  • In this view, mental models can be constructed from perception, imagination, or the comprehension of discourse (Johnson-Laird, 1983). (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1983, these two documents were merged to form a standard called The Basic Reference Model for Open Systems Interconnection . (wikipedia.org)
  • 2002
  • 9 The download modelling of iron of the immorality much deposited is to renounce Again too with the pop of the subiecto of infallible kingdoms over Europe and North America, a moveat which will depart prevailed in the speed( ch. 16) to the succession also concluding in the 2002)Same omnibus. (sftv.org)
  • A mental model represents one possibility, capturing what is common to all the different ways in which the possibility may occur (Johnson-Laird and Byrne, 2002). (wikipedia.org)
  • Wade-Martins S. 2002, The English Model Farm - Building the Agricultural Ideal, 1700-1914" English Heritage/Windgather Press. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rebonato in 2002 considers alternative definitions including: After observing a set of prices for the underlying and hedging instruments, different but identically calibrated models might produce different prices for the same exotic product. (wikipedia.org)
  • prevalent
  • However, model risk is more and more prevalent in activities other than financial securities valuation, such as assigning consumer credit scores, real-time probability prediction of fraudulent credit card transactions, and computing the probability of air flight passenger being a terrorist. (wikipedia.org)
  • partitions
  • Based on the cellular Q Potts model---which was developed by Francis Graner and Jiang's PhD adviser, James Glazier---the cellular-level model partitions a three-dimensional space into domains of cells and cell mediums, and then assigns each cell a unique identification number, which occupies the lattice sites within the cell domain. (siam.org)
  • The model partitions a communication system into abstraction layers . (wikipedia.org)
  • practice
  • After several incidents of private lessons that Thomas gave to female instructors of the Model Mugging program in his home led to allegations that he had acted inappropriately, the national board of Model Mugging instituted new rules prohibiting the practice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rogi André later showed Model how to use the Rolleiflex, expanding her practice. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the publication of the Promenade des Anglais images, or the "Riviera" series, Model resumed her Paris street photography practice, this time focusing on the poor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conceptually a threat modeling practice flows from a methodology. (wikipedia.org)
  • ordinary
  • A utility model is a statutory monopoly granted for a limited time in exchange for an inventor providing sufficient teaching of his or her invention to permit a person of ordinary skill in the relevant art to perform the invention. (wikipedia.org)
  • rely
  • Art models are often paid professionals with skill and experience but are rarely employed full-time, and artists may also rely on friends and family to pose. (wikipedia.org)
  • quantitative
  • This quantitative model is often discussed with the qualitative HSAB theory, which also seeks to rationalize the behavior of diverse acids and bases. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the context of derivative pricing Cont (2006) proposes a quantitative approach to measurement of model risk exposures in derivatives portfolios: first, a set of benchmark models is specified and calibrated to market prices of liquid instruments, then the target portfolio is priced under all benchmark models. (wikipedia.org)
  • observable
  • non yet internationally minute at observable download modelling of iron losses of permanent magnet, that a aliqua of feet shares non to these objects, and that because in the fluctuation the one review is analytically insofar composed with the organic, that they shew in a bar-code noble. (sftv.org)
  • Mental
  • A mental model is an explanation of someone's thought process about how something works in the real world. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mental models can help shape behaviour and set an approach to solving problems (similar to a personal algorithm ) and doing tasks. (wikipedia.org)
  • A mental model is a kind of internal symbol or representation of external reality, hypothesized to play a major role in cognition , reasoning and decision-making . (wikipedia.org)
  • At other times it is used to refer to § Mental models and reasoning and to the mental model theory of reasoning developed by Philip Johnson-Laird and Ruth M.J. Byrne . (wikipedia.org)
  • The term mental model is believed to have originated with Kenneth Craik in his 1943 book The Nature of Explanation . (wikipedia.org)
  • In the same year, Dedre Gentner and Albert Stevens edited a collection of chapters in a book also titled Mental Models . (wikipedia.org)
  • One view of human reasoning is that it depends on mental models. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such mental models are similar to architects' models or to physicists' diagrams in that their structure is analogous to the structure of the situation that they represent, unlike, say, the structure of logical forms used in formal rule theories of reasoning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each mental model represents a possibility. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mental models are iconic, i.e., each part of a model corresponds to each part of what it represents (Johnson-Laird, 2006). (wikipedia.org)
  • Mental models are based on a principle of truth: they typically represent only those situations that are possible, and each model of a possibility represents only what is true in that possibility according to the proposition. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, mental models can represent what is false, temporarily assumed to be true, for example, in the case of counterfactual conditionals and counterfactual thinking (Byrne, 2005). (wikipedia.org)
  • equation
  • The Monte Carlo procedure is one way to integrate the equation,' so to speak," says Jiang, "or to evolve the cell configuration on the lattice in our cellular model. (siam.org)
  • The diffusion reaction equation for the model, based on the chemical diffusion and metabolism, is generic for all of the chemicals in the model. (siam.org)
  • In the ECW model, a new term W was added to the equation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The EC equation from the ECW Model -ΔH = EAEB + CACB can be rearranged into a form which can be plotted as a straight line. (wikipedia.org)
  • parameters
  • They have recently produced a generic eukaryotic cell cycle model which can represent a particular eukaryote depending on the values of the parameters, demonstrating that the idiosyncrasies of the individual cell cycles are due to different protein concentrations and affinities, while the underlying mechanisms are conserved (Csikasz-Nagy et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • The impetus for modeling vehicles in a stream of traffic and their subsequent actions and reactions comes from the need to analyze changes to roadway parameters. (wikipedia.org)
  • The model initially assigned E and C parameters to each and every acid and base. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fixing the parameters in this way imposed the covalent- electrostatic model on the data set by fixing the EAEB and CACB products of the DMA and (C2H5)2S adducts with iodine, and these four values ensured that none of the parameters had negative values. (wikipedia.org)
  • A graphical presentation of this model clearly shows that there is no single rank order of acid or base strength, a point often overlooked, and emphasizes that the magnitude of acid and base interactions requires two parameters (E & C) to account for the interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Uncertainty on correlation parameters is another important source of model risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paris
  • Georges-Henri Luquet in Le dessin enfantin (Children's drawings), published in 1927 by Alcan, Paris, argued that children construct internal models, a view that influenced, among others, child psychologist Jean Piaget . (wikipedia.org)
  • Model left Vienna for Paris after her father's death in 1924 to study voice with Polish soprano Marya Freund. (wikipedia.org)
  • Physical
  • Physical models of biomolecules can facilitate an understanding of their structure-function for the researcher, aid in communication between researchers, and serve as an educational tool in pedagogical endeavors. (jove.com)
  • The women participated in a mastery modeling self-defense program in which they sought to learn the physical skills to defend themselves successfully against unarmed sexual assailants. (wikipedia.org)
  • estimate
  • Gipps sets limitations on the model through safety considerations and assuming a driver would estimate his or her speed based on the vehicle in front to be able to come to a full and safe stop if needed (1981). (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • The complex network of biochemical reaction/transport processes and their spatial organization make the development of a predictive model of a living cell a grand challenge for the 21st century. (wikipedia.org)
  • Utility models cannot claim processes or methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • affects
  • These studies will allow for the development of a useful model of SA nasal carriage in macaques, as well as determining how successive recolonization of SA affects macaque nasal microflora and mucosa. (washington.edu)
  • A box's type affects, in part, its behavior in the visual formatting model. (w3.org)
  • context
  • As opposed to other Early Bronze Age ship and boat models, this model was not found in a burial context. (wikipedia.org)
  • In finance, model risk is the risk of loss resulting from using insufficiently accurate models to make decisions, originally and frequently in the context of valuing financial securities. (wikipedia.org)
  • complexity
  • Although systems biology models should be used with care considering the complexity of regulatory programs and the limitations of current genomics data, methods describing interactions can provide hypotheses about the underlying cause of emergent properties and are needed if we are to identify target genes other than those constituting the "low hanging fruit" of genomic analysis. (diva-portal.org)
  • Complexity of a model or a financial contract may be a source of model risk, leading to incorrect identification of its risk factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • continuous
  • We have just moved to a new 'continuous publication' model, releasing articles online as soon as they are ready to be published rather than waiting for other articles in the issue to be completed. (biologists.org)
  • The method of modeling individual cars along a continuous space originates with Chandler et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Internal
  • The Open Systems Interconnection model ( OSI model ) is a conceptual model that characterizes and standardizes the communication functions of a telecommunication or computing system without regard to its underlying internal structure and technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Model wanted to create a concept in this album: the five stages of the mourning after separation, and then the human's own internal reckoning and the human relations are told with lyrics. (wikipedia.org)
  • behavior
  • However, the CLV principles may be extended to transactions-focused categories such as consumer packaged goods by incorporating stochastic purchase models of individual or aggregate behavior . (wikipedia.org)
  • assumptions
  • For continuation to the extracellular level, Jiang explains, the model re-quires some simplifying assumptions, such as constant diffusion coefficients and chemically homogeneous cells. (siam.org)
  • These and other assumptions allow the equations for the chemicals to be solved on a coarser lattice than the lattice for cells, the group explains in their paper ("A Multiscale Model for Avascular Tumor Growth," Biophysical Journal , December 2005). (siam.org)
  • reaction
  • The multiscale model developed by Jiang and her group, by contrast, has three integrated parts, with reaction diffusion partial differential equations used as an element of the overall attempt to model avascular tumor growth. (siam.org)
  • The model should behave as expected when the interval between successive recalculations of speed and position is the same as driver reaction time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Model Mugging attempts to turn the adrenaline reaction to an active response rather than a fear response through simulated attacks and group talk sessions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protocol
  • Australia focuses a download dynamic profile of switched mode converter modeling of the Drafting Group for the course of the commensurably-accepted Protocol. (prigsbee.com)
  • limitations
  • In the classroom setting, where the purpose is to learn how to draw the human form in all the different shapes, ages and ethnicity, there are no real limitations on who the model can be. (wikipedia.org)
  • process
  • There was an auditioning process for both the chair model and the young blond woman that Michael sees in the coffee shop. (wikipedia.org)
  • An art model poses for any visual artist as part of the creative process, providing a visual reference for the human figure in a work of art. (wikipedia.org)
  • Model was most interested in the darkroom process, and wanted to become a darkroom technician. (wikipedia.org)
  • Threat modeling is a process by which potential threats, such as structural vulnerabilities can be identified, enumerated, and prioritized - all from a hypothetical attacker's point of view. (wikipedia.org)
  • systematic
  • The purpose of threat modeling is to provide defenders with a systematic analysis of the probable attacker's profile, the most likely attack vectors, and the assets most desired by an attacker. (wikipedia.org)
  • Avellaneda & Paras (1995) proposed a systematic way of studying and mitigating model risk resulting from volatility uncertainty. (wikipedia.org)
  • form
  • In Germany, a utility model is considered to be new if it does not form part of the state of the art. (wikipedia.org)
  • Model Mugging is a form of self-defense training that uses padded instructors, known as "Model Muggers", to simulate assaults. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conceptually, most people incorporate some form of threat modeling in their daily life and don't even realize it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Towards
  • download modelling of iron losses of permanent magnet and heat, when being to a peculiar chloroformyl, express no virtue of Phone or resemblance, sunt or slaughter-house towards those, who are no identity to them. (sftv.org)
  • Another consequence of the model is the claim that by advancing towards one of the goals, one is moving away from the other two. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • Pipes (1953) and many others have defined following characteristics placed into models based on various driver department codes defining safe following speeds, known informally as a "2 second rule," though is formally defined through code. (wikipedia.org)
  • The law in Australia provides for the grant of a utility model known as an innovation patent. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was also the inspiration for a related model known as "GNS Theory", which has been articulated by Ron Edwards on the roleplaying discussion site The Forge. (wikipedia.org)
  • article
  • Popularity of the Model Mugging program expanded rapidly after an article was published in Black Belt magazine describing the innovative training system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Foreign Office Collection Postage stamps and postal history of Germany British Library article on the Model Collection. (wikipedia.org)
  • works
  • The most common types of art works that use models are figure drawing, figure painting, sculpture and photography, but almost any medium may be used. (wikipedia.org)
  • single
  • According to Novak, the chair model was supposed to be "pretty" and "perhaps even prettier than your average model", but more of just an "average single girl", because the episode is more about Michael wanting to start dating again than the model herself. (wikipedia.org)
  • The opposite is found, however, when I2 is the acid: I2 + OEt2 -ᐃH = 4.16 kcal/mole I2 + SMe2 -ᐃH = 7.63 kcal/mole The E-C model accommodates the failure of single parameter descriptions of acids and bases. (wikipedia.org)
  • threats
  • In 2014 Ryan Stillions expressed the idea that cyber threats should be expressed with different semantic levels, and proposed the DML (Detection Maturity Level) model. (wikipedia.org)
  • general
  • 001 We can degrade the download dynamic profile of switched mode converter modeling analysis of dynamical Misc ratios to general investigations by contacting the fascinating pumice with the 4th surface. (prigsbee.com)
  • His deeds brought him to the attention of his divisional commander who, despite misgivings about his "uncomfortable subordinate", recommended Model for a posting on the German General Staff . (wikipedia.org)
  • Early on in his military career, Model had written a book on the Prussian general August Neidhardt von Gneisenau . (wikipedia.org)
  • Nude modeling, nude art and nudity in general are at times subject to social disapproval, at least by some elements in society. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Tobit model shall not be confused with the truncated regression model, which is in general different and requires a different estimator. (wikipedia.org)
  • Schnedler (2005) provides a general formula to obtain consistent likelihood estimators for these and other variations of the Tobit model. (wikipedia.org)
  • He writes "Understanding the robustness of models used for hedging and risk-management purposes with respect to the assumption of perfectly liquid markets is therefore an important issue in the analysis of model risk in general. (wikipedia.org)
  • main
  • The middle and high-étage types are depicted above the sky cover circle of the station model, while the main low-étage cloud type is indicated below the circle. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Disease Models & Mechanisms (DMM) is an online Open Access journal focusing on the use of model systems to better understand, diagnose and treat human disease. (biologists.org)
  • The pigtailed macaque is an ideal model for studying the female reproductive tract in that the menstrual cycle is similar to that of human females in length and pattern, and the species is naturally susceptible to these human STIs without the need for exogenous hormone treatments. (washington.edu)
  • Currently small animal models of nasal carriage of S. aureus are less than relevant to the human condition. (washington.edu)
  • Therefore it is scientifically important to establish a nonhuman primate model as this will likely be the closest to human nasal colonization. (washington.edu)
  • A fit model (sometimes fitting model) is a person who is used by a fashion designer or clothing manufacturer to check the fit, drape and visual appearance of a design on a 'real' human being, effectively acting as a live mannequin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Throughout the history of Western art, drawing the human figure from living models was considered the most effective way to develop the skill of draftsmanship. (wikipedia.org)
  • The role of art models has changed through different eras as the meaning and importance of the human figure in art and society has changed. (wikipedia.org)
  • various
  • In some cases, the model may pose with various props, one or more other models, against real or artificial background, in natural or artificial light and so on. (wikipedia.org)
  • frequently
  • Models are most frequently employed for art classes or by informal groups of artists that gather to share the expense of a model. (wikipedia.org)
  • In October 1998, a "Frequently Asked Questions" (FAQ) document by Kim on the Threefold Model clearly stated, "An important part of the model is recognising that there are valid different goals for gaming. (wikipedia.org)
  • time
  • It] can retain the individuality of each cell and keep track of their fates, and at the same time each cell is simple enough that it's possible to model the tissue-level dynamics. (siam.org)
  • This model in particular has helped archaeologists understand that not all keel projections in depictions of boats during this time are necessarily rams. (wikipedia.org)
  • No one in the office wants to set up any of their friends with Michael, but when Michael learns that the chair model had died in a car crash some time ago, Pam Beesly (Jenna Fischer) takes pity and sets him up on a blind date with her landlady (Brooke Dillman). (wikipedia.org)
  • Common poses such as standing twists, slouched seated poses and especially the classical contrapposto are difficult to sustain accurately for any amount of time, although it is often surprising what a skilled model can do. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the station model has limited room, it makes no special provision for vertical or multi-level clouds that can occupy more than one étage at a particular time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Buraschi and Corielli formalise the concept of 'time inconsistency' with regards to no-arbitrage models that allow for a perfect fit of the term structure of the interest rates. (wikipedia.org)
  • They explore the issue of time-consistent and self-financing strategies in this class of models. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • Ancient boat and ship models are made of a variety of materials and are intended for different purposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Threefold Model or GDS theory of roleplaying games is an attempt to distinguish three different goals in roleplaying. (wikipedia.org)
  • teach
  • The more a model knows about the types of exercises used to teach art, the better they become at posing. (wikipedia.org)
  • taught
  • Women who had made the allegations broke from the Model Mugging program being taught at Stanford and formed their own self-defense organizations. (wikipedia.org)
  • merely
  • However, many patent or utility model offices do not conduct substantive examination and merely grant the utility model after checking that utility model applications comply with formalities. (wikipedia.org)
  • several
  • Two research groups have produced several models of the cell cycle simulating several organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Visiting her mother in Nice in 1934 (she and Olga had emigrated from Vienna several years prior), Model took her camera out on the Promenade des Anglais and made a series of portraits - published in 1935 in the leftist magazine Regards - which are still among her most widely reproduced and exhibited images. (wikipedia.org)
  • example
  • For example: a male (British fit -male) (johnny (dl).S. is: Height: 1m 86cm Waist: 80cm Weight: 180 Modeling Fasanella, Kathleen (2010-08-17). (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, Norman Rockwell used his friends and neighbors as models for both his commercial and fine art work. (wikipedia.org)
  • theory
  • Another approach to model risk is the worst-case, or minmax approach, advocated in decision theory by Gilboa and Schmeidler. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was the inspiration for subsequent theories, such as the GNS Theory, which retained a 3-way division but altered other aspects of the model. (wikipedia.org)
  • sometimes
  • Model mugging training involves students role-playing and sometimes fighting through a variety of assault scenarios. (wikipedia.org)
  • series
  • Chair Model" is the fourteenth episode of the fourth season of the American comedy television series The Office, and the show's sixty-seventh episode overall. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chair Model" was the third episode of the series directed by Jeffrey Blitz. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specific exercises or lesson plans may require a particular type of pose, but more often the model is expected to do a series of poses with little direction. (wikipedia.org)
  • female
  • For female fit models there are five basic types of fit: junior, missy, contemporary, plus-size, and petite. (wikipedia.org)
  • By 1990, some female instructors stated that women were traumatized by the course or sexually assaulted by Model Mugging male instructors. (wikipedia.org)
  • While browsing an office-chair catalog, Michael Scott (Steve Carell), who has broken up with Jan Levinson, becomes enamored of one of the female chair models. (wikipedia.org)
  • systems
  • Creating a cellular model has been a particularly challenging task of systems biology and mathematical biology . (wikipedia.org)
  • The model is a product of the Open Systems Interconnection project at the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). (wikipedia.org)
  • The standard is usually referred to as Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model , OSI Reference Model , or simply OSI model . (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, engineers and computer scientists soon began developing threat modeling concepts for information technology systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • The paper proved to be a seminal contribution in the evolution of threat modeling for IT-systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • However
  • However, their relationship had broken down by the end of the war after Model was defeated at the Battle of the Bulge . (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the meanings of the margin properties vary when applied to paged media (see the page model for details). (w3.org)
  • However, more than being simply the subject of art, models are often thought of as muses, a source of inspiration without whom the art would not exist. (wikipedia.org)
  • approach
  • One attempt to introduce scientific approach to agriculture was the formation of 'model farms' across Europe. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this approach one considers a range of models and minimizes the loss encountered in the worst-case scenario. (wikipedia.org)
  • This approach to model risk has been developed by Cont (2006). (wikipedia.org)
  • create
  • We may immediately create with some are of download modelling of, that the magnitude of both these Advances is also bent to a extension sweeping, and that the emotion of the dicit eg a foreign psychologist, and of the prejudice a anxious rate. (sftv.org)
  • In it they developed the concept of using threat models to create secure applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • History
  • This ship model is made of clay and features a distinctive prow shaped like a boar's head that is described by Herodotus in The History , and depicted on pottery, coins seals and drinking cups. (wikipedia.org)
  • For information on the history of model aircraft, please see Model aircraft. (wikipedia.org)
  • original
  • The SFTV Page There seems consequently one of these claims, but what by its original degrees may express download modelling of and burden, or spot and question. (sftv.org)
  • The original version of the model defined seven layers. (wikipedia.org)
  • concept
  • The concept of a seven-layer model was provided by the work of Charles Bachman at Honeywell Information Services. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early IT-based threat modeling methodologies were based on the concept of architectural patterns first presented by Christopher Alexander in 1977. (wikipedia.org)