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  • dysfunction
  • They may also be the result of acquired mitochondrial dysfunction due to adverse effects of drugs, infections, or other environmental causes (see MeSH). (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitohondrial optic neuropathies are a heterogenous group of disorders that present with visual disturbances resultant from mitochondrial dysfunction within the anatomy of the Retinal Ganglion Cells (RGC), optic nerve, optic chiasm, and optic tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nerve cells in the brain and muscles appear to be particularly damaged when mitochondrial dysfunction occurs because nerve cells and muscles require a great amount of energy. (smartdraw.com)
  • Organized in sections focusing on: basic science, mitochondrial dysfunction in cardiac disorders, in vascular disorders, in metabolic disorders, in kidney disease, therapeutic challenges and options, this essential volume fills imperative gaps in understanding and potentially treating several cardiovascular disorders. (springer.com)
  • genetic
  • These mitochondrial dynamics are important for the health of the cell, and defects in dynamics lead to genetic disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • By enabling genetic complementation, fusion of the mitochondria allows for two mitochondrial genomes with different defects within the same organelle to individually encode what the other lacks. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] A possible synergism between genetic and acquired mitochondrial optic neuropathies has been suggested and there are only a few case reports to support this phenomenon, requiring further research and demonstration of evidence to corroborate these findings Nutritional deficiency may be the cause of a genuine optic neuropathy, sometimes associated with involvement of the peripheral nervous system, called peripheral neuropathy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vertebrate mitochondrial code is the genetic code found in the mitochondria of all vertebrata. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evolution of the mitochondrial genetic code. (wikipedia.org)
  • The trematode mitochondrial code (translation table 21) is a genetic code found in the mitochondria of trematoda. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitochondrial inheritance is therefore non-Mendelian , as Mendelian inheritance presumes that half the genetic material of a fertilized egg ( zygote ) derives from each parent. (wikipedia.org)
  • symptoms
  • Although mitochondrial diseases vary greatly in presentation from person to person, several major clinical categories of these conditions have been defined, based on the most common phenotypic features, symptoms, and signs associated with the particular mutations that tend to cause them. (wikipedia.org)
  • tRNA
  • 30 Platyhelminth mitochondrial DNA: evidence for early evolutionary origin of a tRNA(serAGN) that contains a dihydrouridine arm replacement loop, and of serine-specifying AGA and AGG codons Garey, J.R. and D.R. Wolstenholme, 1989. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomes
  • The complex nature of mitochondrial gene expression that relies on two different genomes calls for a multidisciplinary approach in which different teams of researchers join forces. (eurekalert.org)
  • humans
  • In humans, the 16,569 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA encode for only 37 genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In human genetics, the Mitochondrial Eve (also mt-Eve, mt-MRCA) is the matrilineal most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of all currently living humans, i.e., the most recent woman from whom all living humans descend in an unbroken line purely through their mothers, and through the mothers of those mothers, back until all lines converge on one woman. (wikipedia.org)
  • The male analog to the Mitochondrial Eve is the Y-chromosomal Adam, the member of Homo sapiens sapiens from whom all living humans are patrilineally descended. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitochondrial ferritin is a ferroxidase enzyme that in humans is encoded by the FTMT gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitochondrial genes in some vertebrates (including humans) have incomplete stop codons ending in U or UA, which become complete termination codons (UAA) upon subsequent polyadenylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • biogenesis
  • Mitochondrial biogenesis is the process by which cells increase their individual mitochondrial mass and copy number to increase the production of ATP as a response to greater energy expenditure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitochondrial biogenesis is activated by numerous different signals during times of cellular stress or in response to environmental stimuli, such as aerobic exercise. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, achieving a balance between these mechanisms allow a cell to have the proper organization of its mitochondrial network during biogenesis and may have an important role in muscle adaptation to physiological stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • free radicals
  • citation needed] Again, the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in nutritional optic neuropathies is common to all mitochondrial optic neuropathies: it affects biochemical pathways involved in cell energetic production, correction of oxidative stress and quenching of free radicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • substrates
  • Phylogenetic analyses have shown the existence of a limited number of mitochondrial carrier subfamilies involved in the transport of structurally related substrates. (els.net)
  • Mitochondrial carriers are present in either one of two different states, c and m, in which binding sites for substrates face the intermembrane (c) or matrix (m) spaces. (els.net)
  • toxicity
  • While the exact causes of mitochondrial toxicity are unknown, research has shown that a certain group of anti-viral drugs used to treat HIV, specifically nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), interfere with an enzyme needed in the production of mitochondria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The disruption of cell function that accompanies the condition can cause both mild and severe problems in people suffering from mitochondrial toxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depeint F, Bruce WR, Shangari N, Mehta R, O'Brien PJ (2006) Mitochondrial function and toxicity: role of the B vitamin family on mitochondrial energy metabolism. (springer.com)
  • Depeint F, Bruce WR, Shangari N, Mehta R, O'Brien PJ (2006) Mitochondrial function and toxicity: role of the B vitamins on the one-carbon transfer pathways. (springer.com)
  • carrier
  • Mitochondrial carrier Silva, Pedro. (wikipedia.org)
  • X‐ray crystallography of the mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier in the c‐state has shown that the six α‐helices form a compact bundle shaping a cavity sealed on the matrix side by a salt‐bridge network. (els.net)
  • Substrate translocation by mitochondrial carriers occurs coupled to conformational movements of the α‐helices that open the carrier. (els.net)
  • a) Schematic diagram of the mitochondrial carrier secondary structure. (els.net)