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  • cytoskeleton
  • The SPECC1L gene provides instructions for making a protein called cytospin-A. This protein interacts with components of the cytoskeleton and stabilizes microtubules, which is necessary for these fibers to regulate various cell processes including the movement of cells to their proper location (cell migration). (nih.gov)
  • Centrioles perform two distinct functions in eukaryotic cells: 1) they recruit pericentriolar material to form centrosomes that organize the microtubule cytoskeleton and position the mitotic spindle, and 2) they template cilia, cellular projections that perform a variety of critical sensory and motile functions. (oeaw.ac.at)
  • disassembly
  • The release of microtubules is prevented by CDK activity, as nondegradable cyclin B inhibited the disassembly after chromosome separation. (rupress.org)
  • While these drugs did not alter reovirus cell attachment or internalization, microtubule inhibitors diminished viral disassembly kinetics with a concomitant decrease in infectivity. (nih.gov)
  • Observations of individual microtubules using a variety of optical techniques coupled with biochemical analyses and modeling have resulted in a conceptual framework to understand the kinetics and structural transitions that occur during their growth and disassembly. (pnas.org)
  • Microtubule assembly and disassembly is vital for many fundamental cellular processes. (dur.ac.uk)
  • Disassembly of the microtubules with these treatments prevented the characteristic cell shape changes in, and thus differentiation of, the mesenchyme of the developing embryo. (rupress.org)
  • kinesin
  • Gilbert et al reports that myosin and kinesin are binary switching in the microtubules. (bio.net)
  • The data curve supports this with a ossilation of 50/50 hook up of the myosin/kinesin system to the microtubules. (bio.net)
  • Our results indicate that transport kinesins, such as kinesin-1, may be evolutionarily adapted to avoid the formation of traffic jams by moving only with moderate processivity and dissociating rapidly from microtubule ends. (pnas.org)
  • Moreover, abrupt local increases in kinesin-1 density on a microtubule have been reported ( 15 ), but whether these were associated with an abrupt decrease in speed was not investigated in these experiments. (pnas.org)
  • In this work, we have used two-color total internal-reflection fluorescence microscopy ( 19 ) to simultaneously measure the speed of individual kinesin motors moving on microtubules while monitoring the local motor density. (pnas.org)
  • It has been previously known that kinesin move cargo towards the positive (+) end of a microtubule, also known as anterograde transport/orthograde transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasmic microtubules
  • Building on the earlier work by Sinnott and Bloch, who had shown that wounding the existing tracheary elements in a Coleus stem induced neighboring parenchyma cells to differentiate into new tracheary elements, Hepler showed that cytoplasmic microtubules were localized specifically in the cortical cytoplasm immediately over the bands of new secondary wall thickenings. (wikipedia.org)
  • cilia
  • The axoneme of primary cilia typically has a ring of nine outer microtubule doublets (called a 9+0 axoneme), and the axoneme of a motile cilium has two central microtubule singlets in addition to the nine outer doublets (called a 9+2 axoneme). (wikipedia.org)
  • depolymerization
  • Experiments performed at about the same time showed that treatment of A. nucleofilum cells with agents that cause microtubule depolymerization-mainly, hydrostatic pressure and colchicine treatment-gave similar results (Tilney et al. (rupress.org)
  • This cap provides both stability and protection to the microtubule (-) end from enzymes that could lead to its depolymerization, while also inhibiting (-) end growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is partly due to phosphorylation of XMAP215, which makes catastrophes (rapid depolymerization of microtubules) more likely. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dynamic Instability
  • The dynamic instability that makes it possible for microtubules to transition from a rigid polymerized or "assembled" nucleotide state to a flexible depolymerized or "disassembled" nucleotide state is driven by guanosine triphosphate (GTP) hydrolysis in the microtubule lattice. (lbl.gov)
  • A better understanding of how microtubule dynamic instability is regulated could open new opportunities for improving the potency and selectivity of existing anti-cancer drugs, as well as facilitate the development of novel agents," Nogales says. (lbl.gov)
  • subunit
  • In this model, the subunit disassociation rate from a microtubule tip is independent of free subunit concentration. (dur.ac.uk)
  • Because both the association and the dissociation rates increase at higher free subunit concentrations, we find that the kinetics of microtubule assembly are an order-of-magnitude higher than currently estimated in the literature. (dur.ac.uk)
  • cellular
  • Microtubules can spontaneously self-organize, transforming from many singular components into one large cellular structure capable of performing specific tasks. (eurekalert.org)
  • Microtubules are at the heart of cellular self-organization, and their dynamic nature allows them to explore the intracellular space and mediate the transport of cargoes from the nucleus to the outer edges of the cell and back. (springer.com)
  • Microtubules are very important in a number of cellular processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • actin filaments
  • The common methods in nanobiomechanics are summarized below: Atomic force microscope Optical tweezers Magnetic twisting cytometry bone and its hierarchical constituents such as single collagen fibrils single living cells actin filaments and microtubules synthetic peptide nanotubes In addition to experimental aspect, research has been expanding through computational methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Beyond their importance to our understanding of basic cell biology, microtubules are a major target for anticancer drugs, such as Taxol, which can prevent the transition from growing to shrinking nucleotide states or vice versa. (lbl.gov)
  • Rui Zhang is the lead author of a Cell paper describing the record 3.5 Angstroms resolution imaging of microtubules. (lbl.gov)
  • Reovirus cell entry requires functional microtubules. (nih.gov)
  • Our finding that microtubule-inhibiting drugs impair reovirus infection identifies a new cell-based antiviral target. (nih.gov)
  • In 1967, Lewis Tilney and Keith Porter, then at Harvard University, provided direct experimental evidence that microtubule polymerization was important for the development and maintenance of cell shape. (rupress.org)
  • Importantly, later work by Tilney and Gibbins (1969) established that microtubules also help change cell structure in higher organisms. (rupress.org)
  • The biochemical basis of microtubule growth has remained elusive for over 30 years despite being fundamental for both cell division and associated chemotherapy strategies. (pnas.org)
  • Astral microtubules develop in the actin skeleton and interact with the cell cortex to aid in spindle orientation. (wikipedia.org)
  • These dyneins have their light chains (static portion) attached to the cell membrane, and their globular parts (dynamic portions) attached to the microtubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • The function of astral microtubules can be generally considered as determination of cell geometry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tubulin and microtubule-mediated processes, like cell locomotion, were seen by early microscopists, like Leeuwenhoek (1677). (wikipedia.org)
  • These non-centrosomal microtubule arrays can take on various geometries-such as those lead to the long, slender shape of myotubes, the fine protrusions of an axon, or the strongly polarized domains of an epithelial cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microtubules are anchored at the MTOC by their minus ends, while their plus ends continue to grow into the cell periphery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Particularly for the Golgi apparatus, structures associated with the apparatus travel towards the minus end of a microtubule and aid in the overall structure and site of the Golgi in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this way the stabilization of microtubules by MAPs is regulated within the cell through phosphorylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tau has the additional function of facilitating bundling of microtubules within the nerve cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • He received his B.S. in chemistry from the University of New Hampshire in 1958 and earned his Ph.D. in plant cell biology from University of Wisconsin in 1964, studying the role of cortical microtubules in plant cell development with Eldon H. Newcomb. (wikipedia.org)
  • Undulipodia are an extension of the cell membrane containing both cytoplasm and a regular arrangement of microtubules known as an axoneme. (wikipedia.org)
  • filaments
  • In earlier work, Frey's group had shown that the density of molecular motors attached to the filaments has an impact on whether the microtubule grows or shrinks, and that their effect depends on the length of the filament concerned. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Microtubules can also morph into other forms such as helical filaments, which are observed in protist organisms like foraminifera. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kinesins move along microtubule (MT) filaments, and are powered by the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) (thus kinesins are ATPases). (wikipedia.org)
  • dissociation
  • To determine the molecular properties that lead to jamming, we altered the concentration of motors, their processivity, and their rate of dissociation from microtubule ends. (pnas.org)
  • Traffic jams occurred when the motor density exceeded a critical value (density-induced jams) or when motor dissociation from the microtubule ends was so slow that it resulted in a pileup (bottleneck-induced jams). (pnas.org)
  • bind
  • Researchers suspect that this process involves non-centrosomal γ-TuRCs that bind to the sides of existing microtubules through the augmin complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • A single study has suggested that MAP2 and tau bind on the inner microtubule surface on the same site in tubulin monomers as the drug Taxol, which is used in treating cancer, but this study has not been confirmed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Besides the classic MAP groups, novel MAPs have been identified that bind the length of the microtubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Formins also directly bind to microtubules via their FH2 domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • microfilaments
  • Hepler described his realization of the influence a review he and Palevitz wrote on microtubules and microfilaments "to introduce new thoughts and promising avenues for future research" had with his characteristic self-deprecating sense of humor: "I became aware that the review was being read widely one summer (1979) while working in the library at the Marine Biological Laboratory. (wikipedia.org)
  • structure
  • 2 Structure and Chemistry of Microtubules. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • One reason is the multistranded structure of the microtubule. (pnas.org)
  • This is because there is a shift in microtubule tip structure from relatively blunt at low free concentrations to relatively tapered at high free concentrations, which we confirmed experimentally by TIRF microscopy. (dur.ac.uk)
  • This binding can occur with either polymerized or depolymerized tubulin, and in most cases leads to the stabilization of microtubule structure, further encouraging polymerization. (wikipedia.org)
  • The kinetosome mediates movement through a chemical reaction, causing the microtubules to slide against one another and the whole structure to bend. (wikipedia.org)