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  • mitosis
  • kdp-1(RNAi) delayed the entry into mitosis in embryos, led to a small mitotic zone in the germline, and caused an endomitotic phenotype. (biologists.org)
  • The data suggest that KDP-1 is a novel KASH protein that functions to ensure the timely progression of the cell cycle between the end of S phase and the entry into mitosis. (biologists.org)
  • Germ-line stem cells are unique because they either self-renew through mitosis or, at a certain frequency, switch to meiosis and produce gametes. (genetics.org)
  • It was previously shown that interruption of SUMOylation through the addition of the dominant negative E2 SUMO conjugating enzyme Ubc9 in mitosis causes abnormal chromosome segregation in Xenopus laevis egg extract (XEE) cell-free assays, and DNA topoisomerase IIα (TOP2A) was identified as a substrate for SUMOylation at the mitotic centromeres. (ku.edu)
  • Haspin is important for phosphorylating H3T3 at the centromeres during M phase, which is essential for the recruitment of chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) to the centromere of chromatin for the proper progression of mitosis. (ku.edu)
  • Having multiple means in regulating Haspin localization and activity allows for the cell to ensure proper timing in CPC localization for the progression of mitosis. (ku.edu)
  • Although preferentially cytosolic, SIRT2 transiently shuttles to the nucleus during the G2/M transition of the cell cycle, where it has a strong preference for histone H4 lysine 16 (H4K16Ac), thereby regulating chromosomal condensation during mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The phases include the G1 and G2 phases, DNA replication or S phase, and the actual process of cell division, mitosis or M phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • This "simple" mitotic exit model became complicated as additional roles in mitosis were attributed to ScCdc14. (wikipedia.org)
  • instead of being transcribed throughout the cell cycle and regulated post-translationally, PiCdc14 is under strong transcriptional control and is not expressed in hyphae, where most mitosis takes place. (wikipedia.org)
  • His pictures of newt lung cells undergoing the various stages of mitosis have appeared on numerous covers of the aforementioned journals alongside his articles. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2003. Mitosis through the microscope: advances in seeing inside live dividing cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This destruction of M cyclins leads to the final events of mitosis (e.g., spindle disassembly, mitotic exit). (wikipedia.org)
  • knockout
  • Numerous gene transcripts that are absent or downregulated in the eye of Ndp knockout mice are photoreceptor cell specific. (arvojournals.org)
  • The identification of numerous photoreceptor cell-specific transcripts with a reduced expression in 2-year-old, but not in young, Ndp knockout mice indicates that normal gene expression in these light-sensitive cells of mutant mice is established and maintained over a long period and that rods and cones are affected relatively late in the mouse model of ND. (arvojournals.org)
  • degradation
  • The mechanism is revealed that connects the protein degradation machinery to cellular membrane-bound compartments during proteostasis stress in mammalian cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • Title: Mdm2 promotes Cdc25C protein degradation and delays cell cycle progression through the G2/M phase. (nih.gov)
  • Xanthatin functions as a DNA-damaging agent in non-small cell lung carcinomas by activating Chk1-mediated DDR and lysosome-mediated degradation of Cdc25C. (nih.gov)
  • The proteasomal degradation pathway is essential for many cellular processes, including the cell cycle, the regulation of gene expression, and responses to oxidative stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • The importance of proteolytic degradation inside cells and the role of ubiquitin in proteolytic pathways was acknowledged in the award of the 2004 Nobel Prize in Chemistry to Aaron Ciechanover, Avram Hershko and Irwin Rose. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiation
  • Telomerase activity is downregulated via decreases in hTERT mRNA but not TEP1 mRNA or hTERT during the differentiation of leukemic cells. (springer.com)
  • inhibition
  • Inhibition of telomerase activity in endometrial cancer cells by selenium-cisplatin conjugate despite suppression of DNA-damaging activity by sodium ascorbate. (springer.com)
  • Several studies in cell and invertebrate models of Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD) suggested potential neuroprotective effects of SIRT2 inhibition, in striking contrast with other sirtuin family members. (wikipedia.org)
  • transition
  • Proliferating germ cells reside in the distal end and enter meiosis more proximally at a region of the germ line called the "transition zone," which corresponds to leptotene/zygotene of meiosis I ( Figure 1A ). (genetics.org)
  • At the transition zone (3), germ cells enter meiosis and proceed through meiotic prophase (4) to give rise to sperm in the L4 stage (6) and to oocytes during adulthood (5). (genetics.org)
  • arrest
  • Intracellular immunostaining, FACS, and proteomics have been combined in a single workflow (PRIMMUS) to isolate and analyse cell subsets defined by intracellular markers of cell cycle progression, thus avoiding potential artefacts associated with arrest-based synchronisation. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Involved in G2/M phase cell cycle arrest induced by DNA damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • Additional loss of p53 in pRb-deficient urothelial cells removed these p53-dependent tumor barriers, resulting in late-onset hyperplasia, umbrella cell nuclear atypia, and rare-occurring low-grade, superficial papillary bladder tumors, without eliciting invasive carcinomas. (aacrjournals.org)
  • and that replacing/restoring the function of pRb, p107, or p53 could be explored as a potential therapeutic strategy to block urothelial tumor progression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Urothelial carcinoma presents an interesting paradigm of tumor initiation and progression via divergent phenotypic and molecular pathways ( 1 - 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Therefore, the two major urothelial carcinoma variants do not appear to represent a continuum of tumor progression from early to late stages but rather they seem to result from distinct mechanisms of tumor initiation ( 1 - 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • processes
  • Many early studies, especially in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, demonstrated that the protein plays a key role in regulating late mitotic processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nuclear
  • Live-cell nanometer-resolution RNA labeling method enables transcriptome-wide mapping of endogenous RNAs in nuclear, cytosol, ER, and mitochondrial subcompartments. (elifesciences.org)
  • We show that METT-10 is a nuclear protein that acts in the germ line to inhibit the specification of germ-cell proliferative fate. (genetics.org)
  • stem
  • FROM early development to later life, tissues are formed from and maintained by stem cell populations. (genetics.org)
  • Stem cells have the unique ability to give rise to both differentiated cell types and self-renewing daughters and must regulate the choice between the two. (genetics.org)
  • CDC25A plays a novel role in regulating the malignant behavior of glioma stem cells as a part of Linc00152/miR-103a-3p/FEZF1/CDC25A axis. (nih.gov)
  • Title: Linc00152 promotes malignant progression of glioma stem cells by regulating miR-103a-3p/FEZF1/CDC25A pathway. (nih.gov)
  • fate
  • The finding that METT-10 functions to inhibit germ-cell proliferative fate, despite promoting mitotic cell cycle progression of those germ cells that do proliferate, separates the specification of proliferative fate from its execution. (genetics.org)
  • Although glp-1 signaling is a central component controlling the specification of germ-cell proliferative fate, regulation of this decision is not fully understood. (genetics.org)
  • targets
  • SIRT2 sensitizes cells to the action of insulin by physically interacting with and activating Akt and downstream targets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Division
  • His research has contributed to the growing understanding of the process of cell division and the pathology of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Throughout his career, he published over a hundred full-length peer-reviewed research papers on the topic of cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Furthermore, knocking down of UBE2T protein induced upregulation of BRCA1 protein in breast cancer cells, whereas its overexpression caused the decrease of the BRCA1 protein. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In addition, we also observed significantly elevated levels of SphK1 and SphK2 mrna and SphK1 protein expression in MPM cell lines such as H2691, H513 and H2461 compared to the non-malignant mesothelial Met5 cells. (docplayer.net)
  • In this study, we investigated PTTG1 gene and protein expression in MM plasma cells from newly diagnosed MM patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The FHA domain plays a key role in the anti-proliferative properties of the protein and is involved in initiating a cell cycle arrest at G2/M. The FHA domain may be required to interact with phosphorylated proteins. (abcam.com)
  • We now report the identification and characterization of APC16, a conserved subunit of the APC/C. APC16 was found in association with tandem-affinity-purified mitotic checkpoint complex protein complexes. (biologists.org)
  • The former category includes changes in cell metabolism, such as a shift from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis (the so-called Warburg effect [ 6 - 8 ]), the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) characterized by changes in cell morphology and motility [ 1 ], as well as activation of a host of signaling and protein expression alterations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In order for the cell to continue through the G1-pm, there must be a high amount of growth factors and a steady rate of protein synthesis, otherwise the cell will move into G0 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • It can deubiquitinate H2A, one of two major ubiquitinated proteins of chromatin, in vitro and a mutant form of the protein was shown to block cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase N2 (R-PTP-N2) also known as islet cell autoantigen-related protein (ICAAR) and phogrin is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PTPRN2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the species in which Cdc14 activity is best understood and most-studied, the activity of Cdc14 (ScCdc14) leads to mitotic exit by dephosphorylating targets of Cdk1, a well-studied cyclin-dependent protein kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular content of Ki-67 protein markedly increases during cell progression through S phase of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Ki-67 protein was originally defined by the prototype monoclonal antibody Ki-67, which was generated by immunizing mice with nuclei of the Hodgkin lymphoma cell line L428. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein Ki-67 in human MCF-7 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ki-67 protein (red), tubulin (green) and DNA (blue) in HeLa cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated protein 9 (NEDD-9) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NEDD9 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • overexpressed a human cDNA library in S. cerevisiae, and screened for genes that simultaneously affected cell cycle and cell polarity controls, inducing a filamentous yeast budding phenotype, and thus identified the HEF1 protein (Human Enhancer of Filamentation 1). (wikipedia.org)
  • cloned the gene encoding a protein hyperphosphorylated following ligation of β1-integrins in T cells and hypothesized to play a role in the process of T cell costimulation, designating this gene Cas-L (Crk-associated substrate-related protein, Lymphocyte type). (wikipedia.org)
  • NEDD9 is a noncatalytic scaffolding protein that contains docking sites for proteins involved in multiple signal transduction pathways, regulating magnitude and duration of cell signaling cascades The overall structure of NEDD9 is represented graphically in Figure 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 also known as CDK1 or cell division cycle protein 2 homolog is a highly conserved protein that functions as a serine/threonine kinase, and is a key player in cell cycle regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells in G1Q are quiescent, temporarily withdrawn from the cell cycle (also identifiable as G0), the G1A are in the growth phase while G1B are the cells just prior entering S, with their growth (RNA and protein content, size) similar to that of the cells initiating DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main mechanism of action of the cell cycle checkpoints is through the regulation of the activities of a family of protein kinases known as the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), which bind to different classes of regulator proteins known as cyclins, with specific cyclin-CDK complexes being formed and activated at different phases of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • CP110 is an important centrosomal protein that is phosphorylated by both mitotic and interphase Cdk/cyclin complexes and is thought to influence centrosome duplication in S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotes
  • Timely destruction of cell cycle regulators by the proteasome is integral to successful cell division in all eukaryotes. (biologists.org)
  • Non-proliferative (non-dividing) cells in multicellular eukaryotes generally enter the quiescent G0 state from G1 and may remain quiescent for long periods of time, possibly indefinitely (as is often the case for neurons). (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibitor
  • Using SphK inhibitor and specific sirna targeting either SphK1 or SphK2, we also unequivocally established that SphK1, but not SphK2, promotes H2691 mesothelioma cell proliferation. (docplayer.net)
  • Only one HDAC inhibitor, suberonylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), marketed as Zolinza (vorinostat) has been approved by US Foods and Drugs Administration (FDA) for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/druginfo/fdavorinostat) . (docplayer.net)
  • morphology
  • No abnormalities were observed on the cellular morphology of these cell lines both at low and high densities of cultures by microscopy according to the guideline from ATCC ( 15 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • We monitored the cell morphology of these cell lines by microscopy, and confirmed to maintain their morphologic images in comparison with the original morphologic images from the above affiliation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • yeast
  • Individual yeast cells transition into this morphological state as an adaptation to various environmental stresses by shielding the inner cells of the flocs . (prolekare.cz)
  • The flocculent trait has also proven highly beneficial in industrial yeast applications by allowing efficient and cost-effective removal of cells . (prolekare.cz)
  • In the budding yeast, initial cell cycle entry is controlled by two regulatory complexes, SBF (SCB-binding factor) and MBF (MCB-binding factor). (wikipedia.org)
  • complexes
  • APC16 is a bona fide subunit of human APC/C: it is present in APC/C complexes throughout the cell cycle, the phenotype of APC16-depleted cells copies depletion of other APC/C subunits, and APC16 is important for APC/C activity towards mitotic substrates. (biologists.org)
  • Those complexes, in turn, activate different downstream targets to promote or prevent cell cycle progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • microtubules
  • Microtubules are nucleated and organized by microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs), such as the centrosome found in the center of many animal cells or the basal bodies found in cilia and flagella, or the spindle pole bodies found in most fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dividing cells show strong Ki-67 staining in cell nuclei while all cells contain large amounts of tubulin, the major component of microtubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • In plant cells, Golgi vesicle secretions form a cell plate or septum on the equatorial plane of the cell wall by the action of microtubules of the phragmoplast. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cleavage furrow in animal cells and the phragmoplast in plant cells are complex structures made up of microtubules and microfilaments that aide in the final separation of the cells into two identical daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • quiescent
  • As the cell progresses through G1, depending on internal and external conditions, it can either delay G1, enter a quiescent state known as G0, or proceed past the restriction point. (wikipedia.org)
  • stages
  • We propose that important insights pertaining to the key stages in cancer progression are also likely to come from the theory of phase transitions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the early cleavage stages of embryogenesis, rapid divisions occur synchronously and there are no "gap" stages in the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • defects
  • When DNA damage occurs, or when the cell detects any defects which necessitate it to delay or halt the cell cycle in G1, arrest occurs through several mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • intracellular
  • Intracellular immunostaining, FACS, and proteomics have been combined in a single workflow (PRIMMUS) to isolate and analyse cell subsets defined by intracellular markers of cell cycle progression, thus avoiding potential artefacts associated with arrest-based synchronisation. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Macrophage cell death upon intracellular bacterial infection. (fsu.edu)
  • Tumor
  • Changes at the population level involve the replacement of one group of cells, which adhere to each other to form a differentiated tissue, by another group of cells, which form a highly heterogeneous and more motile aggregate--a tumor or neoplasm. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The fraction of Ki-67-positive tumor cells (the Ki-67 labeling index) is often correlated with the clinical course of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • dependent
  • Activation of each phase is dependent on the proper progression and completion of the previous one. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cleavage furrow mechanism in animal cells is a complex network of actin and myosin filaments, Golgi vesicles and Calcium dependent channels enabling the cell to break apart, reseal and form new daughter cells with complete membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferative
  • Over-expression of PTTG1 has previously been associated with malignant progression and an enhanced proliferative capacity in solid tumours. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In breast cancer Ki67 identifies a high proliferative subset of patients with ER-positive breast cancer who derive greater benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy Ki-67 is an excellent marker to determine the growth fraction of a given cell population. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • Phosphorylated forms of phosphatidylinositol (PI) are called phosphoinositides and play important roles in lipid signaling, cell signaling and membrane trafficking. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most fluorescent DNA dyes (one of exceptions is Hoechst 33342) are not plasma membrane permeant, that is, unable to pass through an intact cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Animal cells form an actin-myosin contractile ring within the equatorial region of the cell membrane that constricts to form the cleavage furrow. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • However, it is also recognized as a mechanism for virus-infected cells to escape from the host immune system and establish the latent state. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mechanism of the formation of contractile ring in dividing cultured animal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenotype
  • Phenotype annotations for a gene are curated single mutant phenotypes that require an observable (e.g., "cell shape"), a qualifier (e.g., "abnormal"), a mutant type (e.g., null), strain background, and a reference. (yeastgenome.org)
  • neoplasms
  • Artykuł zawiera opis dwóch przypadków chorych z rozpoznaniem bardzo rzadko występujących nowotworów z blastycznych plazmacytoidalnych komórek dendrytycznych ( blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasms - BPDCN). (czytelniamedyczna.pl)
  • In this paper we report two cases of very rare blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasms (BPDCN). (czytelniamedyczna.pl)
  • A category of rare and aggressive haematologic tumors co-expressing CD4 and CD56 antigens in the absence of any specific myeloid, B-, T-lymphoid or natural killer (NK) lineage markers is classified as blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasms (BPDCN) according to the most recent 2008 WHO classification of tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues (1). (czytelniamedyczna.pl)