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  • gene
  • Previous work showed no evidence of increased mRNA or transcriptional activation of the GSK3β gene in the mice, despite an increase in kinase activity. (alzforum.org)
  • 1 2 To evaluate the phenotype in more detail, this gene has been introduced in mice, the APOE*3-Leiden mouse. (ahajournals.org)
  • Transgenic mice expressing the human APOE*3-Leiden gene were generated and bred with C57Bl/6J females as described earlier. (ahajournals.org)
  • FOURTH ANNUAL 'GENE TARGETING IN ES CELLS AND TRANSGENIC MICE' WORKSHOP July 28 -- August 9, 1996 CAROLINA WORKSHOPS University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Students will be introduced to the mouse as a developmental system, and will learn molecular genetic manipulations of this mammal. (bio.net)
  • A seminar series on the application of gene targeting and transgenics in various research areas will run concurrently with the course. (bio.net)
  • Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1994) and Gene Targeting: A Practical Approach by A.L. Joyner, (Oxford University Press, 1993) both provide an excellent introduction to mouse genetics and techniques covered in the course. (bio.net)
  • We have generated transgenic mice over-expressing human apolipoprotein CI (apo CI) using the native gene joined to the downstream 154-bp liver-specific enhancer that we defined for apo E. Human apo CI (HuCI)-transgenic mice showed elevation of plasma triglycerides (mg/dl) compared to controls in both the fasted (211 +/- 81 vs 123 +/- 52, P = 0.0001) and fed (265 +/- 105 vs 146 +/- 68, P (jci.org)
  • Capecchi, M.R. (2005) Gene targeting in mice: functional analysis of the mammalian genome for the twenty-first century. (springer.com)
  • Another mouse has had a gene altered that is involved in glucose metabolism and runs faster, lives longer, is more sexually active and eats more without getting fat than the average mouse (see Metabolic supermice). (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryo
  • Manipulating the Mouse Embryo by B. Hogan, et. (bio.net)
  • In 1974 Rudolf Jaenisch created the first genetically modified animal by inserting a DNA virus into an early-stage mouse embryo and showing that the inserted genes were present in every cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1981 the laboratories of Frank Ruddle from Yale University, Frank Costantini and Elizabeth Lacy from Oxford, and Ralph Brinster and Richard Palmiter in collaboration from the University of Pennsylvania and the University of Washington injected purified DNA into a single-cell mouse embryo utilizing techniques developed by Brinster in the 1960s and 1970s, showing transmission of the genetic material to subsequent generations for the first time. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first involves pronuclear injection into a single cell of the mouse embryo, where it will randomly integrate into the mouse genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • APOE
  • Background -This study documents (1) the progression of atherosclerosis along the entire arterial tree in APOE*3-Leiden mice after 1, 4, 6, 9, and 12 months of a high-fat/high-cholesterol (HFC) diet and (2) the amount and phenotype of DNA-synthesizing and apoptotic cells in different lesion types after 6 months of HFC diet. (ahajournals.org)
  • Conclusions -This study shows that in APOE*3-Leiden mice, duration of an HFC diet is associated with (1) a craniocaudal progression of lesion development and (2) an increased complexity of atherosclerotic lesions. (ahajournals.org)
  • The data published so far show that APOE*3-Leiden mice exhibit severe hypercholesterolemia when they are fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol (HFC) diet. (ahajournals.org)
  • Control APOE*3-Leiden (n=6) and C57Bl/6J (n=6) mice received standard mouse chow for 9 months. (ahajournals.org)
  • Isoform-specific effects of human apolipoprotein E on brain function revealed in ApoE knockout mice: increased susceptibility of females," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , vol. 95, no. 18, pp. 10914-10919, 1998. (hindawi.com)
  • Glial fibrillary acidic protein-apolipoprotein E (apoE) transgenic mice: astrocyte-specific expression and differing biological effects of astrocyte- secreted apoE3 and apoE4 lipoproteins," Journal of Neuroscience , vol. 18, no. 9, pp. 3261-3272, 1998. (hindawi.com)
  • Human APOE isoform-dependent effects on brain β -amyloid levels in PDAPP transgenic mice," Journal of Neuroscience , vol. 29, no. 21, pp. 6771-6779, 2009. (hindawi.com)
  • Human apoE targeted replacement mouse lines: H-apoE4 and h-apoE3 mice differ on spatial memory performance and avoidance behavior," Behavioural Brain Research , vol. 159, no. 1, pp. 1-14, 2005. (hindawi.com)
  • rodents
  • On-orbit operations require the ability to launch and maintain rodents (mice and rats) in a habitat and in some cases also require rodent euthanasia, dissection, and tissue sample preparation and preservation. (nasa.gov)
  • The Lee-Boot effect is a phenomenon concerning the suppression or prolongation of oestrous cycles of mature female mice (and other rodents), when females are housed in groups and isolated from males. (wikipedia.org)
  • transgene
  • However, some mice survive due to chromosomal rearrangement of proliferating hepatocytes resulting in loss of significant functional components of the transgene. (nih.gov)
  • In these mice, the liver parenchyma is replaced by the transgene deficient hepatocytes within about 8 weeks. (nih.gov)
  • In some Alb-uPA mice there is complete loss of the transgene, and these mice eventually develop hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas. (nih.gov)
  • However, the mice did not pass the transgene to their offspring, and the impact and applicability of this experiment were, therefore, limited. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abnormal
  • The group had previously shown the mice had abnormal activation of GSK3β ( Ryan and Pimplikar, 2005 ) and here they show that the effects on tau and behavior could be prevented by feeding the animals the GSK3β inhibitor lithium. (alzforum.org)
  • Models
  • A transgenic mouse company is paying researchers who mention its animal models in scientific papers. (the-scientist.com)
  • That raises the question of whether the pathological features seen in AD mouse models arise from AICD, or Aβ, or both. (alzforum.org)
  • We have looked at three mouse models so far and we do see increased AICD levels," Pimplikar told ARF. (alzforum.org)
  • Unlike the human apo CII (HuCII)- and apo CIII (HuCIII)-transgenic mouse models of hypertriglyceridemia, plasma cholesterol was disproportionately elevated (95 +/- 23 vs 73 +/- 23, P = 0.002, fasted and 90 +/- 24 vs 61 +/- 14, P (jci.org)
  • Since their initial generation in the mid 1990s, transgenic mouse models of Alzheimers's disease (AD) have been proven to be valuable model systems which are indispensable for modern AD research. (hindawi.com)
  • Genetically modified mice are commonly used for research or as animal models of human diseases, and are also used for research on genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetically modified mice are used extensively in research as models of human disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transgenic mice generated to carry cloned oncogenes and knockout mice lacking tumor suppressing genes have provided good models for human cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The disease symptoms and potential drugs or treatments can be tested against these mouse models. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sawicki identified therapeutic targets and evaluated the efficacy of many nanoparticle formulations in various cancer mouse models, including for pancreatic cancer, as well as for highly aggressive forms of ovarian cancer for which no effective long-term treatment currently exists. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using this technology, she has developed several cancer mouse models useful for her lab's studies, as well as those of other researchers investigating the role of selected genes in cancer initiation and progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • In a proof-of-principle study, genetic deletion of two genes renders male mice infertile by preventing sperm transport through the vas deferens. (the-scientist.com)
  • Modeling has been most aggressively pursued in mice, for which the techniques of genetic modification are well developed. (nih.gov)
  • This technology now referred to as transgenic mouse technology has revolutionized virtually all fields of biology and provided new genetic approaches to model many human diseases in a whole animal context. (springer.com)
  • Mice are a useful model for genetic manipulation and research, as their tissues and organs are similar to that of a human and they carry virtually all the same genes that operate in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Mice transgenic for BAFF have vastly increased numbers of mature B and effector T cells, and develop autoimmune-like manifestations such as the presence of high levels of rheumatoid factors, circulating immune complexes, anti-DNA autoantibodies, and immunoglobulin deposition in the kidneys. (rupress.org)
  • Reprogramming cells within live mice yields a new type of induced pluripotent stem cell. (the-scientist.com)
  • In addition, the direct product of β-secretase cleavage, C99, has toxic or pathogenic effects in cultured cells and in transgenic mice ( 28 , 29 ). (pnas.org)
  • Several hundreds of transgenic lines with expression of foreign genes specifically targeted to desired organelles/cells/tissues have been characterized. (springer.com)
  • The Takashima mice are remarkable, as they appear to express high levels of the mutant tau protein in only a very few cells in the brain: that is, in some of the pyramidal cells of the hippocampus. (alzforum.org)
  • Because of the very limited number of cells expressing the mutant protein, it appears that the mice will survive (unlike the Lewis/Hutton mice) to advanced age. (alzforum.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells that recombine with the genomic DNA are selected for and they are then injected into the mice blastocysts. (wikipedia.org)
  • A study in mice has shown that IL-10 is also produced by mast cells, counteracting the inflammatory effect that these cells have at the site of an allergic reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monoclonal antibodies are typically made by cell culture that involves fusing myeloma cells with mouse spleen cells immunized with the desired antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • found in their study that one-fourth of the nurse cells isolated from mice were double-positives for K5 and K8, while the rest of them were positive only for K8. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • Mice lacking functional expression of Fas ( lpr ) or FasL ( gld ) develop severe autoimmune lymphoproliferative disorders, leading to tissue destruction ( 13 ). (rupress.org)
  • Takashima's team also reports weakened neural activity in the hippocampi of their transgenic mice, which they attribute to a smaller number of functional neurons, as well as impaired performance in two rodent behavioral tests. (alzforum.org)
  • genes
  • Increasing the expression of two genes from non-Y chromosomes restores spermatogenesis in male mice that lack Y chromosomes. (the-scientist.com)
  • A recent study published in the Neural Regeneration Research (Vol. 8, No. 24, 2013) showed that noradrenergic neurons and fibers in the locus coeruleus are predisposed to degenerative alterations in mice carrying mutant amyloid-β precursor protein and presenilin-1 genes. (medindia.net)
  • Alirocumab was discovered by Regeneron Pharmaceuticals using its "VelocImmune" mouse, in which many of the genes coding for antibodies have been replaced with human genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • isoform
  • Modulation of Alzheimer-like synaptic and cholinergic deficits in transgenic mice by human apolipoprotein E depends on isoform, aging, and overexpression of amyloid β peptides but not on plaque formation," Journal of Neuroscience , vol. 22, no. 24, pp. 10539-10548, 2002. (hindawi.com)
  • J. A. Siegel, G. E. Haley, and J. Raber, "Apolipoprotein E isoform-dependent effects on anxiety and cognition in female TR mice," Neurobiology of Aging . (hindawi.com)
  • genetics
  • Previous experience running this course indicates that both students with and without any prior hands-on experience with tissue culture and mouse genetics will find the course useful. (bio.net)
  • microinjection
  • These techniques are the basis for generation and analysis of mutant mice via microinjection and embryonic stem cell manipulation and transfer. (bio.net)
  • male mice
  • Furthermore, female mice TNCs were found to contain five times more thymocytes than male mice, and less than 4% of them were apoptotic compared to almost 50% in the male TNCs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular
  • Correcting diastolic dysfunction by Ca 2+ desensitizing troponin in a transgenic mouse model of restrictive cardiomyopathy," Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology , vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 402-411, 2010. (hindawi.com)
  • hippocampus
  • After 18 months, the mice showed neuronal loss in the hippocampus. (alzforum.org)
  • PrP was detected with Fab HuM-P. ( D-L ) Neuropathologic analysis of the hippocampus ( Top ), thalamus ( Middle ), and cerebellum ( Bottom ) from spontaneously ill Tg8015/ Prnp 0/0 mice. (nih.gov)
  • As 11-month-old adults, the V337M mice have aggregations of phosphorylated human tau predominantly in neurons of the CA1, CA2, and CA3 areas of hippocampus. (alzforum.org)
  • develop
  • Researchers develop mouse lines to help them see whether the maternal or paternal X chromosome is inactivated. (the-scientist.com)
  • As a consequence, the mice can develop amyloid plaques at around 13 months old. (wikipedia.org)
  • wild type
  • A total of 10 mice, 5 wild type and 5 transgenic, are sent to the ISS to live in microgravity for 21 days. (nasa.gov)
  • Remarkably, disease from ill Tg(PrP,ΔGPI) mice transmitted to mice expressing wild-type PrP(C), indicating the spontaneous generation of prions. (nih.gov)
  • Even basic issues like choosing the correct "wild-type" control mouse to use for comparison are sometimes overlooked. (wikipedia.org)
  • amyloid
  • Mice overexpressing PrP(ΔGPI) developed a late-onset, spontaneous neurologic dysfunction characterized by widespread amyloid deposition in the brain and the presence of a short protease-resistant PrP fragment similar to those found in GSS patients. (nih.gov)
  • M ) Electron micrograph of PrP amyloid purified from the brain of an ill Tg8015/ Prnp 0/0 mouse at 589 d shows fibrillar aggregates upon negative staining with 2% ammonium molybdate. (nih.gov)
  • Alzheimer-type neuropathology in transgenic mice overexpressing V717F β -amyloid precursor protein," Nature , vol. 373, no. 6514, pp. 523-527, 1995. (hindawi.com)
  • model
  • To model GSS, we generated transgenic mice expressing cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) lacking the glycosylphosphatidyl inositol (GPI) anchor, denoted PrP(ΔGPI). (nih.gov)
  • Unlike HuCII- and HuCIII-transgenic mice, VLDL from HuCI transgenic mice bound heparin-Sepharose, a model for cell-surface glycosaminoglycans, normally. (jci.org)
  • research
  • The Center for the Advancement of Science in Space (CASIS) obtains tissue samples from mice flown to the International Space Station to support valuable commercial muscle wasting research. (nasa.gov)
  • Rodent Research-1 consists of Rodent Research-1 NASA and Rodent Research-1 CASIS and plans to launch 20 mice, including 10 NASA mice, and 10 CASIS mice. (nasa.gov)
  • Middle-aged human apoE4 targeted-replacement mice show retention deficits on a wide range of spatial memory tasks," Behavioural Brain Research , vol. 193, no. 2, pp. 174-182, 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • Great care should be taken when deciding how to use genetically modified mice in research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Knockout
  • Note: UGB is itself progesterone induced gene in the endometrium in Lagomorphs) Inhibits phospholipase A2 in vitro Binds phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol Binds to fibronectin: The uteroglobulin knockout mice on the inbred C57Bl6 strain develop Goodpasture's syndrome like glomerulopathy due to fibronectin binding of IgA which might potentially be prevented by uteroglobin replacement. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transgenic double homozygous Gli1-/- and Gli2-/- knockout mice display serious central nervous system and lung defects have small lungs, undescended testes, and a hopping gait as well as an extra postaxial nubbin on the limbs. (wikipedia.org)
  • A conditional knockout mouse line, called Myd88tm1a(EUCOMM)Wtsi was generated as part of the International Knockout Mouse Consortium program - a high-throughput mutagenesis project to generate and distribute animal models of disease to interested scientists. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1988
  • He was a pioneer in the technique of transferring recombinant genes to mice (transgenic mice) and in 1988 he and Philip Leder were granted a patent on a genetically engineered mammal. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Combining two-photon microscopy with fluorescent tracers, we successfully visualized the engrafted tissues at the single cell level in live mice over several months. (jove.com)
  • Cancer Res 46:6246-6429 (1986) Evolution of B cell lineage lymphomas in mice with a retrovirus-induced immunodeficiency syndrome MAIDS. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] In estimates made for mice, DNA lesions occur on average 25 to 115 times per minute in each cell, or about 36,000 to 160,000 per cell per day. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • Using ODC transgenic mouse models, Gilmour showed that elevated ODC and polyamines promote tumorigenesis via multiple functional mechanisms including increasing proliferation, angiogenesis, chromatin remodeling and invasiveness, while also suppressing the immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • studies
  • Developmental studies in the mouse are hampered by the inaccessibility of the embryo during gestation. (jove.com)