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  • Humans
  • Acute exercise induces FGF21 expression in mice and in healthy humans. (mendeley.com)
  • Mups are encoded by a cluster of genes, located adjacent to each other on a single stretch of DNA, that varies greatly in number between species: from at least 21 functional genes in mice to none in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice belong to the Euarchontoglires clade, which includes humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • This close relationship, the associated high homology with humans, their ease of maintenance and handling, and their high reproduction rate, make mice particularly suitable models for human-oriented research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice are mammals of the Glires clade ( a group consisting of an ancestor and all its descendants), which means they are amongst the closest relatives of humans along with lagomorphs, treeshrews, flying lemurs and other primates. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are close similarities of physiology, development and cell biology between mice and humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans and mice both have around 30,000 protein-coding genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many drugs used to treat alcoholism in humans have been shown to lead to reduced ethanol consumption in mice used in this model. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic
  • C57BL/6J and DBA/2J have markedly different cortical area maps, suggesting that inbred strains harbor enough phenotypic variation to encourage a forward genetic approach to understanding cortical development, complementing other approaches. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Even within a single strain, large amounts of variation in the phenotype can be seen, despite each mouse having identical genetic backgrounds, which greatly hinders reproducibility. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is the most widely used "genetic background" for genetically modified mice for use as models of human disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Owing to genetic drift these colonies differ widely from one another (and, it goes without saying, from the original mice isolated at the Bussey Institute). (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic mapping of the loci controlling the class I and class II antigens of the mouse showed them to be part of a cluster, which Klein mapped to the chromosome 17 and for which he championed the name Major histocompatibility locus, Mhc. (wikipedia.org)
  • International Committee on Standardized Genetic Nomenclature for Mice (January 2016). (wikipedia.org)
  • As genotyping became progressively less expensive and more accurate the main advantage of using recombinant inbred strains and other genetic reference panels shifted to the ability to assemble massive and coherent databases on phenotypes (e.g., the GeneNetwork web service), and to use these coherent open-source data sets for large-scale collaborative research projects in predictive medicine and plant and animal research. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is possible to accumulate extensive genetic and phenotype data for each member of a family of recombinant inbred strains under several different conditions (e.g., baseline environment versus stressful environment). (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent ameliorations in maneuvering the mouse genome have provided the technology to induce mammary cancers in mice arising from genetic mutations that have been identified in human cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain plants including the genetic model organism Arabidopsis thaliana naturally self pollinate, which makes it quite easy to create inbred strains in the laboratory (other plants, including important genetic models such as Maize require transfer of pollen from one flower to another). (wikipedia.org)
  • Jackson Laboratory has additional features to maintaining mice, one can order mice that have been altered with genetic tools such as Gal4/UAS or CRISPR, meaning that even if the strain does not currently exist, you can still obtain a line of mouse that is useful to your research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such strains are useful in the analysis of variance within an inbred strain or between inbred strains because any differences would be due to the single genetic change, or to a difference in environmental conditions between two individuals of the same strain, one of the more specific uses of Drosophila inbred strains are the use of Gal4/UAS lines in research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inbreeding animals will sometimes lead to genetic drift. (wikipedia.org)
  • rodent
  • By far the most popular laboratory rodent, the C57BL/6 mouse accounts for half to five-sixths of all rodents shipped to research laboratories from American suppliers. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, this occurred independently of the duplications in mice, meaning that both rodent species expanded their Mup gene families separately, but in parallel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Little and Castle collaborated closely with Abbie Lathrop who was a breeder of fancy mice and rats which she marketed to rodent hobbyists and keepers of exotic pets, and later began selling in large numbers to scientific researchers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abbie E. C. Lathrop (1868 - 1918) was a rodent fancier who bred fancy mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • The NOG mouse accepts heterologous cells much more easily compared with any other type of immunodeficient rodent models, such as, nude mouse and NOD/scid mouse. (wikipedia.org)
  • differences
  • The present data suggest that many of the previously documented neurosteroid-induced behavioral differences between the DBA/2J and C57BL/6J are acute effects and are not apparent in a drug discrimination procedure. (aspetjournals.org)
  • therefore, one goal of this report was to find out if such differences occurred in mice of the C57Bl/6J inbred strain. (elsevier.es)
  • 6 ] have employed gene expression array analysis of the dissected embryonic (16.5d) mouse cerebral cortex to expand the list of genes regionally expressed, and noted that regional differences in expression of genes in the cortical plate should eventually convert into functionally distinct cortical areas with anatomically distinguishable borders after birth. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Similarly, 6-week old mice did not develop type diabetes, while 7-8-month old mice did become diabetic due to differences in β-cell activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research from his lab has shown that adult and adolescent mice given equal amounts of cocaine display significant differences in locomotor stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • BALB
  • A quasi-congenic QTL introgression strain carrying a low alcohol consumption gene from BALB/c has lower voluntary alcohol consumption than C57BL/6, with 96% of loci in common ( Vadasz et al, 1996 ). (jax.org)
  • BALB/c is an albino, laboratory-bred strain of the house mouse from which a number of common substrains are derived. (wikipedia.org)
  • Now over 200 generations from New York in 1920, BALB/c mice are distributed globally, and are among the most widely used inbred strains used in animal experimentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • BALB/c mice are useful for research into both cancer and immunology. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to Michael Festing's Inbred Strains of Mice, BALB/c substrains are "particularly well known for the production of plasmacytomas on injection with mineral oil," an important process for the production of monoclonal antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eicher E. M., Beamer W. G., Washburn L. L., and Whitten W. K. (1980) A cytogenetic investigation of inherited true hermaphroditism in BALB/cWt mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • transgenic mice
  • 5 ] demonstrated changes in the position and or size of primary sensory visual, somatosensory, and auditory cortical regions in transgenic mice over expressing the transcription factor Emx2 . (beds.ac.uk)
  • The dark coat make the mouse strain convenient for creating transgenic mice: it is crossed with a light-furred 129 mouse, and the desirable crosses can be easily identified by their mixed coat colors. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1982, Palmiter and Brinster implanted a foreign gene into fertilized egg, finally generating the first transgenic mice genetically engineered to express dominant oncogenes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spleen
  • In 20 cGy-exposed C57BL/6 mice, the caspase activity and apoptosis were reduced in con A-stimulated spleen cells as compared to sham controls. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Mitochondrial stability was increased in spleen cells of LDR-treated mice. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Analyses of survivin peptide-pulsed spleen and lymph node cells from vaccinated mice using ELISPOT and intracellular cytokine staining confirmed antigen-specific, interferon-γ-producing CD8(+) T-cell responses. (biomedsearch.com)
  • mitogenesis
  • Research on mouse cortex has identified several candidate morphogens that affect anteroposterior or mediolateral cortical regionalization as well as mitogenesis. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Cell cycle regulators modulating con A mitogenesis and apoptosis in low-dose radiation-exposed mice. (biomedsearch.com)
  • organism
  • The mouse has since been used extensively as a model organism and is associated with many important biological discoveries of the 20th and 21st Centuries. (wikipedia.org)
  • colony
  • There now exist colonies of mice derived from the original C57BL/6 colony that have been bred in isolation from one another for many hundreds of generations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aurora's Guide to Mouse Colony Management" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • From 1920, the progeny of the original colony were systematically inbred, sibling to sibling, for 26 generations over 15 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • loci
  • A strain is inbred when it has undergone at least 20 generations of brother x sister or offspring x parent mating, at which point at least 98.6% of the loci in an individual of the strain will be homozygous, and each individual can be treated effectively as clones. (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • These results provide a comprehensive look at pregnanolone's discriminative stimulus effects in two commonly used strains of mice. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In the strain of mice most commonly used for DIO models, C57BL/6J, mice who started the diet at 10 weeks old showed lower increases in body weight and cholesterol than mice who started at 54 weeks, despite the same diet type and duration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice that have been barbered have large bald patches on their bodies, commonly around the head, snout, and shoulders, although barbering may appear anywhere on the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Breeding
  • After her poultry business failed, she started breeding rats and mice for hobbyists and pet owners. (wikipedia.org)
  • this very uniformity means that fewer individuals are required to produce results with the same level of statistical significance when an inbred line is used in comparison to an outbred line in the same experiment Breeding of inbred strains is often towards specific phenotypes of interest such as behavioural traits like alcohol preference or physical traits like aging. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a career project, Rhodes tries to understand the evolution of behavior by selectively breeding for hyperactivity in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Between 1979 and 1981, it was estimated that Mups are encoded by a gene family of between 15 and 35 genes and pseudogenes in the mouse and by an estimated 20 genes in the rat. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mouse reference genome has at least 21 distinct Mup genes (with open reading frames), and a further 21 Mup pseudogenes (with reading frames disrupted by a nonsense mutation or an incomplete gene duplication). (wikipedia.org)
  • As all the Class B genes are almost identical to each other, researchers have concluded that these duplications occurred very recently in mouse evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indeed, the repetitive structure of these central Mup genes means they are likely to be unstable and may vary in number among wild mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consequently, the Mup gene cluster is one of the few parts of the mouse whole genome sequence with gaps remaining, and further genes may remain undiscovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • Species
  • The C57BL/6 mouse was the second-ever mammalian species to have its entire genome published. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mups can also function as signals between different species: mice display an instinctive fear response on the detection of Mups derived from predators such as cats and rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1902 Lucien Cuénot published the results of his experiments using mice which showed that Mendel's laws of inheritance were also valid for animals - results that were soon confirmed and extended to other species. (wikipedia.org)
  • acute
  • Here, we showed that serum FGF21 level is increased in mice after a single bout of acute exercise, and that this is accompanied by increased serum levels of free fatty acid, glycerol and ketone body. (mendeley.com)
  • FGF21 gene expression was induced in the liver but not in skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue of mice after acute exercise, and further, the gene expression levels of hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) and activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) were also increased. (mendeley.com)
  • Proteins
  • Low doses of ionizing radiation (LDR) are reported to induce transient changes in mouse lymphocytes, such as enhanced response to polyclonal T cell mitogens, increased expression of heat shock proteins, and p53. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We evaluated the role of cell cycle proteins and apoptosis in lymphocytes of C57BL/6 mice exposed to 20 cGy fractionated LDR. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Liver
  • Like Helicobacter hepaticus, it colonizes the bile, liver, and intestine of mice, and is associated with multifocal chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence analyses of tumors from vaccinated mice showed CD8(+) T-cell infiltration, and real-time PCR demonstrated increased mRNA and protein levels of immunostimulatory cytokines. (biomedsearch.com)
  • females
  • In 2015 C57BL/6NTac females provided by Taconic Biosciences were sent to the International Space Station on SpaceX CRS-6. (wikipedia.org)
  • model
  • Rhodes was one of the developers of the Drinking in the Dark model in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this model, a specific mouse strain is found to voluntarily drink to the levels of intoxication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, the mouse can be the best model as a highly efficient recipient of human cells to engraft, proliferate and differentiate. (wikipedia.org)
  • NCLAS also came into the limelight due to the WNIN/Ob obese rat strain which is the heaviest inbred rat model available. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2000
  • A NOG (NOD/Shi-scid/IL-2Rγnull) mouse is a new generation of severely immunodeficient mouse, developed by Central Institute for Experimental Animals (CIEA) in 2000. (wikipedia.org)
  • The NOG mouse was generated in CIEA in 2000 by back-cross mating of C57BL/6J-IL-2Rγnull mouse that was originally developed by Kazuo Sugamura, a professor of Tohoku University, to NOD/Shi-scid mouse that was developed in CIEA. (wikipedia.org)
  • H. rappini has also been isolated from the feces of healthy people, dogs, and mice, as well as from patients with bacteremia. (wikipedia.org)
  • adult mice
  • Complete cortical hemispheres from adult mice were dissected and stained for the cytochrome oxidase enzyme in order to measure histochemically defined cortical areas. (beds.ac.uk)
  • RESULTS: In both young and adult mice fed on HFD, femoral strength, stiffness, and toughness are all dramatically lower than controls. (biomedsearch.com)
  • lesions
  • The metastatic potential of sub populations within mouse mammary cells is now considered as relatively an early event and dissemination occurs at the same time of pre invasive or micro-invasive lesions. (wikipedia.org)
  • As early as 1908 Lathrop found that unusual skin lesions were developing in some of her mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • urine
  • Characterization of thiol-conjugated metabolites of ginger components shogaols in mouse and human urine and modulation of the glutathione levels in cancer cells by -shogaol. (biomedsearch.com)
  • SCID
  • No activity of T cell, B cell and NK cell Reduced complement system activity Dysfunction of macrophage Dysfunction of dendritic cell No leakiness: no incidence of T, B cells with aging No incidence of lymphoma NOG mouse has multiple immunodeficiencies that are principally derived from three strains of mice: 1) NOD/Shi inbred strain, 2) SCID, 3) IL-2Rγnull. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer Infectious Diseases Regenerative Medicine Hematology Humanized mouse Nude mouse SCID mouse M. Ito and, et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • biomedical research
  • Mice have been used in biomedical research since the 16th Century when William Harvey used them for his studies on reproduction and blood circulation and Robert Hooke used them to investigate the biological consequences of an increase in air pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Making Mice: Standardizing Animals for American Biomedical Research, 1900-1955. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pregnancy
  • In 1982, the stimulation of expression from the MMTV-LTR (Mouse mammary tumor virus-Long terminal repeat) was done by multiple rounds of pregnancy and lactation to evaluate the relevance of a cellular proto-oncogene, c-myc. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenotypes
  • Tests for allelism among mice with four different mutant alleles at the shaker-with-syndactylism locus on mouse Chromosome (Chr) 18 provide evidence that the original radiation-induced mutation, sy, is a deletion including at least two genes associated with distinct phenotypes. (jax.org)
  • As genotyping became progressively less expensive and more accurate the main advantage of using recombinant inbred strains and other genetic reference panels shifted to the ability to assemble massive and coherent databases on phenotypes (e.g., the GeneNetwork web service), and to use these coherent open-source data sets for large-scale collaborative research projects in predictive medicine and plant and animal research. (wikipedia.org)
  • All else being equal, the larger the family of recombinant inbred strains, the greater the power and resolution with which phenotypes can be mapped to chromosomal locations. (wikipedia.org)
  • this very uniformity means that fewer individuals are required to produce results with the same level of statistical significance when an inbred line is used in comparison to an outbred line in the same experiment Breeding of inbred strains is often towards specific phenotypes of interest such as behavioural traits like alcohol preference or physical traits like aging. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the key strengths of using inbred strains as a model is that strains are readily available for whatever study one is performing and that there are resources such as the Jackson Laboratory, and Flybase, where one can look up strains with specific phenotypes or genotypes, from among inbred lines, recombinant lines, and Coisogenic strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Behavioral Genetics of the Mouse: Genetics of Behavioral Phenotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drosophila
  • Beginning in the early 1900s Drosophila entered the research laboratories and opened up the doors for other model organisms like Tobacco mosaic virus, E. coli, C57BL/6 (lab mice), etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mendel created a practical guide to breeding and this method has successfully been applied to select for some of the first model organisms of other genus and species such as Guinea pigs, Drosophila (fruit fly), mice, and viruses like the tobacco mosaic virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • Mice carrying mutations in this gene have not been reported previously, and a possible involvement of eIF3h in transcription or epigenetic regulation has not been considered. (g3journal.org)
  • rats
  • After her poultry business failed, she started breeding rats and mice for hobbyists and pet owners. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mups can also function as signals between different species: mice display an instinctive fear response on the detection of Mups derived from predators such as cats and rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, it was not until the 1960s that the major urinary proteins of mice and rats were first described in detail. (wikipedia.org)
  • Laboratories
  • Inbred strains of animals are frequently used in laboratories for experiments where for the reproducibility of conclusions all the test animals should be as similar as possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • clones
  • The Kd-restricted Plasmodium berghei circumsporozoite (PbCS) peptide 253-260 (YIPSAEKI) was reacted NH2-terminally with biotin and at the TCR contact residue Lys259 with photoreactive iodo, 4-azido salicylic acid (IASA) to make biotin-YIPSAEK(IASA)I. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) clones derived from mice immunized with this derivative recognized this conjugate, but not a related one lacking the IASA group nor the parental PbCS peptide. (unil.ch)
  • ethanol
  • The mean maximally preferred concentrations of ethanol were 17,9% for C57BL/6 and 6,8% for ICR mice. (spotidoc.com)
  • The consumption of ethanol represents a preferred source of calories for the C57BL/6 mouse (McMillen et al, 1998). (spotidoc.com)
  • spontaneous
  • Here, we show that a wide variety of CNS-active drugs induce characteristic alterations in visual stimulus-induced and/or spontaneous eye movements in mice. (jci.org)
  • In nonfoveate mammals, such as mice, there are 3 primary types of eye movements: (a) the optokinetic reflex (OKR), (b) the vestibular-ocular reflex (VOR), and (c) spontaneous eye movements. (jci.org)
  • homozygous
  • Mice homozygous for sy have syndactylous feet and other skeletal malformations, are deaf, and exhibit abnormal behavior characteristic of vestibular dysfunction. (jax.org)
  • Mice homozygous for a knock-out allele exhibit a thinner Descemet's membrane of the cornea. (jax.org)
  • Mice heterozygous or homozygous for an ENU-induced mutation exhibit thin cornea, corneal epithelium, stroma, and Descemet membrane, and enlarged anterior chamber. (jax.org)
  • partially
  • Interestingly, although Fmr1/Fxr2 double knockout mice exhibited a more robust enhancement in mGluR-LTD compared with that in Fmr1 knockout mice, Fxr2 knockout mice exhibited reduced mGluR-LTD. Furthermore, unlike Fmr1 knockout mice, mGluR-LTD in Fxr2 knockout mice required new protein synthesis, whereas mGluR-LTD in Fmr1/Fxr2 double knockout mice was partially dependent on protein synthesis. (nih.gov)
  • While Little patronizingly called Lathrop a "talented pet-shop owner," his own DBA strain was probably derived from her partially inbred silver fawn mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • There are close similarities of physiology, development and cell biology between mice and humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice belong to the Euarchontoglires clade, which includes humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • This close relationship, the associated high homology with humans, their ease of maintenance and handling, and their high reproduction rate, make mice particularly suitable models for human-oriented research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice are mammals of the Glires clade ( a group consisting of an ancestor and all its descendants), which means they are amongst the closest relatives of humans along with lagomorphs, treeshrews, flying lemurs and other primates. (wikipedia.org)
  • primates
  • To gain a better understanding of pathogenetic mechanisms, animal models of Lyme disease have been developed in mice, hamsters, guinea pigs, dogs, and nonhuman primates. (asmscience.org)
  • Biomedical Research
  • Making Mice: Standardizing Animals for American Biomedical Research, 1900-1955. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice have been used in biomedical research since the 16th Century when William Harvey used them for his studies on reproduction and blood circulation and Robert Hooke used them to investigate the biological consequences of an increase in air pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • animals
  • The founding animals of the strain were obtained by Halsey J. Bagg of Memorial Hospital, New York, from a mouse dealer in Ohio in 1913. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, if the specific mutation cannot be passed on, heterozygous animals should be used to breed with the original inbred strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • models
  • Altered hippocampal synaptic plasticity in the FMR1 gene family knockout mouse models. (nih.gov)
  • Deletion of the PGI 2 receptor (IP) or suppression of PGI 2 with the selective COX-2 inhibitor, nimesulide, both augment intimal hyperplasia while preserving luminal geometry in mouse models of transplant arteriosclerosis or flow-induced vascular remodeling. (ahajournals.org)
  • In this study, we examine the effect of disrupting PGI 2 action in mouse models of transplant arteriosclerosis and vascular remodeling which preserve the integrity of the endothelium, either by removing the IP or by administration of nimesulide, a nonproprietary but commercially available COX-2 inhibitor which confers COX-2 selectivity comparable to that of celecoxib. (ahajournals.org)
  • In the strain of mice most commonly used for DIO models, C57BL/6J, mice who started the diet at 10 weeks old showed lower increases in body weight and cholesterol than mice who started at 54 weeks, despite the same diet type and duration. (wikipedia.org)
  • wild mice
  • The United States government purchased her guinea pigs to test for toxic gas in the trenches of World War I. For the Granby Mouse Farm Lathrop sourced wild mice from Michigan and Vermont. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • The metastatic potential of sub populations within mouse mammary cells is now considered as relatively an early event and dissemination occurs at the same time of pre invasive or micro-invasive lesions. (wikipedia.org)
  • common
  • Moreover, nimesulide or IP deletion augments the reduction in blood flow caused by common carotid artery ligation in wild-type mice. (ahajournals.org)
  • Some common mouse strains show large variations in their level of resistance to obesity. (wikipedia.org)
  • among
  • Among the factors which might have contributed to acceleration of cardiovascular risk during that time are elevation of blood pressure 9 and acceleration of atherogenesis, 10,11 both of which may result from deletion of the receptor for PGI 2 (the IP) in genetically predisposed strains of mice. (ahajournals.org)
  • baseline
  • In addition, Fmr1/Fxr2 double knockout mice showed significant deficiencies relative to either Fmr1 or Fxr2 knockout mice in baseline synaptic transmission and short-term presynaptic plasticity, suggesting FMRP and FXR2P may contribute in a cooperative manner to pathways regulating presynaptic plasticity. (nih.gov)
  • Female
  • Pregnant female C57BL/6J mice were exposed, on gestational day 7, to ethylene oxide (EtO) via inhalation for 1.5, 3, or 6 h at exposures that result in C x T multiples of 2100 or 2700 ppm-h. (edu.au)
  • Karin Knorr Cetina wrote in 2009 that at least five of the primary strains of laboratory mice in use may derive from a single female from Lathrop. (wikipedia.org)
  • They have been demonstrated to promote aggression in male mice, and one specific Mup protein found in male mouse urine is sexually attractive to female mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Little
  • He trained C. C. Little who bred C57BL/6J ("Black 6") from Lathrop's mouse number 57. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the early part of the 20th century Clarence Cook Little, a Harvard undergraduate was conducting studies on mouse genetics in the laboratory of William Ernest Castle. (wikipedia.org)
  • selectively
  • Group-housed B6 mice display barbering behavior, in which the dominant mouse in a cage selectively removes hair from its subordinate cage mates. (wikipedia.org)
  • unusual
  • C57BL/6 has many unusual characteristics that make it useful for some work and inappropriate for other: It is unusually sensitive to pain and to cold, and analgesic medications are less effective in it. (wikipedia.org)