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  • recombinant
  • Unique design aspects of the BXD recombinant inbred line mapping panel allow use of archived gene microarray expression data to filter likely from unlikely candidates. (umassmed.edu)
  • One of the key strengths of using inbred strains as a model is that strains are readily available for whatever study one is performing and that there are resources such as the Jackson Laboratory, and Flybase, where one can look up strains with specific phenotypes or genotypes, from among inbred lines, recombinant lines, and Coisogenic strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans
  • In humans, as in mice, individual genetic differences strongly modulate pulmonary responses to infectious agents, severity of lung disease, and potential allergic reactions. (nih.gov)
  • There are close similarities of physiology, development and cell biology between mice and humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans and mice both have around 30,000 protein-coding genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice belong to the Euarchontoglires clade, which includes humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • This close relationship, the associated high homology with humans, their ease of maintenance and handling, and their high reproduction rate, make mice particularly suitable models for human-oriented research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice are mammals of the Glires clade ( a group consisting of an ancestor and all its descendants), which means they are amongst the closest relatives of humans along with lagomorphs, treeshrews, flying lemurs and other primates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Induced Hypothermia
  • Previous findings in methamphetamine drinking (MADR) lines of mice, bred for high or low voluntary MA intake, and in null mutants demonstrate a major impact of the trace amine-associated receptor 1 (Taar1) gene on a triad of MA-related traits: MA consumption, MA-induced conditioned taste aversion and MA-induced hypothermia. (elsevier.com)
  • gene expression
  • 6 ] have employed gene expression array analysis of the dissected embryonic (16.5d) mouse cerebral cortex to expand the list of genes regionally expressed, and noted that regional differences in expression of genes in the cortical plate should eventually convert into functionally distinct cortical areas with anatomically distinguishable borders after birth. (beds.ac.uk)
  • However, by combining available gene expression data with QTL mapping, we illustrated a five-filter protocol that nominated Asb3 and Tnni1 as candidates affecting increased mouse forebrain weight. (umassmed.edu)
  • In order to determine molecular pathways involved in the development of glaucoma, differential gene expression analysis was used to identify genetic markers associated with the pathogenesis of glaucoma in a mouse model. (umassmed.edu)
  • First strand cDNA was synthesized and hybridized to Affymetrix GeneChip Mouse Genome 430 2.0 gene expression microarrays. (umassmed.edu)
  • Given the proliferation of mouse genetic models (e.g., knockout models, selectively bred lines, heterogeneous stocks derived from standard inbred strains and wild mice) and the wealth of gene expression microarray and phenotypic studies using genetic models, the impact of naturally-occurring polymorphisms on these data is critical. (nih.gov)
  • genes
  • Besides defining ancestral mutations of the λgt10 used to construct the transgene and the Muta™Mouse precursor (strain 40.6), we validated the sequence integrity of key λ genes needed for the Escherichia coli host-based mutation reporting assay. (nih.gov)
  • In a genome wide screen of genes expressed in the mouse retina, we found aged DBA2/J retinas from 12 to 17 month old mice with glaucomatous loss of RGC have significantly decreased levels of gamma-synuclein expression that correlate with age and severity of RGC loss. (umassmed.edu)
  • The laboratory mouse genome has been sequenced and many mouse genes have human homologues. (wikipedia.org)
  • transgenic mice
  • 5 ] demonstrated changes in the position and or size of primary sensory visual, somatosensory, and auditory cortical regions in transgenic mice over expressing the transcription factor Emx2 . (beds.ac.uk)
  • wild mice
  • The United States government purchased her guinea pigs to test for toxic gas in the trenches of World War I. For the Granby Mouse Farm Lathrop sourced wild mice from Michigan and Vermont. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • Genome-wide analysis of the mouse lung transcriptome reveals novel molecular gene interaction networks and cell-specific expression signatures. (nih.gov)
  • Recent ameliorations in maneuvering the mouse genome have provided the technology to induce mammary cancers in mice arising from genetic mutations that have been identified in human cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • laboratory
  • Black 6 became the most frequently used strain of laboratory mouse. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Laboratory Mouse (2nd ed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The laboratory mouse is a small mammal of the order Rodentia which is bred and used for scientific research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Laboratory mice are usually of the species Mus musculus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other mouse species sometimes used in laboratory research include the American white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) and the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus). (wikipedia.org)
  • The Jackson laboratory in Bar Harbor, Maine is currently one of the world's largest suppliers of laboratory mice, at around 3 million mice a year. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus outbred strains of most laboratory animals are also available, where an outbred strain is a strain of an organism that is effectively wildtype in nature, where there is as little inbreeding as possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain plants including the genetic model organism Arabidopsis thaliana naturally self pollinate, which makes it quite easy to create inbred strains in the laboratory (other plants, including important genetic models such as Maize require transfer of pollen from one flower to another). (wikipedia.org)
  • Jackson Laboratory has additional features to maintaining mice, one can order mice that have been altered with genetic tools such as Gal4/UAS or CRISPR, meaning that even if the strain does not currently exist, you can still obtain a line of mouse that is useful to your research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Breeding
  • this very uniformity means that fewer individuals are required to produce results with the same level of statistical significance when an inbred line is used in comparison to an outbred line in the same experiment Breeding of inbred strains is often towards specific phenotypes of interest such as behavioural traits like alcohol preference or physical traits like aging. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • Whereas such lines would grow indefinitely in concanavalin A-induced mouse spleen cell supernatant, they would only grow for short periods (2 to 3 days) in the IL 2-containing supernatant of phytohemagglutinin-stimulated LBRM-33 tumor cells, or in IL 2 partially purified from spleen cell or LBRM-33 supernatants. (biomedsearch.com)
  • To understand the mechanism of the D326V mutation on the tumor spectrum, we performed comparative analyses for Rb1D326V/+ and Rb1+/− mice. (nih.gov)
  • Because inactivation of the functions of E2F was considered to be the major mechanism by which pRb suppressed tumor development, we focused on the E2F proteins in the mutant mice. (nih.gov)
  • Vaccination of mice with P815 tumor lysate-pulsed CD4+ 8+ TID815 or TID198 and CD4+ 8- TID198 induced IFN-gamma-secreting Th1 and effective CTL responses leading to protective immunity against P815 tumor , whereas CD4- 8- TID815 stimulated IL-10-expressing Tr1 responses leading to immune suppression. (curehunter.com)
  • By histology, both inflammation and cartilage destruction were reduced in anti-GM-CSF-treated mice, and the levels of tumor necrosis factor-a and IL-1beta were also reduced in joint tissue washouts of these mice. (nih.gov)
  • In 1982, the stimulation of expression from the MMTV-LTR (Mouse mammary tumor virus-Long terminal repeat) was done by multiple rounds of pregnancy and lactation to evaluate the relevance of a cellular proto-oncogene, c-myc. (wikipedia.org)
  • They established that ovariectomies reduced the incidence of mammary tumors and that tumor susceptibility varied in different strains of mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutation
  • this occurs via the expression of shRNA in prostate cancer cells and by targeted mutation in mouse embryonic fibroblasts.15,16 In contrast, two reports have demonstrated that E2F proteins increased their stabilities by interacting with pRb17,18 (Fig. S2). (nih.gov)
  • A single nucleotide polymorphism in Taar1 that encodes a missense proline to threonine mutation in the second transmembrane domain (Taar1 m1J ) has been identified in the DBA/2J strain. (elsevier.com)
  • experimental
  • IL-23p19 deficient mice have revealed a critical role of IL-23 in the development of experimental autoimmune diseases, such as collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). (nih.gov)
  • Biomedical Research
  • Making Mice: Standardizing Animals for American Biomedical Research, 1900-1955. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice have been used in biomedical research since the 16th Century when William Harvey used them for his studies on reproduction and blood circulation and Robert Hooke used them to investigate the biological consequences of an increase in air pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abbie Lathrop
  • Little and Castle collaborated closely with Abbie Lathrop who was a breeder of fancy mice and rats which she marketed to rodent hobbyists and keepers of exotic pets, and later began selling in large numbers to scientific researchers. (wikipedia.org)
  • experiment
  • Data are from the experiment in Fig. 1 where mice were treated intraperitoneally with either 300 ?g anti-GM-CSF or 300 ?g isotype control every second day from days 21 to 31. (nih.gov)
  • agonist
  • We show that TLR5 agonist, flagellin, can promote monocyte infiltration and osteoclast maturation directly through myeloid TLR5 ligation and indirectly via TNF-alpha production from RA and mouse cells. (umassmed.edu)
  • experiments
  • In 1902 Lucien Cuénot published the results of his experiments using mice which showed that Mendel's laws of inheritance were also valid for animals - results that were soon confirmed and extended to other species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inbred strains of animals are frequently used in laboratories for experiments where for the reproducibility of conclusions all the test animals should be as similar as possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research
  • Research on mouse cortex has identified several candidate morphogens that affect anteroposterior or mediolateral cortical regionalization as well as mitogenesis. (beds.ac.uk)
  • lesions
  • The metastatic potential of sub populations within mouse mammary cells is now considered as relatively an early event and dissemination occurs at the same time of pre invasive or micro-invasive lesions. (wikipedia.org)
  • As early as 1908 Lathrop found that unusual skin lesions were developing in some of her mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Little
  • While Little patronizingly called Lathrop a "talented pet-shop owner," his own DBA strain was probably derived from her partially inbred silver fawn mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • While studying under W. E. Castle, Little began his work with mice, focusing on inheritance, transplants, and grafts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Little energetically developed both the lab and the ACS, and by 1944 they were shipping 9000 mice a week to other laboratories. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytochrome
  • Complete cortical hemispheres from adult mice were dissected and stained for the cytochrome oxidase enzyme in order to measure histochemically defined cortical areas. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Dietary fat alters body composition, mammary development, and cytochrome p450 induction after maternal TCDD exposure in DBA/2J mice with low-responsive aryl hydrocarbon receptors. (nih.gov)
  • patterns
  • Figures 2, 3 illustrate spatial and temporal patterns in the activity of amygdala network neurons from DBA/2 high anxiety and FVB/N low anxiety mice. (nih.gov)
  • anxiety
  • Using behavioral task, two-photon cellular imaging and electrophysiology, we studied the characteristics of neural networks in basolateral amygdala and the influences of metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) on their dynamics in DBA/2 mice showing anxiety-related genetic defects. (nih.gov)
  • spontaneous
  • D) shows the number of spontaneous events from neurons versus their relative fluorescence intensity (ΔF/F0) in DBA/2 (gray bars/fitting curve) and FVB/N mice (white bars/black curve). (nih.gov)
  • Behavior
  • Social behavior phenotypes in fragile X syndrome, autism, and the Fmr1 knockout mouse: Theoretical comment on McNaughton et al. (upenn.edu)