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  • technology
  • Abstract As water and sewer costs are expected to increase over the next decade, membrane technology will continue to be a viable and economical option in the recovery and reuse of water. (environmental-expert.com)
  • solids
  • The Aerobic Digestion group has recently been conducting pilot testing of silicon carbide ceramic membranes manufactured by the Danish company Cembrane A/S. This promising technology shows a great ability to filter water even in the challenging high solids environment of sludge thickening. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Aeration maintains solids in suspension, scours the membrane surface and provides oxygen to the biomass, leading to a better biodegradability and cell synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microfiltration is used to remove residual suspended solids (SS), to remove bacteria in order to condition the water for effective disinfection and as a pre-treatment step for reverse osmosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • minimize particulate and microbial fouling of the RO membranes by removal of turbidity and bacteria, (2) prevent scaling by removal of the hardness ions, (3) lower the operating pressure of the RO process by reducing the feed-water total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration. (wikipedia.org)
  • exchange membranes
  • Polysulfone (PS) Polyethylene (PE) Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) Polypropylene (PP) Polymer membranes may be functionalized into ion exchange membranes by the addition of highly acidic or basic functional groups, e.g. sulfonic acid and quaternary ammonium, enabling the membrane to form water channels and selectively transport cations or anions, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most important functional materials in this category include proton exchange membranes and alkaline anion exchange membranes, that are at the heart of many technologies in water treatment, energy storage, energy generation. (wikipedia.org)
  • adjacent membrane
  • The water to be treated passes between the membranes of two adjacent membrane assemblies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The general approach of the solution-diffusion model is to assume that the chemical potential of the feed and permeate fluids are in equilibrium with the adjacent membrane surfaces such that appropriate expressions for the chemical potential in the fluid and membrane phases can be equated at the solution-membrane interface. (wikipedia.org)
  • MBRs
  • Recent technical innovation and significant membrane cost reduction have enabled MBRs to become an established process option to treat wastewaters. (wikipedia.org)
  • microporous
  • In these two half-day courses, attendees will gather new insights into the various types of microporous membranes including: Strengths and Weaknesses, Performance Characteristics, Integrity Testing, Retention Efficiency, Ratings and Comparisons. (nanowerk.com)
  • flux
  • High flux rates, combined with a very high chemical and thermal resistance and the resulting operational reliability - these are the reasons why users worldwide opt for ceramic membranes. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The energy demand of the submerged system can be up to 2 orders of magnitude lower than that of the sidestream systems and submerged systems operate at a lower flux, demanding more membrane area. (wikipedia.org)
  • High temperatures have been found to increase the flux of liquid across the microfiltration membrane, so a minimum temperature of 165 °F (74 °C) is specified. (wikipedia.org)
  • Membrane fouling can cause severe flux decline and affect the quality of the water produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, under constant pressure operation, flux declines due to membrane fouling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Concentration polarization is, in principle, reversible by cleaning the membrane which results in the initial flux being almost totally restored. (wikipedia.org)
  • Higher flux in the membrane causes a decrease in the concentration at the upstream membrane surface ( c 1 ′ {\displaystyle c_{1}'} ) and an increase at the downstream surface ( c 1 ″ {\displaystyle c_{1}''} ), Fig. 1b. (wikipedia.org)
  • The concentration gradients cause additional diffusion fluxes, which contribute to an increase of the total flux in the solutions and to a decrease of the flux in the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • permeate
  • In the membrane field, the term module is used to describe a complete unit composed of the membranes, the pressure support structure, the feed inlet, the outlet permeate and retentate streams, and an overall support structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spiral Wound, where a flexible permeate spacer is placed between two flat membranes sheet. (wikipedia.org)
  • The plate supports the membranes and provides a channel for the permeate to flow out of the unit module. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, the liquid to be filtered flows along the front of the membrane and is separated by the pressure difference between the front and back of the membrane into retentate (the flowing concentrate) on the front and permeate (filtrate) on the back. (wikipedia.org)
  • gradients
  • The latter can be facilitated by pressure, concentration, chemical or electrical gradients of the membrane process. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most commonly used driving forces of a membrane process in industry are pressure and concentration gradients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical
  • Tenured Full time Researcher and Aggregate Professor in Chemical Engineering at the University of Bologna, and President of the European Membrane Society. (terrapinn.com)
  • NF is primarily developed as a membrane softening process which offers an alternative to chemical softening. (wikipedia.org)
  • Techniques that help in minimizing bacterial colony growth within UPW streams include occasional chemical or steam sanitization (which is common in the pharmaceutical industry), ultrafiltration (found in some pharmaceutical, but mostly semiconductor industries), ozonation and optimization of piping system designs that promote the use of Reynolds Number criteria for minimum flow along with minimization of dead legs. (wikipedia.org)