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  • time
  • A Travelling Fellowship from Journal of Cell Science allowed her to spend time in Prof Maddy Parson's lab at King's College London, learning new cell migration assays and analysing fibroblasts cultured from individuals with Parkinson's. (biologists.org)
  • yeast cells
  • The transcription program during this stage recapitulates the general transcription response of yeast cells to glucose. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is thought that resting yeast cells re-enter the mitotic cycle through the G1 phase. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The slurry yeast made by small bakers and grocery shops became cream yeast, a suspension of live yeast cells in growth medium, and then compressed yeast, the fresh cake yeast that became the standard leaven for bread bakers in much of the Westernized world during the early 20th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • In nature, yeast cells are found primarily on ripe fruits such as grapes (before maturation, grapes are almost free of yeasts). (wikipedia.org)
  • can harbor yeast cells from autumn to spring and transmit them to their progeny. (wikipedia.org)
  • The optimum temperature for growth of S. cerevisiae is 30-35 °C (86-95 °F). Two forms of yeast cells can survive and grow: haploid and diploid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Seminal work in 1977 found that yeast cells maintain a constant size by delaying their entry into the cell cycle (as assayed by budding) until they have grown to a threshold size. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cdk1
  • Fusion between nonsynchronized cells leads to the formation of heterokarya which transiently activate Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1)/cyclin B1 and enter the prophase of the cell cycle, where they arrest due to a loss of Cdk1/cyclin B1 activity, activate p53, disorganize centrosomes, and undergo apoptosis. (uu.nl)
  • In cells experiencing mitotic slippage, Cdc6 protein level was significantly upregulated, Cdk1 activity was inhibited, and Cohesin-Rad21 was cleaved as a result. (duhnnae.com)
  • thus
  • Thus, syncytia generated by the fusion of asynchronous HeLa cells contain elevated levels of active Chk2 but not Chk1. (uu.nl)
  • Inhibition of Chk2 thus can sensitize proliferating cells to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. (uu.nl)
  • Thus, the mitotic oscillator controlling the cell cycle has to resume. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, spore germination is not only an important process in the yeast life cycle, but studying this process may also deepen our understanding of other processes involved in exit from resting states. (biomedcentral.com)
  • spores
  • Spore germination in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a process in which non-dividing haploid spores re-enter the mitotic cell cycle and resume vegetative growth. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Spore germination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the process by which resting, non-dividing spores grow and enter the mitotic cell cycle. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Diploid cells starved of both fermentable carbon and nitrogen sources leads to the formation of spores through the process of meiosis (which also involves reduction of chromosome number from diploid to haploid). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Spores show unique characteristics and are more resistant to different environmental stresses than vegetative cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In some plants, fungi, and protists meiosis results in the formation of spores: haploid cells that can divide vegetatively without undergoing fertilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2016) showed that the intestine of Polistes dominula favors the mating of S. cerevisiae strains, both among themselves and with S. paradoxus cells by providing environmental conditions prompting cell sporulation and spores germination. (wikipedia.org)
  • phases
  • In some variant cell cycles nuclear replication or nuclear division may not be followed by cell division, or G1 and G2 phases may be absent. (zfin.org)
  • Cells spend the longest time in interphase when the cell is functioning and spends the least amount of time during the mitotic phases of metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. (wordpress.com)
  • The periods of DNA replication and segregation are separated by the G1 and G2 gap phases, when the cell grows and evaluates its internal and external environment [ 1 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • somatic cells
  • CPEB determines polyadenylation status, and consequently translational efficiency, of its target mRNAs in both transcriptionally active somatic cells as well as in transcriptionally silent mature Xenopus oocytes and early embryos. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • transcripts
  • We detected periodic expression coupling of sense and antisense transcript pairs, including antisense transcripts opposite of key cell-cycle regulators, like FAR1 and TAF2 . (biomedcentral.com)
  • To investigate the global cell cycle regulation of all transcripts, we measured high-resolution, strand-specific tiling microarray profiles of RNA expression during the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell cycle. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These three CPEBs have sequential non-redundant functions that promote the phase-specific polyadenylation and translational activation of CPE-regulated transcripts in the mitotic cell cycle. (duhnnae.com)
  • They identified transcripts that show cell-cycle dependent periodicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • homolog
  • The yeast homolog of CUL4A, Rtt101, ubiquitinates histone H3 and promotes nucleosome assembly and CRL4A complexes perform similar functions in human cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • kinase
  • Cell cycle-dependent Cdc25C phosphatase determines cell survival by regulating apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1. (nih.gov)
  • The CIP/KIP (CDK interacting protein/Kinase inhibitory protein) family is one of two families (CIP/KIP and INK4) of mammalian cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors (CKIs) involved in regulating the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Functions
  • To unravel the functions of ncRNAs in yeast, it is informative to characterize them in the context of a robustly regulated and well-understood cellular process, such as the mitotic cell cycle, in which regulatory roles of ncRNAs have not been studied extensively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Xanthatin functions as a DNA-damaging agent in non-small cell lung carcinomas by activating Chk1-mediated DDR and lysosome-mediated degradation of Cdc25C. (nih.gov)
  • phase
  • The cell-cycle synchronization analysis and promoter analysis using live-cell imaging clarified that Meox1 oscillated throughout the cell-cycle and specifically emerged in G2/M phase. (ahajournals.org)
  • Only during the second phase are the cells able to sense and respond to other nutritional components in the environment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • S. cerevisiae cells may enter into either of two resting states, namely stationary phase or spore formation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • During S phase of the archetypal cell cycle (defined as G1-S-G2-M cell cycles), DNA is replicated, and during M phase the replicated sister chromatids are distributed into two daughter cells. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Therefore, they used SAGE data from three moments of the cell cycle (log phase, S phase-arrested and G2/M-phase arrested cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • Before meiosis begins, during S phase of the cell cycle, the DNA of each chromosome is replicated so that it consists of two identical sister chromatids, which remain held together through sister chromatid cohesion. (wikipedia.org)
  • meiosis
  • Surprisingly, induction of the CLB5 promoter requires MCB sequences, but not Mbp1, implying that another MCB-binding factor may exist in cells undergoing meiosis. (genetics.org)
  • chromosome
  • Tampering with this tightly monitored distribution system can result in the production of irregular chromosome content, within each cell, commonly referred to as aneuploidy. (wikipedia.org)
  • namely
  • In another, completely different model of mitotic catastrophe, namely 14.3.3 -deficient HCT116 colon carcinoma cells treated with doxorubicin, Chk2 activation was also found to be deficient as compared to 14.3.3 -sufficient controls. (uu.nl)
  • eukaryotic
  • It is one of the most intensively studied eukaryotic model organisms in molecular and cell biology, much like Escherichia coli as the model bacterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • contrast
  • In contrast to the well-studied vegetative cell cycle in yeast, and despite the importance of the resting stage to the life cycle of the cell, the mechanisms regulating entry, maintenance and exit from rest are poorly understood. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Several studies in cell and invertebrate models of Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD) suggested potential neuroprotective effects of SIRT2 inhibition, in striking contrast with other sirtuin family members. (wikipedia.org)
  • progression
  • HTLV-I provirus was more methylated in primary ATL cells than in carrier state, indicating the association with disease progression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Some authors will say that the restriction point and the G1/S checkpoint are one and the same, but more recent studies have argued that there are two different points in the G1 phase that check the progression of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The G1/S checkpoint is the point between G1 phase and the S phase in which the cell is cleared for progression into the S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • senescent cells
  • Although senescent cells can no longer replicate, they remain metabolically active and commonly adopt an immunogenic phenotype consisting of a pro-inflammatory secretome, the up-regulation of immune ligands, a pro-survival response, promiscuous gene expression (pGE) and stain positive for senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleus of senescent cells is characterized by senescence-associated heterochromatin foci (SAHF) and DNA segments with chromatin alterations reinforcing senescence (DNA-SCARS). (wikipedia.org)
  • Senescent cells affect tumour suppression, wound healing and possibly embryonic/placental development and a pathological role in age-related diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The experimental elimination of senescent cells from transgenic progeroid mice and non-progeroid, naturally-aged mice led to greater resistance against aging-associated diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • basal
  • In neuroblasts, both complexes are localized to the apical cortex, causing apical/basal cell division and daughter cells exhibiting strong size asymmetry. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • Consistent with this, telomerase-immortalised cells continued to age (according to the epigenetic clock) without having been treated with any senescence inducers or DNA-damaging agents, re-affirming the independence of the process of epigenetic ageing from telomeres, cellular senescence, and the DNA damage response pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • neoplasms
  • Artykuł zawiera opis dwóch przypadków chorych z rozpoznaniem bardzo rzadko występujących nowotworów z blastycznych plazmacytoidalnych komórek dendrytycznych ( blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasms - BPDCN). (czytelniamedyczna.pl)
  • In this paper we report two cases of very rare blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasms (BPDCN). (czytelniamedyczna.pl)
  • A category of rare and aggressive haematologic tumors co-expressing CD4 and CD56 antigens in the absence of any specific myeloid, B-, T-lymphoid or natural killer (NK) lineage markers is classified as blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasms (BPDCN) according to the most recent 2008 WHO classification of tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues (1). (czytelniamedyczna.pl)
  • nucleus
  • In bacteria, which lack a cell nucleus, the cell cycle is divided into the B, C, and D periods. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the amoeba, reproduction occurs by cell division of the parent cell: first the nucleus of the parent divides into two and then the cell membrane also cleaves, becoming two "daughter" Amoebae. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • Over-expression of PPARδ also sensitised THP-1 cells to phorbol ester and correspondingly, inhibition of PPARδ by anti-sense RNA completely abolished this response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Such inactivation of Tax expression is considered to allow ATL cells to escape from the host immune system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • telomere length
  • May play also an essential role in telomere length maintenance and telomere capping in mammalian cells. (abcam.cn)
  • Cells can also be induced to senesce via DNA damage in response to elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS), activation of oncogenes and cell-cell fusion, independent of telomere length. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytosol
  • The use of 5% dymethyl sulfoxide as a cryoprotectant resulted in greater cell survival and a scarcity of destroyed cells lacking cytosol among dead cells. (wordpress.com)
  • human
  • Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) causes adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) after a long latent period. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Her son, the Sage of the Six Paths, was born with the ability to produce chakra by combining physical energy (身体エネルギー, shintai enerugī), drawn from the trillions of cells that make up the human body, and mental energy (精神エネルギー, seishin enerugī), gained through experience and meditation. (wikipedia.org)
  • exerts
  • Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect in cells by interfering with the polymerization of microtubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Numb exerts its functional role on cell fate decisions by antagonizing Notch signaling activities. (wikipedia.org)
  • precursor
  • However, in the past a number of different terms were used for BPDCN due to their uncommon immunophenotypic, histopathological and clinical features, including blastic NK leukemia/lymphoma, histiocytic lymphoma or histiocytic associated hematologic malignancy, cutaneous a granular CD4+ CD56+ hematodermic neoplasm and NK-cell lymphoma or myelo-monocytic precursor - related lymphoma (5-12). (czytelniamedyczna.pl)
  • malignant
  • Overexpression of p120 leads to malignant transformation of 3T3 cells while treatment with antisense p120 mRNA causes the transformed cells to revert to their original non-malignant phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • biochemical
  • Biochemical triggers known as cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) switch on cell cycles events at the corrected time and in the correct order to prevent any mistakes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biology
  • As nocodazole affects the cytoskeleton, it is often used in cell biology experiments as a control: for example, some dominant negative Rho small GTPases cause a similar effect as nocodazole, and constitutively activated mutants often reverse or negate the effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nocodazole is frequently used in cell biology laboratories to synchronize the cell division cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • duration
  • The duration of each phase, including the G1 phase, is different in many different types of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The duration of G1 is highly variable, even among different cells of the same species. (wikipedia.org)
  • For cell synchronization experiments, nocodazole is usually used at a concentration of 40-100 ng/mL of culture medium for a duration of 12-18 hours. (wikipedia.org)
  • division cycle
  • At the G1/S checkpoint, formation of the G1/S cyclin with Cdk to form a complex commits the cell to a new division cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell-division cycle is a vital process by which a single-celled fertilized egg develops into a mature organism, as well as the process by which hair, skin, blood cells, and some internal organs are renewed. (wikipedia.org)
  • suggests
  • As such, cellular senescence represents a change in "cell state" rather than a cell becoming "aged" as the name confusingly suggests. (wikipedia.org)
  • determines
  • In humans, the normal physiological temperature is around 37 °C (98.6 °F). G1 phase is particularly important in the cell cycle because it determines whether a cell commits to division or to leaving the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first restriction point is growth-factor dependent and determines whether the cell moves into the G0 phase, while the second checkpoint is nutritionally-dependent and determines whether the cell moves into the S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • During cell division, Numb is asymmetrically localized to one end of the progenitor cell and subsequently segregates to only one daughter cell where it intrinsically determines cell fate. (wikipedia.org)
  • However
  • However, the tax gene transcript could not be detected in fresh ATL cells regardless of hyperacetylated histone H3 in 5'-LTR. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, it is also recognized as a mechanism for virus-infected cells to escape from the host immune system and establish the latent state. (biomedcentral.com)