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  • Neurons
  • PPARgamma was distributed in the neurons of the dorsal root ganglion and the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and in the adipocytes at the epineurium of the sciatic nerve in naive mice. (curehunter.com)
  • To better understand the role of Ca 2+ -CaM in neuronal migration, we investigated mouse precerebellar neurons (PCNs), which undergo stereotyped, long-distance migration to reach their final position in the developing hindbrain. (biologists.org)
  • Cytochemical studies demonstrating the effect of monosodium glutamate on RNA concentration in neurons in mice. (naver.com)
  • This study focused on exploring the effects of PREGS on the survival of newborn neurons in the DG of adult male mice. (nih.gov)
  • Humans
  • Mice belong to the Euarchontoglires clade, which includes humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • This close relationship, the associated high homology with humans, their ease of maintenance and handling, and their high reproduction rate, make mice particularly suitable models for human-oriented research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice are mammals of the Glires clade ( a group consisting of an ancestor and all its descendants), which means they are amongst the closest relatives of humans along with lagomorphs, treeshrews, flying lemurs and other primates. (wikipedia.org)
  • acute
  • Antidepressant-like effect of acute GLYX-13 treatment in mice. (nih.gov)
  • c) Acute GLYX-13 (0.5, 5, and 10mg/kg, i.p.) treatment had no effects on locomotor activity, reflected by the line crossing (left) and rearing (right) in mice. (nih.gov)
  • The second set of experiments was to investigate whether 21-day CUMS alters VGF and PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling in the hippocampus of mice and to determine whether acute treatment of GLYX-13 (0.5, 5, and 10mg/kg, i.p.) reverses the depressive-like behaviors induced by CUMS in mice (Figure 2a). (nih.gov)
  • effects
  • The antinociceptive effects of L-arginine in both diabetic and non-diabetic mice were significantly antagonized by s.c. administration of naltrindole, a selective delta-opioid receptor antagonist. (biomedsearch.com)
  • PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling-mediated neuropeptide VGF in the hippocampus of mice is involved in the rapid onset antidepressant-like effects of GLYX-13. (nih.gov)
  • Effects of Monophosphoryllipid-A on the Immunization of Mice with Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin- and Muramyldipeptide-Ganglioside Gfpt1 Conjugates. (naver.com)
  • deficient
  • CCR2-deficient mice cannot clear Listeria infection. (nih.gov)
  • Mice deficient for CCR2 developed normally and had no hematopoietic abnormalities. (nih.gov)
  • The level of sensitivity of CCR2-deficient mice to L. monocytogenes was similar to that seen in mice lacking the 55-kD tumor necrosis factor receptor (29, 30) or the interferon-γ receptor (31). (nih.gov)
  • CCR2-deficient mice bred normally and were histopathologically unremarkable (data not shown). (nih.gov)
  • Wild-type Nrf2 (+/+) and Nrf2 (-/-)-deficient mice were subjected to a moderately severe weight-drop impact head injury. (nih.gov)
  • genetics
  • In the early part of the 20th century Clarence Cook Little, a Harvard undergraduate was conducting studies on mouse genetics in the laboratory of William Ernest Castle. (wikipedia.org)
  • drug
  • The present study was designed to investigate if the Raf-1 inhibitor GW5074 and the anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone suppress airway hyperreactivity in a mouse model of sidestream smoke exposure. (nih.gov)
  • inflammation
  • Compared to the mice in the fresh air group, there were significantly higher scores in the infiltration of inflammatory cells, tracheal mucous gland hypertrophy and total tracheal inflammation in the mice in the sidestream smoke exposure group. (nih.gov)
  • However, ccr2(-/-) mice failed to recruit macrophages in an experimental peritoneal inflammation model. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast, severe, multifocal inflammation and necrosis were observed in the livers of ccr2−/− mice (Fig. 4, b and d). (nih.gov)
  • mutant mice
  • The bacterial burdens in the spleen, liver, and lungs were determined at day 5 (or at autopsy for ccr2−/− mice that died on day 4), and mutant mice had between 3-7 log-fold higher listerial titers than wild-type animals in all tissues (Fig. 3), confirming that CCR2 is required for listerial clearance. (nih.gov)
  • At autopsy, livers and spleens from wild-type animals were of normal color but enlarged, while livers and spleens from mutant mice were of normal size but appeared mottled and off color. (nih.gov)
  • c) Flow cytometry analysis of femoral bone marrow cells isolated from wild-type (+/+) and mutant (−/−) mice. (nih.gov)
  • The rectangle highlights a CCR2-staining cell population present in wild-type but not mutant mice. (nih.gov)
  • Genotypic analysis of such intercrosses indicated that wild-type (+/+), heterozygous (+/−), and mutant (−/−) mice were born at the expected Mendelian ratio (Fig. 1 b). (nih.gov)
  • extracts
  • The clastogenic effect of total dichloromethane, methanol and water extracts, four bioactive fractions and three individual constituents from Carthamus lanatus aerial parts were evaluated in mice by bone marrow chromosome aberration assay with mitomycin C as positive control. (uni-hannover.de)
  • serum
  • The basidiolipids, though with differential effectiveness of the BI-components, stimulated the expression of serum immune globulins in mice that recognized co-injected antigens, bovine serum albumin (BSA) or a keyhole-limpet hemocyanin-ganglioside Gfpt1 conjugate (KLH-Gfpt1), respectively. (naver.com)
  • litters
  • Heterozygous mice were intercrossed under pathogen-free conditions, and resulting litters were healthy and normal in size. (nih.gov)
  • intraperitoneally
  • A and B). SRKO and 129 mice were injected intraperitoneally with 107 CFU of BCG, or (C) inactivated C. parvum. (nih.gov)
  • At 14 d after infection, mice were injected with 10 μg of LPS intraperitoneally. (nih.gov)
  • After the first week of the smoke exposure, the mice received either dexamethasone intraperitoneally every other day or GW5074 intraperitoneally every day for three weeks. (nih.gov)
  • cortex
  • Low concentrations of ethanol (10-30 mM) in the presence of a GABAB receptor agonist, baclofen, promoted 36Cl- uptake into membrane vesicles (microsacs) prepared from mouse cortex. (muscimol.xyz)
  • Expression of ICAM-1 in the cortex of sham and injured Nrf2 (+/+) and Nrf2 (−/−) mice.Immunohistochemical staining for ICAM-1 was performed in the cortex tissue sections of Nrf2 (+/+) and Nrf2 (−/−) mice 24 hoursafter TBI. (nih.gov)
  • At the 24 hours after TBI, the number of ICAM-1 positivevessels was significantly increased in the cortex of both Nrf2 (+/+) and Nrf2(−/−) mice. (nih.gov)
  • Animals
  • In 1902 Lucien Cuénot published the results of his experiments using mice which showed that Mendel's laws of inheritance were also valid for animals - results that were soon confirmed and extended to other species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Female
  • The effect of dietary beta carotene on colon carcinogenesis Induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine «DMH) CAS: 540-73-81 was studied in female inbred Swiss Webster (ICR) mice. (athabascau.ca)
  • Female, Swiss mice were fed semi-synthetic diets for 33 days. (athabascau.ca)
  • The influence of dietary selenium and cabbage on the formation of colon tumors in female Swiss mice treated with 1,2.dimethylhydrazine [(DMH) CAS: 540-73-was reported. (athabascau.ca)
  • Activity
  • In addition, we show that an antibody which blocks TNF-alpha activity reduces LPS-induced mortality in these mice. (nih.gov)
  • Dietary fibre and the mouse colon: its influence on luminal pH, reducing activity, bile acid binding and cell proliferation. (athabascau.ca)
  • musculus
  • Most laboratory mice have contributions from both Mus musculus musculus and Mus musculus domesticus . (jax.org)
  • Laboratory mice are usually of the species Mus musculus. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • In this study, we used mice lacking the SR-A (SRKO) to investigate the role of SR-A in acquired immunity using a viable bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG) infection model. (nih.gov)
  • After BCG infection, SRKO mice are able to recruit Mphi to sites of granuloma formation where they become activated and restrict BCG replication. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, these mice were unable to clear infection by the intracellular bacteria, Listeria monocytogenes. (nih.gov)
  • Listerial titers in liver, spleen, and lung were determined from mice killed 5 d after infection or at autopsy for mice that died after 4 d. (nih.gov)
  • After 5 d, when macrophages are essential for control of L. monocytogenes infection, all ccr2+/+ mice appeared active and healthy. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast, 33% of ccr2−/− mice died 4 d after infection and the remainder were moribund at 5 d. (nih.gov)
  • wild-type
  • Production of TNF-α after LPS challenge of SRKO and wild-type (129) mice. (nih.gov)
  • We reasoned that this molecule was a candidate mediator of the difference in mortality observed between wild-type and SRKO mice. (nih.gov)
  • Significantly higher levels of TNF-α were present in the plasma of SRKO mice relative to wild-type mice (Fig. 5 A). To confirm that the measured differences in this cytokine were not confounded by differences in response to viable microorganisms, mice were injected with inactivated C. parvum and subsequently challenged with LPS. (nih.gov)
  • Wild-type (open bars) and ccr2−/− (black bars) mice were injected intravenously with 2,500 CFU of L. monocytogenes. (nih.gov)
  • Values represent mean ± SEM of 15 wild-type or ccr2−/− mice. (nih.gov)
  • Histopathological analyses revealed minimal inflammatory foci comprised of macrophages, neutrophils, and individual necrotic hepatocytes in the livers of wild-type mice (Fig. 4, a and c). (nih.gov)
  • The 9-kb fragment indicates a wild-type 129/Sv allele, the 5-kb fragment indicates a wild type ICR allele, and the 3-kb fragment is specific for the recombined allele. (nih.gov)
  • Nrf2 (-/-) mice were shown to have more NF-kappaB activation, inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 production, and ICAM-1 expression in brain after TBI compared with their wild-type Nrf2 (+/+) counterparts. (nih.gov)
  • 05 versus injured wild-type mice. (nih.gov)
  • significantly increased
  • Four weeks of exposure to cigarette smoke significantly increased the mouse airway contractile response to carbachol, endothelin-1 and potassium. (nih.gov)
  • e) Quantitative analysis showed that the number of ICAM-1positive vessels in brain was significantly increased after TBI and was greaterin Nrf2 (−/−) mice than in Nrf2 (+/+) mice. (nih.gov)
  • vector
  • Cultured mouse DRG explants were infected with the adenoviral vector AdCMVNgCAM. (nih.gov)
  • response
  • Nicotine attenuates DOI-induced head-twitch response in mice: implications for Tourette syndrome. (curehunter.com)
  • Although s.c. administration of L-arginine produced a dose-dependent inhibition of the tail-flick response in both non-diabetic and diabetic mice, the antinociceptive response was greater in diabetic mice than in non-diabetic mice. (biomedsearch.com)
  • However, infected mice lacking the SR-A are more susceptible to endotoxic shock and produce more TNF-alpha and interleukin-6 in response to LPS. (nih.gov)
  • species
  • Therefore, they should not be referred to by species name, but rather as laboratory mice or by use of a specific strain or stock name. (jax.org)
  • Other mouse species sometimes used in laboratory research include the American white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) and the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus). (wikipedia.org)
  • model
  • The mouse has since been used extensively as a model organism and is associated with many important biological discoveries of the 20th and 21st Centuries. (wikipedia.org)
  • weeks
  • Mice were repeatedly exposed to smoke from four cigarettes each day for four weeks. (nih.gov)
  • tissue
  • Hematoxylin and eosin-stained tracheal tissue derived from six groups of mice: fresh air group, passive smoke-exposed group, dexamethasone (0.3 mg/kg, 1 mg/kg) plus passive smoke-exposed groups and GW5074 (0.5 mg/kg, 2 mg/kg) plus passive smoke-exposed groups. (nih.gov)
  • investigate
  • Mice have been used in biomedical research since the 16th Century when William Harvey used them for his studies on reproduction and blood circulation and Robert Hooke used them to investigate the biological consequences of an increase in air pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • greater
  • The brain-to-blood ratios in normal ICR mice were 2.8 or greater at the times studied, and the striatum-to-cerebellum ratio at 60 min after injection was 20:1. (elsevier.com)
  • However
  • However, neither beta-funaltrexamine, a selective mu-opioid receptor antagonist, nor nor-binaltorphimin ++, a selective kappa-opioid receptor antagonist, significantly affected the antinociceptive effect of L-arginine in diabetic and non-diabetic mice. (biomedsearch.com)
  • control
  • The explants were incubated in the presence of control mouse IgG (a and d), monoclonal anti-axonin-1 IgG X7C11 (b and e) and the monoclonal mouse anti-NgCAM IgG 12-I-4E-311 (c and f). (nih.gov)
  • results
  • Similar results were obtained by treating the mice with two doses of GW5074 (0.5 mg/kg or 2 mg/kg). (nih.gov)
  • Similar
  • Note: a few historical examples exist of similar mouse and rat strain designations and these are allowed to stand, with their substrain designations identifying them as unique). (jax.org)