• ###### constituents
• Despite that there are no chemical changes to its constituents, the physical properties of a mixture, such as its melting point , may differ from those of the components. (wikipedia.org)
• Zeotropic mixtures differ from azeotropic mixtures in that the vapor and liquid phases of an azeotropic mixture have the same fraction of constituents. (wikipedia.org)
• Although the popular phrase for the most common of these is a neon lamp, it is more efficient to have the glass tube filled not with pure neon, but with a Penning mixture, which is defined as a mixture of one inert gas with a minute amount of another gas, one that has lower ionization voltage than the main constituent (or constituents). (wikipedia.org)
• ###### chemistry
• In chemistry, a racemic mixture, or racemate /reɪˈsimeɪt/, is one that has equal amounts of left- and right-handed enantiomers of a chiral molecule. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### probabilistic
• In statistics, a mixture model is a probabilistic model for representing the presence of subpopulations within an overall population, without requiring that an observed data set should identify the sub-population to which an individual observation belongs. (wikipedia.org)
• In probability theory and statistics, a mixture is a probabilistic combination of two or more probability distributions. (wikipedia.org)
• Data analysis concerning statistical models involving mixture distributions is discussed under the title of mixture models, while the present article concentrates on simple probabilistic and statistical properties of mixture distributions and how these relate to properties of the underlying distributions. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### Conversely
• Conversely, mixture models can be thought of as compositional models, where the total size reading population has been normalized to 1. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### distillation
• Because zeotropic mixtures have different properties than pure fluids or azeotropic mixtures, zeotropic mixtures have many unique applications in industry, namely in distillation, refrigeration, and cleaning processes. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### probability distribution
• Formally a mixture model corresponds to the mixture distribution that represents the probability distribution of observations in the overall population. (wikipedia.org)
• The concept arises mostly in two contexts: A mixture defining a new probability distribution from some existing ones, as in a mixture distribution or a compound distribution. (wikipedia.org)
• In probability and statistics, a mixture distribution is the probability distribution of a random variable that is derived from a collection of other random variables as follows: first, a random variable is selected by chance from the collection according to given probabilities of selection, and then the value of the selected random variable is realized. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### phases
• A frigorific mixture is a mixture of two or more phases in a chemical system that, so long as none of the phases is consumed during equilibration, reaches an equilibrium temperature that is independent of the starting temperature of the phases before they are mixed. (wikipedia.org)
• The existence of frigorific mixtures can be viewed as a consequence of the Gibbs phase rule , which describes the relationship at equilibrium between the number of components , the number of coexisting phases , and the number of degrees of freedom permitted by the conditions of heterogeneous equilibrium. (wikipedia.org)
• For the purpose of understanding how real rocks look when studied by M ssbauer spectroscopy, we are initiating the study of mixtures of mineral phases. (mtholyoke.edu)
• ###### statistical
• The hydrogen atoms and (deuterium atoms) of ammonia rapidly exchange, resulting in scrambling, and a statistical mixture of ND3, NHD2, NH2D, and NH3. (isotope.com)
• Above this pressure the deuterium hydride will scramble, yielding a statistical mixture of H2, D2 and HD. (isotope.com)
• However, while problems associated with "mixture distributions" relate to deriving the properties of the overall population from those of the sub-populations, "mixture models" are used to make statistical inferences about the properties of the sub-populations given only observations on the pooled population, without sub-population identity information. (wikipedia.org)
• A mixture used as a statistical model such as is often used for statistical classification. (wikipedia.org)
• Mixture distributions arise in many contexts in the literature and arise naturally where a statistical population contains two or more subpopulations. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### ethyl
• This newly introduced provision will exempt from the recordkeeping and reporting requirements both domestic and import transactions in mixtures containing the List II chemicals acetone, ethyl ether, 2-butanone, and toluene. (usdoj.gov)
• ###### define
• This Final Rule will implement regulations that define those chemical mixtures that qualify for automatic exemption for 27 of the 34 listed chemicals addressed in the NPRM. (usdoj.gov)
• ###### different
• 1. A predetermined mixture of peptides containing 8,000 or more different peptides of distinct, unique and different amino acid sequences, wherein the presence of each peptide in the mixture is predetermined, each peptide is present in an amount such that 100 picomoles or more of each peptide can be retrieved and analyzed and the mixture includes at least one biologically active peptide. (google.com)
• 2. A mixture as claimed in claim 1, wherein the mixture contains 160,000 or more different peptides of distinct, unique and different amino acid sequences, each in retrievable and analyzable amounts. (google.com)
• 8. A synthesized peptide mixture containing 8,000 or more different peptides of distinct, unique and different amino acid sequences, wherein each of the individual member peptides in the mixture are present in an amount such that each peptide is analyzable. (google.com)
• 9. The peptide mixture of claim 8, wherein the mixture contains 160,000 or more different peptides of distinct, unique and different amino acid sequences, each present in an amount such that each peptide is analyzable. (google.com)
• If two different powders are mixed perfectly, three theoretical powder mixtures can be obtained: the random mixture, the ordered mixture or the interactive mixture. (wikipedia.org)
• The difference from an ordered mixture is instead that all carrier particles do not need to be of the same size and a different number of small particles attached to each one. (wikipedia.org)
• A zeotropic mixture, or non-azeotropic mixture, is a mixture with components that have different boiling points. (wikipedia.org)
• Zeotropic mixtures have different characteristics in nucleate and convective boiling, as well as in the organic Rankine cycle. (wikipedia.org)
• The characteristics of pool boiling are different for zeotropic mixtures than that of pure mixtures. (wikipedia.org)
• On the other hand, a mixture density created as a mixture of two normal distributions with different means will have two peaks provided that the two means are far enough apart, showing that this distribution is radically different from a normal distribution. (wikipedia.org)
• The mixture components are often not arbitrary probability distributions, but instead are members of a parametric family (such as normal distributions), with different values for a parameter or parameters. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### Determine
• The mixing time will determine the quality of the random mixture. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### Rule
• In materials science, a general rule of mixtures is a weighted mean used to predict various properties of a composite material made up of continuous and unidirectional fibers. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### mechanical means
• Mixtures can be characterized by being separable by mechanical means e.g. heat, filtration, gravitational sorting, etc. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### proportion
• The formation of interactive mixtures cannot automatically be assumed, especially if smaller carrier particles or a greater proportion of fine particles are used. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### blend
• The E10 blend and lower ethanol content mixtures have been used in several countries, and its use has been primarily driven by the several world energy shortages that have taken place since the 1973 oil crisis. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### powders
• Cookbooks of the 19th century began to record curry powders (from recipes sent home by colonial administrators) and mixtures that were often called kitchen pepper. (msn.com)
• ###### historically
• Historically, the mixture descends from the medieval Blockwerk concept, an organ in which there were no stops and all the ranks sounded simultaneously. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### materials
• The schematic formation of a random mixture (A) and an interactive mixture (B) by dry mixing two powder materials. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### components
• 10.  The components of a solid-solid mixture can be separated by hand picking. (slideshare.net)
• Some mixtures can be separated into their components by using physical (mechanical or thermal) means. (wikipedia.org)
• In general outline, the method of the invention comprises synthesizing a mixture of randomly or deliberately generated peptides using standard synthesis techniques, but adjusting the individual concentrations of the components of a mixture of sequentially added amino acids according to the coupling constants for each amino acid/amino acid coupling. (google.com)
• The term ordered mixture was first introduced to describe a completely homogeneous mixture where the two components adhere to each other to form ordered units. (wikipedia.org)
• Mixture models should not be confused with models for compositional data, i.e., data whose components are constrained to sum to a constant value (1, 100%, etc. (wikipedia.org)
• If the mixture components are categorical distributions (e.g., when each observation is a token from a finite alphabet of size V), there will be a vector of V probabilities summing to 1. (wikipedia.org)
• This decrease in heat transfer is due to the fact that the heat transfer coefficients of zeotropic mixtures do not increase proportionately with the mass fractions of the mixture's components. (wikipedia.org)
• The model may represent the population from which observations arise as a mixture of several components, and the problem is that of a mixture model, in which the task is to infer from which of a discrete set of sub-populations each observation originated. (wikipedia.org)
• The individual distributions that are combined to form the mixture distribution are called the mixture components, and the probabilities (or weights) associated with each component are called the mixture weights. (wikipedia.org)
• The number of components in mixture distribution is often restricted to being finite, although in some cases the components may be countably infinite. (wikipedia.org)
• A distinction needs to be made between a random variable whose distribution function or density is the sum of a set of components (i.e. a mixture distribution) and a random variable whose value is the sum of the values of two or more underlying random variables, in which case the distribution is given by the convolution operator. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### distributions
• In addition, in a Bayesian setting, the mixture weights and parameters will themselves be random variables, and prior distributions will be placed over the variables. (wikipedia.org)
• The construction of such distributions has a formal similarity to that of mixture distributions, with either infinite summations or integrals replacing the finite summations used for finite mixtures. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### ammonium
• One of the first such racemates studied, by Pasteur in 1853, forms from a 1:2 mixture of the bis ammonium salt of (+)-tartaric acid and the bis ammonium salt of (−)-malic acid in water. (wikipedia.org)
• Re-investigated in 2008, the crystals formed are dumbbell-shape with the central part consisting of ammonium (+)-bitartrate, whereas the outer parts are a quasiracemic mixture of ammonium (+)-bitartrate and ammonium (−)-bimalate. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### several
• Several common ethanol fuel mixtures are in use around the world. (wikipedia.org)
• The Penning mixture used in plasma displays is usually helium or neon with small percentage of xenon, at several hundred torr. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### substance
• three of which H. W. B. Roozeboom had distinguished by the year 1899: Conglomerate (sometimes racemic conglomerate) If the 'molecules' of the substance have a much greater affinity for the same enantiomer than for the opposite one, a mechanical mixture of enantiomerically pure crystals will result. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### however
• However, compositional models can be thought of as mixture models, where members of the population are sampled at random. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### weights
• Some ways of implementing mixture models involve steps that attribute postulated sub-population-identities to individual observations (or weights towards such sub-populations), in which case these can be regarded as types of unsupervised learning or clustering procedures. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### discrete
• Note that the formulae here reduce to the case of a finite or infinite mixture if the density w is allowed to be a generalized function representing the "derivative" of the cumulative distribution function of a discrete distribution. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### involve
• The "breaks" of a mixture involve the dropping out of a higher pitch at a given point within the keyboard's compass, and the addition of a lower pitch. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### properties
• The following table shows the main properties of the three families of mixtures. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### form
• The cohesive particles adhere to the free-flowing particles (now called carrier particles) to form interactive units as shown in figure B. An interactive mixture may not contain free aggregates of the cohesive powder, which means that all small particles must be adhered to the larger ones. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### consists
• In practice a combination of a random mixture and an interactive mixture may be obtained which consists of carrier particles, aggregates of the small particles and interactive units. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### various
• Hydrocarbon mixtures are a group of various volatile, highly flammable, mixtures used chiefly as nonpolar solvents. (wikipedia.org)
• The frequency at which the various ranks in a mixture drop back by an interval (or break) as one ascends the compass determines to a great extent how the mixture sounds. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### liquid
• When a liquid mixture is heated, the liquid with the lower boiling point evaporates (becomes a vapor), leaving behind the liquid with the higher boiling point. (factmonster.com)
• As shown in Figure 1, the mole fraction of component 1 decreases from 0.4 to around 0.15 as the liquid mixture boils to the gas phase. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### present
• This makes these mixtures largely unsuitable for use in synthetic applications, as there will be no cooling surface present during the emptying of the container. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### often
• Mixtures relying on the use of acid base slushes are of limited practical value beyond producing melting point references as the enthalpy of dissolution for the melting point depressant is often significantly greater (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### glow
• A Penning mixture of neon and argon is also used as a starter gas in sodium vapor lamps, where it is responsible for the faint reddish glow before the sodium emission kicks in. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### density
• In cases where each of the underlying random variables is continuous, the outcome variable will also be continuous and its probability density function is sometimes referred to as a mixture density. (wikipedia.org)