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  • issue
  • We are now accepting submissions for our upcoming special issue on 'Reconstituting cell biology', guest edited by Manuel Théry. (biologists.org)
  • time
  • A Travelling Fellowship from Journal of Cell Science allowed her to spend time in Prof Maddy Parson's lab at King's College London, learning new cell migration assays and analysing fibroblasts cultured from individuals with Parkinson's. (biologists.org)
  • Regulation
  • This PTP has been shown to dephosphorylate and activate Src family tyrosine kinases, and is implicated in the regulation of integrin signaling, cell adhesion and proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, the G2 checkpoint arrests cells in G2 in response to DNA damage through inhibitory regulation of CDK1. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene, CDC7, is involved in the regulation of cell cycle because of the gene product Cdc7 kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • Where there was one cell, there are now two, each the genetic equivalent of the parent cell. (writework.com)
  • This is the basis for Mendelian inheritance which characterizes inheritance patterns of genetic material from an organism to its offspring parent developmental cell at the given time and area. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mechanism
  • Though Wee1 is a fairly conserved negative regulator of mitotic entry, no general mechanism of cell size control in G2 has yet been elucidated. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription
  • The hypothesis that shortened cell cycles can cause repression of transcription is supported by the observation that mitosis causes transcription to cease. (wikipedia.org)
  • These transcription factors promote Cln1/2 expression, and enhance the cell cycle response by forming a positive feedback loop, as Cln1/2 promotes SBF activation and Whi5 export. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • Through infection, conversion, and assimilation of humans and other organisms, the cells eventually aggregate most of the biosphere of North America into a region seven thousand kilometers wide. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Blood Music, reality becomes unstable as the number of observers-trillions of intelligent single-cell organisms-spirals higher and higher. (wikipedia.org)
  • undergoes
  • Embryo development begins with a sperm fertilizing an egg to become a zygote which undergoes many cleavages to develop into a ball of cells called a morula. (wikipedia.org)
  • consists
  • This cycle consists of three phases. (prezi.com)
  • In vertebrate cells, the G2/M DNA damage checkpoint consists of an arrest of the cell in G2 just before mitotic entry in response to genotoxic stress (such as UV radiation, oxidative stress, DNA intercalating agents, etc.) in both a p53-dependent and p53-independent manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typically
  • Disease is typically classified as low- or high-grade (with signet ring cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • Food vacuoles are formed through phagocytosis and typically follow a particular path through the cell as their contents are digested and broken down by lysosomes so the substances the vacuole contains are then small enough to diffuse through the membrane of the food vacuole into the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitogenesis is the induction (triggering) of mitosis, typically via a mitogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • cilia
  • Cilia occur in all members of the group (although the peculiar Suctoria only have them for part of the life-cycle) and are variously used in swimming, crawling, attachment, feeding, and sensation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of alveoli, the structure of the cilia, the form of mitosis and various other details indicate a close relationship between the ciliates, Apicomplexa, and dinoflagellates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microtubules are nucleated and organized by microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs), such as the centrosome found in the center of many animal cells or the basal bodies found in cilia and flagella, or the spindle pole bodies found in most fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotic cell
  • A zygote (from Greek ζυγωτός zygōtos "joined" or "yoked", from ζυγοῦν zygoun "to join" or "to yoke") is a eukaryotic cell formed by a fertilization event between two gametes. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • In order for the cell to continue through the G1-pm, there must be a high amount of growth factors and a steady rate of protein synthesis, otherwise the cell will move into G0 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • If a cell retains DNA damage, transcription of a gene can be prevented and thus translation into a protein will also be blocked. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitogens trigger signal transduction pathways in which mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is involved, leading to mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene plays a role in the determination of cell fates during development. (wikipedia.org)
  • The numb gene protein product controls binary cell fate decisions in the peripheral and central nervous systems of both invertebrates and mammals during neurogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Numb protein signaling plays a key role in binary cell fate decisions following asymmetric cell divisions. (wikipedia.org)
  • In both invertebrates and mammals, Numb is localized using the Pins/GαI complex and the PAR complex of Bazooka (Par3 in mammals), Par6, and aPKC (atypical protein kinase C). In the sensory organ precursor (SOP) cell, the PAR proteins localize to the posterior pole of the cell, and the Pins/GαI complex is localized to the anterior pole of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another proposed component of the localization complex is Partner of Numb (PON), which is asymmetrically localized during mitosis and acts as an adaptor protein by binding and mediating the anchoring of Numb. (wikipedia.org)
  • progression of the cell
  • Some authors will say that the restriction point and the G1/S checkpoint are one and the same, but more recent studies have argued that there are two different points in the G1 phase that check the progression of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • senescent cells
  • Senescent cells affect tumour suppression, wound healing and possibly embryonic/placental development and a pathological role in age-related diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The experimental elimination of senescent cells from transgenic progeroid mice and non-progeroid, naturally-aged mice led to greater resistance against aging-associated diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • lineage
  • In Xenopus , the germline is specified through the inheritance of germ plasm formed during oogenesis and asymmetrically segregated into the future germ cell lineage. (biologists.org)
  • A category of rare and aggressive haematologic tumors co-expressing CD4 and CD56 antigens in the absence of any specific myeloid, B-, T-lymphoid or natural killer (NK) lineage markers is classified as blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasms (BPDCN) according to the most recent 2008 WHO classification of tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues (1). (czytelniamedyczna.pl)
  • membrane
  • We analyzed cell viability, caspase activity, plasma membrane alterations and cell ultrastructure morphology to estimate the morphological and biochemical alterations that occur in bivalve molluscan cell cultures during cryopreservation. (wordpress.com)
  • Another function of Hsc70 is as an ATPase in the disassembly of clathrin-coated vesicles during transport of membrane components through the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • multicellular organisms
  • Autophagy contributes to various cellular processes, including innate immunity, development, and programmed cell death (PCD) in multicellular organisms. (go.jp)
  • spindle
  • The absence of microtubule attachment to kinetochores activates the spindle assembly checkpoint, causing the cell to arrest in prometaphase. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • Thus, in a population of cells comprising a tissue with replicating cells, mutant cells will tend to be lost. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, infrequent mutations that provide a survival advantage will tend to clonally expand at the expense of neighboring cells in the tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • absence
  • expressing Nrg1 in the absence of heart damage causes uncontrolled growth of heart cells, creating an enlarged heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • enter
  • Most nonproliferating vertebrate cells will enter the G0 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Non-proliferative (non-dividing) cells in multicellular eukaryotes generally enter the quiescent G0 state from G1 and may remain quiescent for long periods of time, possibly indefinitely (as is often the case for neurons). (wikipedia.org)
  • Microscopy of nocodazole-treated cells shows that they do enter mitosis but cannot form metaphase spindles because microtubules (of which the spindles are made) cannot polymerise. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lymphocytes can enter mitosis when they are activated by mitogens or antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular senescence
  • As such, cellular senescence represents a change in "cell state" rather than a cell becoming "aged" as the name confusingly suggests. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistent with this, telomerase-immortalised cells continued to age (according to the epigenetic clock) without having been treated with any senescence inducers or DNA-damaging agents, re-affirming the independence of the process of epigenetic ageing from telomeres, cellular senescence, and the DNA damage response pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • induce
  • Another standard cell biological application of nocodazole is to induce the formation of Golgi ministacks in eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In local unfolding, the binding and release cycles induce localized unfolding in the substrate, which helps to overcome kinetic barriers for folding to the native state. (wikipedia.org)
  • checkpoint
  • The restriction point (R) in the G1 phase is different from a checkpoint because it does not determine whether cell conditions are ideal to move on to the next phase, but it changes the course of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first restriction point is growth-factor dependent and determines whether the cell moves into the G0 phase, while the second checkpoint is nutritionally-dependent and determines whether the cell moves into the S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The G1/S checkpoint is the point between G1 phase and the S phase in which the cell is cleared for progression into the S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The G1 checkpoint is controlled most directly by mitogens: further cell cycle progression does not need mitogens to continue. (wikipedia.org)
  • transition
  • This gene encodes a deubiquitinating enzyme that is phosphorylated at the onset of mitosis and then dephosphorylated at the metaphase/anaphase transition. (wikipedia.org)
  • arrest
  • Cells treated with nocodazole arrest with a G2- or M-phase DNA content when analyzed by flow cytometry. (wikipedia.org)
  • cyclins
  • The point where mitogens are no longer needed to move the cell cycle forward is called the "restriction point" and depends on cyclins to be passed. (wikipedia.org)
  • This process cascades onwards, producing other cyclins which stimulate the cell sufficiently to allow reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • restriction point
  • After a vertebrate cell has been in the G1 phase for about three hours, the cell enters a restriction point in which it is decided whether the cell will move forward with the G1 phase or move into the dormant G0 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • blastomeres
  • The blastula (from Greek βλαστός (blastos), meaning "sprout") is a hollow sphere of cells, referred to as blastomeres, surrounding an inner fluid-filled cavity called the blastocoele formed during an early stage of embryonic development in animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • After analyzing different methods for assessing cell damage, the best results were obtained from optimal approaches that could provide information regarding the cell disruption level after freezing-thawing and could be considered for future studies. (wordpress.com)
  • However, in the past a number of different terms were used for BPDCN due to their uncommon immunophenotypic, histopathological and clinical features, including blastic NK leukemia/lymphoma, histiocytic lymphoma or histiocytic associated hematologic malignancy, cutaneous a granular CD4+ CD56+ hematodermic neoplasm and NK-cell lymphoma or myelo-monocytic precursor - related lymphoma (5-12). (czytelniamedyczna.pl)
  • The duration of each phase, including the G1 phase, is different in many different types of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • form
  • These functional Golgi ministacks remain distributed about the cell, unable to track forward to form a perinuclear Golgi since nocodazole has depolymerized the microtubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are involved in maintaining the structure of the cell and, together with microfilaments and intermediate filaments, they form the cytoskeleton. (wikipedia.org)
  • The blastocyst contains an embryoblast (or inner cell mass) that will eventually give rise to the definitive structures of the fetus, and the trophoblast, which goes on to form the extra-embryonic tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • morula
  • Embryo development begins with a sperm fertilizing an egg to become a zygote which undergoes many cleavages to develop into a ball of cells called a morula. (wikipedia.org)
  • exerts
  • Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect in cells by interfering with the polymerization of microtubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Numb exerts its functional role on cell fate decisions by antagonizing Notch signaling activities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Xenopus
  • However, in Xenopus embryos, sea urchin embryos, and Drosophila embryos, the G1 phase is barely existent and is defined as the gap, if one exists, between the end of mitosis and the S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • These events may be altered by signaling molecules linked through cell-cycle regulatory mechanisms. (go.jp)
  • Interestingly, nocodazole has been shown to decrease the oncogenic potential of cancer cells via another microtubules-independent mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)