• K. S. McCommis, A. M. McGee, M. Harold Laughlin, D. K. Bowles, and C. P. Baines, "Hypercholesterolemia increases mitochondrial oxidative stress and enhances the MPT response in the porcine myocardium: Beneficial effects of chronic exercise," The American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology , vol. 301, no. 5, pp. (hindawi.com)
  • The data show that berberine is selectively accumulated by mitochondria, which is accompanied by arrest of cell proliferation, mitochondrial fragmentation and depolarization, oxidative stress, and a decrease in ATP levels. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Isolated mitochondrial fractions treated with berberine had slower mitochondrial respiration, especially when complex I substrates were used, and increased complex I-dependent oxidative stress. (aspetjournals.org)
  • For example, during apoptosis, several mitochondrial events typically occur, including loss of the electrochemical gradient (ΔΨ) across the inner membrane, resulting in uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation, generation of superoxide free radicals, and dumping of matrix-associated Ca 2+ into the cytosol (reviewed in ref. 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • The beneficial effect of exercise on cardioprotection is partially associated with an improvement in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation efficiency, an upregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, an increase in the levels of ROS-scavenging enzymes and other stress response genes, and a reduction in the accumulation of oxidative damage [ 10 , 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition to oxidative stress, an increase in mitochondrial calcium is fundamental for mPTP opening ( Bernardi, 2013 ), and it is known that axotomy increases calcium in the axon above the normal range ( Ziv and Spira, 1995 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • ROS are mainly generated by the mitochondrial respiratory chain in eukaryotic cells, this being composed of four protein complexes that mediate the transfer of electrons from NADH-flavin adenine dinucleotide to molecular oxygen. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Abnormalities in gene/protein expression, signal transduction cascades, and mitochondrial function have all been proposed to be involved in this attenuation [ 4 , 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Exercise appears to restore preconditioning protection in aged rat hearts, possibly due to an increase in intracellular polyamines and an improvement in mitochondrial function in response to a preconditioning stimulus. (hindawi.com)