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  • putative
  • In an attempt to determine the identity of these putative proteins, we used p49/STRAP protein fragments as bait in the yeast two-hybrid system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We also present results from a comprehensive mutational analysis of the dibasic motif and surrounding sequences that not only greatly expands the functional definition and context-dependent properties of this targeting signal, but also led to the identification of other novel putative OMM-TA proteins. (frontiersin.org)
  • Progress in understanding PSI assembly has come largely from studies of mutants in putative assembly factors ( 7 , 10 , 11 , 14 , 15 ), including hypothetical chloroplast open reading frame 3 (Ycf3), Ycf3-interacting protein 1 (Y3IP1), Ycf4, plant-specific putative DNA-binding protein 1 (PPD1), and Ycf37/pale yellow green7-1 (Pyg7-1). (pnas.org)
  • thylakoid membrane
  • A Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant lacking CGL71, a thylakoid membrane protein previously shown to be involved in photosystem I (PSI) accumulation, exhibited photosensitivity and highly reduced abundance of PSI under photoheterotrophic conditions. (pnas.org)
  • In plants, the chloroplast thylakoid membrane is the site of light-driven photosynthetic reactions coupled to ATP synthesis. (plantphysiol.org)
  • ATP is produced as a result of the light-driven photosynthetic reactions in the thylakoid membrane and mainly is utilized in the carbon fixation reactions occurring in the soluble stroma. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Besides this, ATP also drives several energy-dependent processes occurring on the stromal side of the thylakoid membrane, including phosphorylation, folding, import, and degradation of proteins. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Thylakoids consist of a thylakoid membrane surrounding a thylakoid lumen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The thylakoid membrane is the site of the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis with the photosynthetic pigments embedded directly in the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The thylakoid lumen is a continuous aqueous phase enclosed by the thylakoid membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the light-dependent reaction, protons are pumped across the thylakoid membrane into the lumen making it acidic down to pH 4. (wikipedia.org)
  • solute
  • See TCDB for functional assignments Many MC proteins preferentially catalyze the exchange of one solute for another (antiport). (wikipedia.org)
  • They are mainly of the solute carrier family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Solute carrier family Amino acid transport Amino acid transport, acidic Amino acid transport, basic Amino acid transport disorder Amino acid Transporter Classification Database Kanai Y, Hediger MA (2004). (wikipedia.org)
  • The solute carrier (SLC) group of membrane transport proteins include over 400 members organized into 52 families. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hence, the criteria for inclusion of a family into the SLC group is not evolutionary relatedness to other SLC families but rather functional (i.e., an integral membrane protein that transports a solute). (wikipedia.org)
  • Names of individual SLC members have the following format: SLCnXm where: SLC is the root name (SoLute Carrier) n = an integer representing a family (e.g., 1-52) X = a single letter (A, B, C, ...) denoting a subfamily m = an integer representing an individual family member (isoform). (wikipedia.org)
  • Physiological
  • These disorders are characterized by specific metabolic dysfunctions, depending on the physiological role of the affected carrier in intermediary metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • This charge transfer generates the trans-membrane proton electrochemical gradient that is utilized for synthesis of the chemical high energy intermediate, ATP. (nanohub.org)
  • Dysregulation of succinate synthesis, and therefore ATP synthesis, happens in some genetic mitochondrial diseases, such as Leighs disease, and Melas disease, and degradation can lead to pathological conditions, such as malignant transformation, inflammation and tissue injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, they also require a small membrane potential for the kinetics of ATP synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • endoplasmic reticulum
  • Interestingly, in the adult heart, it appears that the pleiotropic effects of the mitochondrial fusion proteins, Mfn2 (endoplasmic reticulum-tethering, mitophagy) and OPA1 (cristae remodeling, regulation of apoptosis, and energy production) may play more important roles than their pro-fusion effects. (springer.com)
  • Lipids forming the thylakoid membranes, richest in high-fluidity linolenic acid are synthesized in a complex pathway involving exchange of lipid precursors between the endoplasmic reticulum and inner membrane of the plastid envelope and transported from the inner membrane to the thylakoids via vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • apoptosis
  • Overexpression of uncoupling protein 2 inhibits the high glucose-induced apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. (abcam.com)
  • Protease
  • Limited proteolysis of the large isoform by the mitochondrial rhomboid protease Pcp1/Rbd1 generates the short isoform of Mgm1 but how this is regulated is unclear. (rupress.org)
  • Numbers below indicate amino acid position after which cleavage by mitochondrial processing peptidase (MPP) or mitochondrial rhomboid protease (Pcp1, C13E7.11, 1D784, PARL) occurs. (rupress.org)
  • polypeptide
  • The cytochrome b 6 f complex of oxygenic photosynthesis, which is the central electron transfer and proton translocating complex of oxygenic photosynthesis, has been solved to a resolution of 3.0 A. It is a dimeric structure of 220,000 molecular weight, containing 8 polypeptide subunits, with 7 tightly bound electron transfer and pigment groups per monomer. (nanohub.org)
  • The C-terminal TMD of a TA protein also dictates its characteristic membrane orientation, whereby the N-terminal portion of the protein, which often represents the majority of the polypeptide and contains the functional domain(s), faces the cytoplasm, while the C-terminal sequence (CTS) downstream of the TMD, which usually contains organelle-specific targeting information, protrudes into the organelle's interior ( Borgese and Fasana, 2011 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Some polypeptide hormones, antimicrobial peptides, and neurotoxins accumulate at the membrane surface prior to locating and interacting with their cell surface receptor targets, which may themselves be peripheral membrane proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • peptides
  • Check out links to articles that cite our custom service antibodies, peptides, and proteins in major peer-reviewed journals, organized by research category. (abgent.com)
  • protons
  • Complex III catalyses the pumping of protons across the inner membrane and transfer of electrons from ubiquinol to cytochrome c by a mechanism known as the Q cycle in which ubiquinol (Q) the electron carrier exists as a reduced, partially reduced or oxidized form. (abcam.com)
  • The movement of protons creates an electrochemical gradient across the membrane, which is often called the proton-motive force. (wikipedia.org)
  • photosynthetic
  • For example, acidic lipids can be found in thylakoid membranes, cyanobacteria and other photosynthetic bacteria and are involved in the functional integrity of the photosystems. (wikipedia.org)
  • fission
  • In this review article, we provide an overview of the mitochondrial fusion and fission proteins in the adult heart, and highlight their roles as novel therapeutic targets for treating cardiac disease. (springer.com)