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  • molecules
  • Whereas the roles of proteins as regulatory factors in development and adaptation to the environment are well known, the involvement of regulatory small RNA molecules is just emerging ( Carrington and Ambros, 2003 ). (plantcell.org)
  • MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a new class of regulatory molecules implicated in type 2 diabetes, which is characterized by insulin resistance and hepatic glucose overproduction. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 1-8 Endogenously expressed miRNA molecules are transcribed in the nucleus by RNA polymerase II as long primary transcripts (pri-miRNA) and then further processed by the nuclear enzyme Drosha into shorter precursor species (pre-miRNA). (ahajournals.org)
  • novel
  • Targeting specific microRNAs may represent a novel intervention opportunity to improve outcome and reduce hemorrhagic transformation after mechanical reperfusion for acute ischemic stroke. (nih.gov)
  • In conclusion, we identify a novel signaling pathway by which leptin increases synaptogenesis through inducing CREB transcription and increasing microRNA-mediated suppression of p250GAP activity, thus removing a known inhibitor of Rac1-stimulated synaptogenesis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Our findings suggest that repair of a disturbed BBB through microRNAs may represent a novel avenue for effective treatment of MS. (jneurosci.org)
  • Consequently, understanding how miRs regulate mRNA translation and stability may provide a better understanding of the regulation of muscle atrophy and death as well as provide novel tools for diagnostics or therapeutics. (umass.edu)
  • Therefore, through this work the researchers have identified a novel way of regulating helper T cell development and controlling the immune response. (rvc.ac.uk)
  • Arabidopsis
  • Here, we report that Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) embryos mutant for strong alleles of DICER-LIKE1 , the enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of microRNAs (miRNAs), mature earlier than their wild-type counterparts. (plantphysiol.org)
  • MicroRNAs (miRNAs) of Arabidopsis thaliana are involved in mediating cell proliferation in leaves, stress tolerance, and root development. (mdpi.com)
  • targets
  • Ling H, Fabbri M, Calin GA. Micrornas and other non-coding rnas as targets for anticancer drug development. (springer.com)
  • This study provides the first evidence that miR-451 and Gyk regulate the AKT-FOXO1-PEPCK/G6Pase pathway and play critical roles in hepatic gluconeogenesis and glucose homeostasis and identifies miR-451 and Gyk as potential therapeutic targets against hyperglycemia in diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This study identifies both GDF-15 and associated microRNA as potential therapeutic targets. (bmj.com)
  • Here, we report that miR-143 targets and down-regulates the glycolytic enzyme hexokinase 2 (HK2) in colon cancer cell lines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • regulation
  • While limited information on transcriptional regulation in animal CBs is available, the impact of important post-transcriptional regulators, such as non-coding RNAs, and in particular miRNAs is not known. (springer.com)
  • Seeing the difference encourages us to explore the biological importance of other examples of microRNA regulation. (bio-medicine.org)
  • We describe the role of a microRNA (miR159) in the regulation of short-day photoperiod flowering time and of anther development. (biologists.org)
  • Objective- MicroRNA plays important roles in vascular biology, but the regulation of endothelial-specific microRNA is not well characterized. (ahajournals.org)
  • In this work, RVC researchers set about to understand microRNA regulation of helper T cells development. (rvc.ac.uk)
  • These powerful tools led to several groundbreaking discoveries of the role that miRNAs play in regulation of development, stem-cell function and aging, and proved that although many outcomes are possible, most Drosophila miRNAs regulate a single phenotype through downregulation of a single major mRNA target. (ehu.es)
  • Our findings offer evidence to explain how TGFβ signaling exhibits distinct downstream actions via its regulation by a specific microRNA. (ahajournals.org)
  • hairpin
  • These effects are blocked by short hairpin RNAs specifically targeting the LepRb and are absent in cultures from db/db mice. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Two individual lentiviral short hairpin RNA (shRNA) clones targeting LIN28 were purchased from Open Biosystems. (aacrjournals.org)
  • cancers
  • Finally, the ratio of Akt1 to Akt2 and the abundance of miR-200 and of the messenger RNA encoding E-cadherin in a set of primary and metastatic human breast cancers were consistent with the hypothesis that in many cases breast cancer metastasis may be under the control of the Akt-miR-200-E-cadherin axis. (sciencemag.org)
  • miR-143 is located at a fragile site on chromosome 5 frequently deleted in cancer, and has been reported to be down-regulated in several cancers including colon cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • transcripts
  • Through a microarray approach, we identify the subset of microRNAs (miRNAs) modulated by ERalpha, which include upregulation of miRNAs derived from the processing of the paralogous primary transcripts (pri-) mir-17-92 and mir-106a-363. (nih.gov)
  • As expected, transcripts down-regulated upon miR-143 overexpression had a significant enrichment of miR-143 seed sites in their 3'UTRs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • angiogenic
  • EPCs regulate the angiogenic switch via paracrine secretion of proangiogenic growth factors and by direct luminal incorporation into sprouting nascent vessels. (garvan.org.au)
  • histone
  • On the other hand, miRNAs can directly target epigenetic factors, such as DNA methyltransferases or histone deacetylases, thus regulating chromatin structure. (mdpi.com)
  • stability
  • AU-rich elements (AREs) bind specific proteins to regulate mRNA stability or translation in response to external and internal stimuli ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • The Role of MicroRNAs in Regulating the Translatability and Stability of Target Messenger RNAs During the Atrophy and Programmed Cell Death of the Intersegmental Muscles of the Tobacco Hawkmoth Manduca sexta. (umass.edu)
  • Chan, Elizabeth, "The Role of MicroRNAs in Regulating the Translatability and Stability of Target Messenger RNAs During the Atrophy and Programmed Cell Death of the Intersegmental Muscles of the Tobacco Hawkmoth Manduca sexta. (umass.edu)
  • humans
  • Many microRNAs now have been found in diverse plants and animals, including hundreds in humans. (bio-medicine.org)
  • MiR-210 is also up-regulated in plasma from humans subjected chronically to high altitude (3.7 fold-change+0.7, N=5 Andean women/group at week 36 pregnancy residing at high and low altitudes) and from PAD patients with intermittent claudication (3.5 fold-change+0.7 vs. healthy control, N=16/group). (ahajournals.org)
  • Moreover
  • Moreover, microRNAs found in mammals regulate over a third of the human genome, as shown in a 2005 study by the lab of Whitehead Member and Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator David Bartel and colleagues. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Argonaute
  • Upon cell cycle arrest, the ARE in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) mRNA is transformed into a translation activation signal, recruiting Argonaute (AGO) and fragile X mental retardation-related protein 1 (FXR1), factors associated with micro-ribonucleoproteins (microRNPs). (sciencemag.org)
  • roles
  • Second, can micro-ribonucleoproteins (microRNPs), in general, up-regulate translation under growth-arrest conditions, thereby switching between repressing and activating roles in response to the cell cycle? (sciencemag.org)
  • however, it is likely that a number of other miRNAs play important roles in regulating myogenesis as well. (springer.com)
  • AGO2
  • First, is binding of the AGO2-FXR1 complex, which activates translation, directed by a microRNA complementary to the ARE? (sciencemag.org)
  • hypoxic
  • Extracellular miR-210 is released in circulating plasma in vivo and can be delivered to recipient tissue to regulate hypoxic adaptation. (ahajournals.org)