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  • adenosine triphosphate
  • The simpler, non-nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (eg, clodronate and etidronate) can be metabolically incorporated into nonhydrolysable analogues of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) that may inhibit ATP-dependent intracellular enzymes. (aappublications.org)
  • Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products. (wikipedia.org)
  • The products of this process are carbon dioxide and water, but the energy transferred is used to break bonds in ADP as the third phosphate group is added to form ATP (adenosine triphosphate), by substrate-level phosphorylation, NADH and FADH2 The negative ΔG indicates that the reaction can occur spontaneously. (wikipedia.org)
  • NADH
  • Two equivalents of NADH are also produced, which can be oxidized via the electron transport chain and result in the generation of additional ATP by ATP synthase. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the pay-off phase of glycolysis, four phosphate groups are transferred to ADP by substrate-level phosphorylation to make four ATP, and two NADH are produced when the pyruvate are oxidized. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pyruvate dehydrogenase is inhibited when one or more of the three following ratios are increased: ATP/ADP, NADH/NAD+ and acetyl-CoA/CoA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conditions that cause the pore to close or remain closed include acidic conditions, high concentrations of ADP, high concentrations of ATP, and high concentrations of NADH. (wikipedia.org)
  • conformation
  • Many precursor proteins (those that are destined for the matrix) contain amino-terminal presequences that carry information required for the targeting of proteins to the mitochondrial matrix These matrix targeting signals generally contain 10-80 amino acid residues that take on the conformation of an amphipathic-α helix and contain one positive and hydrophobic face. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first family, which includes atractyloside (ATR) and carboxyatractyloside (CATR), binds to the ADP/ATP translocase from the cytoplasmic side, locking it in a cytoplasmic side open conformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, the second family, which includes bongkrekic acid (BA) and isobongkrekic acid (isoBA), binds the translocase from the matrix, locking it in a matrix side open conformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthase
  • The P/O ratio is dependent on the quantity of hydrogen atoms transported outward across an electrochemical gradient, and the number of protons which return inward through the membrane via an enzyme such as ATP synthase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ATP generated will be dependent on the amount of ATP produced per rotation of the ATP synthase rotor, and the number of hydrogen atoms necessary to complete a rotation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inward moving hydrogen must not only power rotation of ATP synthase, but may also be used in the transport of products and precursors. (wikipedia.org)
  • This potential is then used to drive ATP synthase and produce ATP from ADP and a phosphate group. (wikipedia.org)
  • inorganic
  • The ATP/ADP uniporters can also transport inorganic phosphate, but not ribonucleoside and monophosphates, as well as deoxyribonucleotides. (wikipedia.org)
  • However some anaerobic organisms, such as methanogens are able to continue with anaerobic respiration, yielding more ATP by using other inorganic molecules (not oxygen) as final electron acceptors in the electron transport chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • Biology textbooks often state that 38 ATP molecules can be made per oxidised glucose molecule during cellular respiration (2 from glycolysis, 2 from the Krebs cycle, and about 34 from the electron transport system). (wikipedia.org)
  • Aerobic metabolism is up to 15 times more efficient than anaerobic metabolism (which yields 2 molecules ATP per 1 molecule glucose). (wikipedia.org)
  • In aerobic conditions, the process converts one molecule of glucose into two molecules of pyruvate (pyruvic acid), generating energy in the form of two net molecules of ATP. (wikipedia.org)
  • Four molecules of ATP per glucose are actually produced, however, two are consumed as part of the preparatory phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • When Δψ is lost, protons and some molecules are able to flow across the outer mitochondrial membrane uninhibited. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • The overall process of oxidizing glucose to carbon dioxide, the combination of pathways 1 and 2, is known as cellular respiration, produces about 30 equivalents of ATP from each molecule of glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, current figures place it at 2.5 ATP per .5 O2 reduced to water, though some claim the ratio is 3 This figure arises from accepting that 10 H+ are transported out of the matrix per 2 e−, and 4 H+ are required to move inward to synthesize a molecule of ATP. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibitor
  • In contrast to König's polyanion (PA10), a specific inhibitor of the VDAC, Bcl-2 fails to prevent Vpr52-96 from crossing the mitochondrial OM. (nih.gov)
  • Vpr increased succinate oxidation preceding ADP addition and abolished both the inhibitory effect of oligomycin (a specific ATPase inhibitor) and the stimulatory effect of uncoupling by the protonophore CCCP. (nih.gov)
  • metabolism
  • The dephosphorylation of ATP and rephosphorylation of ADP and AMP occur repeatedly in the course of aerobic metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • The main control point for the glycolytic pathway is phosphofructokinase (PFK), which is allosterically inhibited by high concentrations of ATP and activated by high concentrations of AMP. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • Being polyanionic and featuring a potentially chelatable polyphosphate group, ATP binds metal cations with high affinity. (wikipedia.org)