• In eukaryotic cells, the exchange of metabolites across the inner mitochondrial membrane is performed by members of the mitochondrial carrier family (MCF), the largest family of solute transporters. (els.net)
  • Mitochondrial carriers form an evolutionary conserved family present in all eukaryotic cells. (els.net)
  • Knowledge of the bacterial and eukaryotic translation mechanisms supersedes what is understood about mitochondrial translation. (news-medical.net)
  • Overall, the eukaryotic mitochondrial translation system resembles the system seen in prokaryotes, rather than the expected system seen in the cytoplasm of eukaryotes. (news-medical.net)
  • a) shows the interrelationships between the oxidative pathways of glucose, aminoacid, and fatty acid, which lead to ATP production in the mitochondrial RC enzymes (black box). (hindawi.com)
  • b) shows the enzymatic cascade for the biosynthesis of CoQ 10 from mevalonic acid (left) and the principal mitochondrial enzymes with antioxidant function (right): (1) superoxide dismutase, (2) thioreductase, (3) glutathione peroxidase, (4) catalase, (5) Fenton reaction, (6) prenyl diphosphate synthetase subunit 1 and 2 ( PDSS1 and PDSS2 ), and (7) CoQ biosynthesis enzymes ( COQ2-COQ8 ). (hindawi.com)
  • Zhong and colleagues studied mice to assess whether the availability of this mitochondrial DNA might regulate inflammation. (nature.com)
  • The key aim of the REMIX network is to combine the skills of European research groups to strategically train the next generation of scientists in a program that will contribute to elucidating the molecular mechanisms and pathways that regulate mitochondrial gene expression. (eurekalert.org)
  • Aleksandra Trifunovic, Principal Investigator at the Cluster of Excellence CECAD, will coordinate the REMIX project (REgulation of MItochondrial gene eXpression), an Innovation Training Network funded under the highly competitive Marie Skłodowska-Curie Action of the European Commission. (eurekalert.org)
  • The complex nature of mitochondrial gene expression that relies on two different genomes calls for a multidisciplinary approach in which different teams of researchers join forces. (eurekalert.org)
  • CoQ 10 , vitamin C, vitamin E, and other small molecules also contribute to the mitochondrial defense arsenal against oxidation [ 1 , 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Within the mitochondrial RC, ubiquinone or coenzyme Q10 (CoQ 10 ) plays a crucial role in accepting and shuttling electrons (Figure 1 ) [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Because of the complex ways in which mitochondrial and nuclear DNA "communicate" and interact, even seemingly simple inheritance is hard to diagnose. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nuclear DNA and the mitochondrial DNA are independent of each other. (everything2.com)
  • Dashed lines indicate substrates that generate abnormal metabolites in mitochondrial cytopathies (i.e., lactate, alanine, organic acids, and acyl-carnitines). (hindawi.com)
  • Mitochondrial carriers perform the exchange of metabolites, nucleotides and cofactors through the inner mitochondrial membrane. (els.net)
  • The cryo-electron microscopy structure of the yeast mitochondrial F O complex explains dimerization, membrane bending, and proton translocation. (sciencemag.org)
  • Substrate translocation by mitochondrial carriers occurs coupled to conformational movements of the α‐helices that open the carrier. (els.net)
  • Q: Is there a relationship between mitochondrial disease and autism? (cdc.gov)
  • A child with autism may or may not have a mitochondrial disease. (cdc.gov)
  • In general, more research about mitochondrial disease and autism is needed. (cdc.gov)
  • The area of the brain that is damaged by a mitochondrial disease determines how the person is impacted. (cdc.gov)
  • We do know that certain illnesses that can be prevented by vaccines, such as the flu, can trigger the regression that is related to a mitochondrial disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Q: Should I have my child tested for a mitochondrial disease? (cdc.gov)
  • If you are worried that your child might have a mitochondrial disease, talk to your child's doctor. (cdc.gov)
  • What Is Mitochondrial Disease? (medlineplus.gov)
  • Phylogenetic analyses have shown the existence of a limited number of mitochondrial carrier subfamilies involved in the transport of structurally related substrates. (els.net)
  • Mitochondrial carriers are present in either one of two different states, c and m, in which binding sites for substrates face the intermembrane (c) or matrix (m) spaces. (els.net)
  • The mitochondrial shuttles are systems used to transport reducing agents across the inner mitochondrial membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • While Qu displays both pro- and antioxidant activities, RSV and Cur are strong antioxidant, as they efficiently scavenge mitochondrial ROS and upregulate antioxidant transcriptional programmes in cells. (hindawi.com)
  • More and more examples are being found of mitochondrial functions being repurposed in unexpected ways to contribute to inflammatory signalling 2 - 5 . (nature.com)
  • However, tumors arise, progress, and respond to therapy in the context of an intimate crosstalk with the host immune system, and many immunological functions rely on intact mitochondrial metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • When the authors transferred synthetic oxidized mitochondrial DNA into macrophage cells grown in vitro from the animals lacking TFAM, this triggered inflammasome activation in response to an LPS signal. (nature.com)
  • This is due to the lack of suitable in vitro mimics of the mitochondrial environment in which the process can be studied. (news-medical.net)
  • X‐ray crystallography of the mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier in the c‐state has shown that the six α‐helices form a compact bundle shaping a cavity sealed on the matrix side by a salt‐bridge network. (els.net)
  • The members of the mitochondrial carrier family showing conserved features. (els.net)
  • a) Schematic diagram of the mitochondrial carrier secondary structure. (els.net)
  • Mitochondrial carrier Silva, Pedro. (wikipedia.org)
  • This led to a loss of mitochondrial DNA, resulting in defective inflammasome activation. (nature.com)
  • The mitochondrial matrix also contains the mitochondria's DNA and ribosomes . (bionity.com)
  • The citric acid cycle (or Krebs cycle or TCA cycle) takes place within the mitochondrial matrix. (bionity.com)
  • It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Mitochondrial_matrix" . (bionity.com)
  • The transport mechanism proposed for mitochondrial carriers. (els.net)
  • A second point that distinguishes the mitochondrial translation mechanism are the features of mRNAs. (news-medical.net)