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  • stimuli
  • Translation of terminal oligopyrimidine tract (TOP) mRNAs, which encode multiple components of the protein synthesis machinery, is known to be controlled by mitogenic stimuli. (asm.org)
  • Thus, TOP mRNAs can be translationally activated by growth or mitogenic stimuli of ES cells, whose rpS6 is constitutively unphosphorylated due to the disruption of both alleles of S6K1. (asm.org)
  • The classical mitogenic cascade transmits stimuli from growth factor receptors via Ras, Raf, MEK and ERK to the cell nucleus and provides attractive molecular targets for cancer treatment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • signals
  • However, both growth and mitogenic signals converge via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase)-mediated pathway and are transduced to efficiently translate TOP mRNAs. (asm.org)
  • Both mitogenic and growth signals lead to phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6), which precedes the translational activation of TOP mRNAs. (asm.org)
  • TOP mRNAs, which encode many components of the translational apparatus [ribosomal proteins, elongation factors eEF1A and eEF2, and poly(A)-binding protein], are translationally regulated by mitogenic signals through their 5′ terminal oligopyrimidine tract (5′TOP) ( 35 ). (asm.org)
  • exotoxins
  • These values were similar to those of ETA, but the amino acid composition and the NH2-terminal sequence of SMEZ were distinct from those of any mitogenic exotoxins hitherto described. (asm.org)
  • The results from this study provide an additional example of the diversity that exists among mitogenic or superantigenic exotoxins of streptococcal origin. (asm.org)
  • distinct
  • Streptococcus pyogenes T1 was previously found to produce an acidic mitogenic exotoxin, designated A beta, antigenically distinct from erythrogenic toxin type A (ETA) of strains T1 and NY5. (asm.org)
  • primarily
  • It therefore appears that translation of TOP mRNAs is primarily regulated by growth and mitogenic cues through the PI3-kinase pathway, with a minor role, if any, for the mTOR pathway. (asm.org)
  • Effects
  • The inhibitory effects of imidazole and thyrocalcitonin on vasopressin's mitogenic action are both overcome by the phosphodiesterase inhibitor, caffeine. (dtic.mil)
  • rapid
  • This was caused by the rapid enzymatic conversion into its two metabolic active metabolites M1 and M2, with reduced mitogenic signalling through the IGF1R. (eur.nl)