• Overall , phenotypical changes in NPS-/- mice are similar to those observed in NPS receptor knockout mice and support earlier findings that suggest major functions of the NPS system in arousal , regulation of anxiety and stress, and memory formation. (bvs.br)
  • M1 Muscarinic Receptor Knockout: support involvement in cognitive processes. (nih.gov)
  • The total number of NPS neurons -although no longer synthesizing the peptide - was not affected by the knockout, as analyzed in NPS-/- /NPSEGFP double transgenic mice . (bvs.br)
  • Neuropeptide S precursor knockout mice display memory and arousal deficits. (bvs.br)
  • NPS precursor knockout mice displayed attenuated arousal in the hole board test, visible as reduced total nose pokes and number of holes inspected, that was not confounded by increased repetitive or stereotypic behavior . (bvs.br)
  • NPS precursor knockout mice displayed mildly increased anxiety -like behaviors in three different tests measuring responses to stress and novelty. (bvs.br)
  • Studies in M1R knockout mice show that M1 receptors may be involved in cortical memory functions that require interactions between the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. (nih.gov)