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  • proteins
  • Because different proteins compete for the proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane, an efficient mechanism is required for allocation of associated chemical potential to the distinct demands, such as ATP production, thermogenesis, regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), etc. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we used the superresolution technique dSTORM (direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy) to visualize several mitochondrial proteins in primary mouse neurons and test the hypothesis that uncoupling protein 4 (UCP4) and F0F1-ATP synthase are spatially separated to eliminate competition for the proton motive force. (nih.gov)
  • Proton flow represents a major device for energy transfer by membrane proteins. (springer.com)
  • Genes
  • We evaluate the adaptive evolution of 12 protein-coding mitochondrial genes in 41 placental mammalian species by assessing amino acid sequence variation and exploring the functional implications of observed variation in secondary and tertiary protein structures. (nih.gov)
  • synthases
  • We propose that enlarged c-rings in proton-dependent F-ATP synthases may represent an adaptation to facilitate ATP synthesis at low overall proton-motive force, as occurs in bacteria that grow at alkaline pH. (cam.ac.uk)
  • conduction
  • It either transmits conformational changes from CF(0) into CF(1) or is involved in proton conduction [ PMID: 2154253 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • glutamate
  • Another hydrophilic cavity on the lumenal membrane surface defines a direct route for the protons to an essential histidine-glutamate pair. (cam.ac.uk)
  • separation
  • It was also postulated that the energy conversion involves an inertial energy release ( 12 ), whereas our works ( 13 , 14 ) have suggested that the energetics is associated with the electrostatic work, and the origin of the free energy change involves a significant contribution from the charge separation in solution outside the ATPase active sites. (pnas.org)
  • species
  • Therefore, in about 50,000 vertebrate species, and probably in many or all of the two million invertebrate species, 2.7 protons are required by the F-ATPase to make each ATP molecule. (cam.ac.uk)
  • structural
  • These experiments contribute significantly toward building up a complete structural picture of the F-ATPase. (cam.ac.uk)