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  • chromosome
  • These results suggest that during early embryo development, blastomeres with unresolved chromosome misalignments during M-phase can escape SAC-mediated apoptosis, continue cell division which can then result in aneuploid daughter cells. (vub.be)
  • Apoptosis
  • SUMMARY ANSWER: Mitotic spindle disruption during mitosis activates the SAC from at least Day 3 of human preimplantation development, but this does not lead to apoptosis until Day 5. (vub.be)
  • The FISH data suggest that in compacted Day-4 embryos, approximately one in six cells started a polyploid new cell cycle rather than to go in apoptosis after the failure to maintain the SAC-mediated M-phase arrest. (vub.be)
  • early
  • Although research has shown that the SAC components are present during early human development, functional studies are lacking. (vub.be)
  • aneuploidy
  • WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Our results provide functional data that can help explain the high aneuploidy rates seen in human cleavage-stage embryos and suggest that this is due to their unusual cell cycle control. (vub.be)
  • divisions
  • The epithelial cells lining these tubules are called Germinal epithelium which undergoes several mitotic divisions and one meiotic division to produce spermatozoa and are released into the lumen of the tubule. (hubpages.com)
  • sperm
  • The donation of eggs, sperm and embryos to support this work is essential and I ensure that we are compliant with all the necessary ethical and regulatory procedures. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Both sperm and embryo cryopreservation have become routine procedures in human assisted reproduction and oocyte cryopreservation is being introduced into clinical practice and is getting more and more widely used. (hindawi.com)
  • pluripotent
  • Owing to a unique set of attributes, human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have emerged as a promising cell source for regenerative medicine, disease modeling and drug discovery. (springer.com)
  • Central to these efforts are human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including embryonic stem cells (hESCs) derived from human blastocysts (Thomson et al. (springer.com)
  • In this study, we report the derivation of a pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cell line (SCNT-hES-1) from a cloned human blastocyst. (sciencemag.org)
  • The isolation of pluripotent human embryonic stem (ES) cells ( 1 ) and breakthroughs in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in mammals ( 2 ) have raised the possibility of performing human SCNT to generate potentially unlimited sources of undifferentiated cells for use in research, with potential applications in tissue repair and transplantation medicine. (sciencemag.org)
  • 2018
  • 147. Enard, D . and Petrov, D.A. (2018) RNA viruses drove adaptive introgressions between Neanderthals and modern humans . (stanford.edu)
  • organism
  • Again, "It is to be remembered that at all stages the embryo is a living organism, that is, it is an on-going concern with adequate mechanisms for its maintenance as of that time" (Streeter and Heuser 1951, p. 165). (lifeissues.net)
  • stages
  • We now have an experimental system that provides us with routine access to stages of the human life cycle that were previously out of reach to experimentation. (biologists.org)
  • The Carnegie Stages are often referred to as "the Bureau of Standards" of human embryology (O'Rahilly and Müller 2001, p. 3). (lifeissues.net)
  • pregnancy
  • Similarly, if "pregnancy" and "embryo" are claimed to only begin at implantation (as the U.S. Federal Regulations for the use of human subjects in research so define these terms in the 1981 OPRR/OHRP regulations, as well as in many "professional" medical and research organizations and societies), then the early human embryo disappears once again. (lifeissues.net)
  • Similarly
  • Similarly, embryo CP is a crucial tool in cases of cancelled embryo transfer (ET) due to ovarian hyperstimulation risk, endometrial bleeding, elevated serum progesterone levels on the day of triggering, or any other unplanned events. (hindawi.com)
  • genomes
  • Our lab uses computational and statistical approaches to investigate the evolution and function of human genomes. (jhu.edu)
  • We are leveraging data from both modern and archaic humans to better understand the evolutionary forces that shape our genomes. (jhu.edu)
  • Additional Mitochondrial DNA Influences the Interactions Between the Nuclear and Mitochondrial Genomes in a Bovine Embryo Model of Nuclear Transfer. (hamiltonthorne.com)
  • Reproduction
  • Human Reproduction 2007, 22 (1), 52-62. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Human reproduction is both inefficient and individually variable, despite its close link to fitness. (jhu.edu)
  • However, especially in the last 40 years (especially since the advent of artificial reproductive technologies such as IVF and ART that involve both sexual and asexual human reproduction), there has been a dedicated effort to dumb-down such accurate scientific and medical facts, to politicize these false scientific facts, and to use frankly fraudulent science in order to push various unethical agendas. (lifeissues.net)
  • Neanderthals
  • Neanderthals and modern humans interbred at least twice in the past 100,000 years. (stanford.edu)
  • While there is evidence that most introgressed DNA segments from Neanderthals to modern humans were removed by purifying selection, less is known about the adaptive nature of introgressed sequences that were retained. (stanford.edu)
  • We hypothesized that interbreeding between Neanderthals and modern humans led to (1) the exposure of each species to novel viruses and (2) the exchange of adaptive alleles that provided resistance against these viruses. (stanford.edu)
  • molecular
  • Working with collaborators from both academia and industry, we are investigating the molecular origins, functional consequences, and genetic basis of variation in human aneuploidy. (jhu.edu)
  • Human Molecular Genetics , 27(14), 2573-2585. (jhu.edu)
  • Fertility
  • Human Fertility 2007, 10 (3), 183-187. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Human Fertility 2006, 9 (1), 47-51. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Oocyte cryopreservation offers more advantages compared to embryo freezing, such as fertility preservation in women at risk of losing fertility due to oncological treatment or chronic disease, egg donation, and postponing childbirth, and eliminates religious and/or other ethical, legal, and moral concerns of embryo freezing. (hindawi.com)
  • clinical
  • However, it is unquestionable that successful CP of zygotes/embryos has greatly enhanced the clinical benefits and cumulative conception rates possible for couples following a single cycle of ovarian stimulation and IVF. (hindawi.com)
  • early human
  • Although research has shown that the SAC components are present during early human development, functional studies are lacking. (vub.be)
  • Choudhary M, Zhang X, Lako M, Stojkovic M, Murdoch A. "Beauty and Beast" molecule: HA in early human development . (ncl.ac.uk)
  • modern humans
  • Here, we find that long, frequent-and more likely adaptive-segments of Neanderthal ancestry in modern humans are enriched for proteins that interact with viruses (VIPs). (stanford.edu)
  • lung adenocarcinoma
  • By combining Tuba-seq with multiplexed CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome editing, we quantified the effects of 11 tumor-suppressor pathways that are frequently altered in human lung adenocarcinoma. (stanford.edu)
  • Here we integrate tumor barcoding, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing and ultra-deep barcode sequencing to interrogate pairwise combinations of tumor suppressor alterations in autochthonous mouse models of human lung adenocarcinoma. (stanford.edu)
  • umbilical
  • The embryo is becoming longer, and the umbilical vesicle continues to expand. (ehd.org)
  • The rostral portion of the neural folds becomes elevated, a caudal fold begins to appear, and the whole embryo comes to rise beyond the level of the umbilical vesicle (i.e., a variable degree of lordosis usually becomes evident). (ehd.org)
  • lethal
  • Because of the similarity in the brain biochemistry, the pesticides are particularly neurotoxic to the humans and most lethal are organophosphates, carbamates and ethylenebisdithiocarbamates . (indmedica.com)
  • variation
  • We are also interested in the evolutionary processes that generate and maintain functional genetic variation in human populations. (jhu.edu)
  • Selection plays the hand it was dealt: evidence that human adaptation commonly targets standing genetic variation. (jhu.edu)
  • Patterns of deleterious variation between human populations reveal an unbalanced load. (jhu.edu)
  • proteins
  • Hume AJ, Kalejta RF (2009) Regulation of the retinoblastoma proteins by the human herpesviruses. (springer.com)
  • By ensuring destruction of these proteins, the APC/C is responsible for timely chromosome disjunction and mitotic exit (e.g. cyclins and securin), as well as for coordination of events that initiate a single round of DNA replication (e.g. cyclin A and geminin). (biologists.org)
  • genomic
  • While cancer genome sequencing has been instrumental in identifying the genomic alterations that occur in human tumors, the consequences of these alterations on tumor growth remain largely unexplored. (stanford.edu)