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  • glucose
  • Xsp8 grown in batch-cultures derived from unbleached kraft hardwood pulp hydrolysate containing 70 g L -1 total sugars was able to completely and simultaneously utilize xylose and glucose present in the lignocellulosic feedstock, and yielded 11.0 g L -1 of TAGs as fatty acids, corresponding to 45.8% of the cell dry weight. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These biotechnological processes are usually based on the use of simple sugars like glucose as a raw material. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The generated strains were evaluated in cultures with glucose, xylose or arabinose, as well as a simulated lignocellulosic hydrolysate containing a mixture of these three sugars plus acetate. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Combining these strategies resulted in the most favorable overall phenotypes for simultaneous glucose-xylose consumption without compromising methyl ketone titer at both 1 and 2% total sugar concentrations in shake flasks. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Native glycolytic pathways-a number of which have been discovered-oxidize the six-carbon sugar glucose into pyruvate and thence into two-carbon molecules known acetyl-CoA for either further oxidation or biosynthesis of cell constituents and products, including fatty acids, amino acids, isoprenoids and alcohols. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Caloramator celer is a strict anaerobic, alkalitolerant, thermophilic bacterium capable of converting glucose to hydrogen (H 2 ), carbon dioxide, acetate, ethanol and formate by a mixed acid fermentation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The ability of starch and glycogen to be broken down into simple sugars allows them to serve as important storage forms of glucose in plants and animals , respectively, and the stability of the linkages in cellulose and the strength of the linkages in chitin make them excellent structural components of plants and arthropods , respectively. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The simplest carbohydrates are monosaccharides, which are monomers-such as the simple sugars glucose , ribose , and [[fructose]-out of which larger carbohydrates are constructed. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Starch is a polysaccharide of glucose with α-1,4 glycosidic linkages (in which the carbon-1 of one sugar molecule is linked to the carbon-4 of the adjacent molecule). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • coli
  • Then, they genetically engineered E. coli bacteria to use the synthetic pathway and demonstrated complete carbon conservation. (greencarcongress.com)
  • in addition, because Bifidobacteria produces lactic acid instead of gas (like E. coli) , infants and people in general with more Bifidobacteria than other bacteria will have less gas and digestive problems. (kenyon.edu)
  • convert
  • Aristilde used an emerging biochemical approach, called metabolomics, to track different sugar carbon atoms inside the bacterial cells and learn why the cell factory does not efficiently convert all sugar carbons into biofuel. (phys.org)
  • The new pathway is intended to replace the natural metabolic pathway known as glycolysis, a series of chemical reactions that nearly all organisms use to convert sugars into the molecular precursors that cells need. (greencarcongress.com)
  • symbiotic
  • The aim of this paper is to give an overview of current knowledge on EPSs produced by marine bacteria including symbiotic marine EPS-producing bacteria isolated from some marine annelid worms that live in extreme niches. (mdpi.com)
  • This work highlights the use of metabolic modeling to design defined growth media for symbiotic bacteria and may provide novel inhibitory targets to block trypanosome transmission. (asm.org)
  • Included in this are a vast array of symbiotic bacteria. (asm.org)
  • Bifidobacteria , called probiotics, are a natural part of the bacterial flora in the human body and have a symbiotic bacteria-host relationship with humans. (kenyon.edu)
  • Bioethanol
  • Sugar beet pulp is an abundant industrial waste material that holds a great potential for bioethanol production owing to its high content of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and pectin. (jmb.or.kr)
  • intestinal bacteria
  • This pathway, called the bifid shunt, uses the key enzyme frutose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase (F6PPK) and is the generally used as a diagnostic test for this Bifidobacteria because it's not found in other gram-positive intestinal bacteria. (kenyon.edu)
  • pathways
  • The general strategy followed for the generation of microbial strains with the capacity to synthesize CA or pHCA from a simple carbon source involves performing genetic modifications that result in increased carbon flow to the L-Phe or L-Tyr biosynthetic pathways, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • While it is theoretically possible to split sugars or sugar phosphates into stoichiometric amounts of acetyl-CoA in a carbon- and redox-neutral manner, resulting in maximal yields, no such pathways are known to exist in nature. (greencarcongress.com)
  • NOG enables complete carbon conservation in sugar catabolism to acetyl-CoA, and can be used in conjunction with CO 2 fixation and other one-carbon (C1) assimilation pathways to achieve a 100% carbon yield to desirable fuels and chemicals. (greencarcongress.com)
  • The sugar in molasses can be metabolized by many micro-organisms and by several known pathways. (nzdl.org)
  • acids
  • The yield of total fatty acids per gram of sugars consumed was 0.178 g, which consisted primarily of palmitic acid and oleic acid. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This result, together with the presence of small organic acids like acetate and formate (1.36 mM and 0.06 mM respectively) in the acidic (pH 1.8) water stream, suggests that either L. ferrooxidans or other member of the microbial community are producing acetate in the acidophilic biofilm under microaerophilic conditions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bifidobacterium
  • Bifidobacterium is a Gram-positive, anaerobic, branched rod-shaped bacterium. (kenyon.edu)
  • While Bifidobacterium infantis, B. brevi, and B. longum are the largest group of bacteria in the intestine of infants, Bifidobacteria are said to be only the 3rd or 4th largest group in adults (and comprise only 3-6% of adult fecal flora). (kenyon.edu)
  • metabolic
  • But some hexose carbons (six-carbon sugars) are preferentially channeled through glycolysis, a metabolic pathway that connects to biofuel production. (phys.org)
  • Synergistic microbial communities are ubiquitous in nature and exhibit appealing features, such as sophisticated metabolic capabilities and robustness. (pnas.org)
  • Glycolysis, or its variations, is a fundamental metabolic pathway in life that functions in almost all organisms to decompose external or intracellular sugars. (greencarcongress.com)
  • For a biotechnological exploitation of this bacterium for H 2 production it is crucial to understand the factors that regulate carbon and electron fluxes and therefore the final distribution of metabolites to channel the metabolic flux towards the desired product. (biomedcentral.com)
  • yeast
  • Even though many organisms are capable of natively converting these sugars, the most commonly selected organism is baker's yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Eating substances rich with these probiotics is a sort of home remedy for diarrhea, vaginitis, and yeast infections because it promotes the growth of these as opposed to other bacteria. (kenyon.edu)
  • carbon
  • They constitute a large fraction of the reduced carbon reservoir in the ocean and enhance the survival of marine bacteria influencing the physicochemical environment in proximity of the bacterial cell. (mdpi.com)
  • The decarboxylation of pyruvate loses a carbon equivalent, and limits the theoretical carbon yield to only two moles of two-carbon (C2) metabolites per mole of hexose. (greencarcongress.com)
  • The researchers also noted that this new synthetic pathway could be used with many kinds of sugars, which in each case have different numbers of carbon atoms per molecule, and no carbon would be wasted. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Continued dependence on a sugar, and the importance of the chitin monomer N- acetyl- d- glucosamine as a carbon and energy source, suggests adaptation to host-derived molecules. (asm.org)
  • It is naturally produced by several bacteria as a response to nutrient starvation in the excess of a carbon source. (springeropen.com)
  • Bifidobacteria
  • Bifidobacteria are probiotic friendly bacteria, which means that they may beneficially affect the host upon ingestion by improving the balance of the intestinal microflora. (sciencephoto.com)
  • When breast-fed infants' diets are changed to cows milk and solid food, Bifidobacteria are joined by rising numbers of other bacteria found in the human body such as Bacteroides and Streptococci lactobacilli . (kenyon.edu)
  • Bifidobacteria as well as other beneficial bacteria can be found in fermented dairy foods, especially yogurt. (kenyon.edu)
  • Bifidobacteria exert a range of beneficial health effects, including the regulation of intestinal microbial homeostasis, the inhibition of pathogens and harmful bacteria that colonize and/or infect the gut mucosa, the modulation of local and systemic immune responses, the repression of procarcinogenic enzymatic activities within the microbiota, the production of vitamins, and the bioconversion of a number of dietary compounds into bioactive molecules. (kenyon.edu)
  • Following birth, the breast-fed infant gastrointestinal tract is rapidly colonized by a microbial consortium often dominated by bifidobacteria. (pnas.org)
  • biofuel
  • Understanding the bacterium's sugar-processing complexities may lead to improved biofuel yields. (phys.org)
  • It is recognized for over a century that Clostridium acetobutylicum [a soil bacterium] is a viable biofuel producer. (phys.org)
  • Right now, though, this bacterium is not very efficient at processing complex wastes to biofuel production ," said Ludmilla Aristilde, assistant professor of biological and environmental engineering. (phys.org)
  • Using nonedible plant materials for biofuel production is important to sustainable energy options, and processing these materials involves metabolizing the plant's sugars. (phys.org)
  • These bacteria are important in the natural conversion of organic carbons in soils and they are exploited for industrial biofuel production," Aristilde said. (phys.org)
  • Metabolite labelling reveals hierarchies inthat selectively channel carbons from sugar mixtures towards biofuel precursors, Microbial Biotechnology (2016). (phys.org)
  • Microbiology
  • Improved culture methods, combining microbiology with genomics, have been used to analyze the microbial flora of a number of disease vectors. (asm.org)
  • species
  • The isomerase has now been observed in nearly a hundred species of bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • To gain insights into these mechanisms, day- and night-flowering tobacco ( Nicotiana ) species with high or low proportions of hexoses in the nectar were analyzed. (frontiersin.org)
  • The larger differences in the sucrose-to-hexose-ratio between nectaries and nectar in diurnal species compared to nocturnal species can be explained by higher sucrose cleavage within the nectaries in night-flowering species, and during secretion in day-flowering species. (frontiersin.org)
  • yield
  • To improve pHCA production, a mutant with inactive pheA gene was generated, causing an 8-fold increase in the yield of this aromatic acid from the sugars in a simulated hydrolysate. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mesophilic microorganisms are not capable of producing H 2 at high yield being it reported in the range of 1-2 mol H 2 /mol hexose [ 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • On the other hand, thermophiles have shown great potential for H 2 generation, mainly because of the more favorable thermodynamics of the reaction at elevated temperatures which allows to generate a limited variety of by-products and to reach the theoretical yield of 4 mol H 2 /mol hexose [ 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • corn stover
  • We present here a comprehensive study on the community structure and enzyme systems of a lignocellulolytic microbial consortium EMSD5 during growth on corn stover, using metagenome sequencing in combination with quantitative metaproteomics. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Soluble
  • Therefore the characterization of only approximately 200 soluble structures within the human milk glycome strongly suggests a functional role for these sugars ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • Physiological
  • Environmental transcriptome analysis reveals physiological differences between biofilm and planktonic modes of life of the iron oxidizing bacteria Leptospirillum spp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • biocatalysts
  • Novel developments in the area include chemical in-situ detoxification by using reducing agents, and methods that improve the performance of both enzymatic and microbial biocatalysts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • intracellular
  • This intracellular trafficking and location are required for the presentation of exogenous Ags with complex oligosaccharides, such as those that have to be processed in lysosomes to remove the terminal sugar(s) ( 10 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • production
  • Microbial production of commodity and specialty chemicals from renewable resources offers a promising, sustainable route to establish a viable bioeconomy. (asm.org)
  • In Brazil, however, the production of ethyl alcohol from sugar-cane, manioc, and other tropical plants has become a major project of the government to reduce petroleum imports (Figure 1). (nzdl.org)
  • consortium
  • The establishment of a stable gut microbial consortium is critical to the development of the infant gastrointestinal tract (GIT) ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • polymers
  • Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) are high molecular weight carbohydrate polymers that make up a substantial component of the extracellular polymers surrounding most microbial cells in the marine environment. (mdpi.com)
  • bacterial
  • it is thought that Bifidobacterium's ability to compete with other gastrointestinal bacteria and occupy a large percentage in the bacterial flora of the gastrointestinal region might be partly due to the large variety of molecules that it is able to use for energy (Schell et al . (kenyon.edu)