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  • population of neurons
  • There is a small, but significant, population of neurons that are more connected than other neurons. (blogspot.com)
  • For example, a population of neurons in the external lateral parabrachial subnucleus that contain the neurotransmitter calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) appears to be critical for relaying information about hypoxia or hypercapnia (e.g., if one is being suffocated during sleep, such as by sleep apnea) to forebrain sites to wake up the brain, and prevent asphyxia. (wikipedia.org)
  • primary neurons
  • Uptake of extracellular AGA was also studied in the tumor-derived cell lines rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) and mouse neuroblastoma cells (N18), which both endocytosed AGA poorly as compared with cultured primary neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • Although a punctate expression pattern of CI-M6PRs was found in fibroblasts and cultured primary neurons, the expression was beyond the detection limit in PC12 and N18 cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • fibroblasts
  • Endocytotic capability of cultured telencephalic neurons was comparable to that of fibroblasts, and endocytosis of AGA was blocked by free mannose-6-phosphate (M6P), indicating that uptake of the enzyme was mediated by M6P receptors (M6PRs). (jneurosci.org)
  • Increased SIRT1 activity in fibroblasts, and most likely neurons, have been shown to alter gene expression by targeting several transcription factors including p53 (Vaziri et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • rodents
  • Parabrachial neurons in rodents that relay taste information to the ventroposterior parvocellular (taste) nucleus of the thalamus are mainly CGRP neurons in the external medial parabrachial nucleus and they project predominantly contralaterally, as well as a smaller number in the ventral lateral nucleus, which project mainly ipsilaterally. (wikipedia.org)
  • Connections
  • Such acetylation correlates with the increased expression of a set of 'immediate early' genes, which encode proteins that broadly mediate changes in the strength of connections between neurons, therefore facilitating memory consolidation. (wikipedia.org)
  • L1 is present in developing neurons and plays an important role in guiding new neurons into the correct positions and helping axons grow and make connections with other neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the neurons are suspended in solution and subsequently dispensed, the connections previously made are destroyed and new ones formed. (wikipedia.org)
  • scientists
  • By identifying these neurons, scientists will now be able to study them further and increase their understanding of the neocortex, which is thought to be the brain's center of higher learning. (blogspot.com)
  • By targeting neurons in the brain of a mouse with a laser, scientists can manipulate the behavior of that mouse. (labroots.com)
  • The human protein is very similar to the one that is found in mice (they are 92% identical at amino acid level, this enabling the scientists to study its structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • distinct
  • Many subsets of neurons in the parabrachial complex that target specific forebrain or brainstem cell groups contain specific neuropeptides, and appear to carry out distinct functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Newly
  • The newly generated neurons migrate to different parts of the developing brain to self-organize into different brain structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryos
  • In mouse embryos, Snurf/Snrpn exons were detected in blastocysts about 7 days post coitem and continued to be expressed throughout development. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • 1000 mouse olfactory receptor (ORs) genes requires the formation of large heterochromatic chromatin domains that sequester the OR gene clusters. (elifesciences.org)
  • In both systems, the initial detection of chemical cues is performed by receptor neurons located in the nasal cavity: receptor cells of the main olfactory system reside in the main olfactory epithelium, and those of the accessory olfactory system reside in the vomeronasal organ (VNO). (jneurosci.org)
  • Although there are many known ligands for main olfactory receptor neurons, our understanding of the natural ligands for VSNs is woefully incomplete. (jneurosci.org)
  • transgenic
  • Paired cell recording from the cerebral cortex of the fos Green Facebook Protein ( fosGFP ) transgenic mouse. (blogspot.com)
  • Here, we use a fosGFP transgenic mouse to examine the properties of cells with a recent history of elevated activity. (blogspot.com)
  • molecules
  • The hope is that by going super deep on the visual cortex of the mouse - untangling cell types, and molecules, and pathways - we might start to understand why the physical and mechanical structures of the brain are the way they are, and how they do what they do. (inverse.com)
  • Protein
  • But a small subset express an enzyme called guanylyl cyclase-D (GC-D). Peter Mombaerts, professor and head of the Laboratory of Developmental Biology and Neurogenetics at Rockefeller, and Andreas Walz, a research associate in Mombaerts' lab, created a strain of mice in which GC-D expressing neurons glow with a green fluorescent protein. (innovations-report.com)
  • L1 protein is located all over the nervous system on the surface of neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • This position allows the protein to activate chemical signals which spread through the neurone. (wikipedia.org)
  • The L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) is a cell surface glycoprotein found in humans (and other forms of life as mice, for example) which has a 1253 amino acid protein sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mouse the protein is commonly known as NEDD4-2 and the gene Nedd4-2. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • Do we even know that the visual cortex of the mouse is sufficiently similar to that of humans to provide generalizable insights? (inverse.com)
  • Stroking skin produces a pleasurable sensation in many mammals, including humans, but until now, it was unclear which neurons detected that stimulus. (massagemag.com)
  • Located next to the U-exon promoter region is Snrpn/Snurf which can be alternatively spliced into either Snrpn or Snurf in humans (in mice this remains as one bicistronic transcript). (wikipedia.org)
  • indicate
  • Recent data indicate that glutamatergic neurons in the medial and lateral parabrachial nuclei, along with glutamatergic neurons in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus, provide a critical node in the brainstem for producing a waking state. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem
  • Foremost among these abnormalities is the fact that the neurons are usually harvested as neural stem cells from a fetus and are therefore disrupted at a critical stage in network development. (wikipedia.org)
  • detection
  • To determine the threshold for carbon dioxide detection in the mouse, the Beijing team trained mice to lick water when they received a whiff of air with higher levels of carbon dioxide. (innovations-report.com)
  • Human
  • The neurons, identified in mice, are similar to certain human neurons, which could explain why we enjoy a massage too. (massagemag.com)
  • UBE3A-ATS/Ube3a-ATS (human/mouse), otherwise known as ubiquitin ligase E3A-ATS, is the name for the antisense DNA strand that is transcribed as part of a larger transcript called LNCAT (large non-coding antisense transcript) at the Ube3a locus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mouse and human Ube3a-ATS/Ube3a are orthologous and the general organizations of the regions are similar. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human Ube3a/Ube3a-ATS is located on chromosome 15, while the mouse Ube3a is located on chromosome 7. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mouse LNCAT, including Ube3a-ATS, is about 1000 kb long, much longer than the human 450 kb LNCAT. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the similar organization of the mouse and human LNCAT/Ube3a-ATS and the fact that the mouse Ube3a locus is also imprinted, the mouse is an excellent model system to study imprinting and the interactions between Ube3a/Ube3a-ATs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The comparative of the sequences from human, mouse, chick and Drosophila and its good conservation, indicates that the L1 immunoglobulin domain 2 and fibronectin type III domain 2 probably are functionally important. (wikipedia.org)
  • nerve
  • These GC-D expressing neurons also project their nerve endings to an unusual structure in the back of the olfactory bulb called necklace glomeruli, which resemble a string of beads. (innovations-report.com)
  • signals
  • These results provide an unprecedented characterization of the signals available for chemical communication among mice. (jneurosci.org)
  • Drosophila
  • Developmental neuroscience uses a variety of animal models including mice Mus musculus, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, the zebrafish Danio rerio, Xenopus laevis tadpoles and the worm Caenorhabditis elegans, among others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar
  • The New York Times has published a graphic which compares the strangely-similar image of mouse neurons, only micrometers wide, to an image of our expanding universe, billions of light years across. (venganza.org)
  • lower
  • The 3xTg-AD neurons maintained much lower resting NAD(P)H and redox states after 4 months, but the NADH regenerating capacity continuously declined with age beginning at 2 months. (nih.gov)
  • Compared with non-Tg neurons, 3xTg-AD neurons had more mitochondria/neuron and lower glutathione (GSH) levels that preceded age-related increases in ROS levels. (nih.gov)
  • expression
  • Detailed characterization of the expression of AGA in mouse brain during development showed that AGA mRNA levels, which were high during embryogenesis, were decreased at the time of birth and raised again postnatally. (jneurosci.org)
  • This possibility has been demonstrated by a recent study where the drug topotecan, administered to mice suffering from AS, activated expression of the paternal Ube3a gene by lowering the transcription of Ube3a-ATS. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mouse, NEDD4-2 deletion leads to increased cell surface expression and activity of ENaC in the lung, resulting in premature clearance of lung fluid, airway drying, lung inflammation and perinatal lethality. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specific deletion of NEDD4-2 in mouse renal tubules leads to increased expression of ENaC and NCC. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemical
  • Current evoked by GSA was significantly increased in the chemical hypoxic condition, and a synergistic effect of GSA and spermine was observed in hypoxic neurons. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • 2007). In particular, increased nuclear NAD+ biosynthesis and consequent activation of SIRT1 has been shown to protect mouse neurons from mechanical and chemical injury (Bedalov and Simon, 2004). (wikipedia.org)