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  • sequences
  • Improvements to the in situ polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a process of in vitro enzymatic amplification of specific nucleic acid sequences within the cells where they originate, can be achieved by changing the way that the enzymatic reaction is started. (google.es)
  • We show that a clone containing Myf5 and 140 kb of upstream sequences is sufficient to recapitulate the known expression patterns of both genes. (biologists.org)
  • embryos
  • Axel emphasized that their experiments had no application to the newly announced achievement by South Korean scientists in cloning human embryos. (innovations-report.com)
  • Beddington embarked on the study of anterior-posterior axial patterning in mammalian embryos, beginning with her doctoral thesis entitled, "Studies on cell fate and cell potency in the postimplantation mammalian embryo" supervised by Richard Gardner and Virginia Papaioannou, and was awarded a DPhil in 1981. (wikipedia.org)
  • It suggests that ultimately, treatment of serious illnesses and understanding of stem cell development may be possible to obtain without recourse to human embryos - a highly desirable state of affairs politically, given the concurrent controversy over stem cell research in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eggan's technique provides a window into exactly what happens to turn back the clock in cells during cloning--and, indeed, in the normal process of creating sperm, eggs and embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • But right now, the only way to solve that problem is to clone embryos, which is a difficult and expensive process. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • According to Axel, the cloning achievement eliminates one potential mechanism and narrows the possible ways in which a cell chooses one of thousands of receptor genes. (innovations-report.com)
  • In the mouse, the inhibitory receptors that have been identified belong to the Ly49 family of C-type lectin proteins encoded by genes in the NK complex ( 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Both the frequency of cells expressing a given Ly49 molecule and the level of expression are influenced by host MHC genes ( 6 , 7 , 8 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • In the mouse, the NK1.1 Ag, which is a homologue of NKRP1 ( 15 ), is expressed on all NK cells in appropriate strains ( 16 ), is encoded by genes in the NK complex ( 4 ), and may be involved in recognition as judged by the ability of Ab to NK1.1 to induce or enhance killing by NK cells ( 17 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Researchers have known for decades that cancer begins when certain key genes in an otherwise healthy cell mutate, and tumor growth depends on continuing, multiple mutations. (innovations-report.com)
  • But only recently have scientists begun to understand the "epigenetic" components of cancer-that is, how other molecules in a cell affect genes without actually altering the sequence of DNA. (innovations-report.com)
  • But in spite of this, when certain cancer-related genes in these mice were activated, they developed malignant tumors at a much faster rate than the control mice. (innovations-report.com)
  • The laboratory mouse genome has been sequenced and many mouse genes have human homologues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of these 13000 mutant genes, 8000 mutations in mouse ES Cells are 'targeted': that is, the mutation which knocks out gene function is inserted precisely into the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 8000 genes selected for mutation in mouse ES cells were drawn from the total set of protein coding mouse genes, based on a rough metric of how easy the genes were to mutate, with the technologies present at the time the project started. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eggan's research goals at Harvard were to understand how nuclear transplantation works, and to make stem cells that carry genes for specific diseases such as Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's disease), and Alzheimer's. (wikipedia.org)
  • This work on the cloning of T-cell receptor genes, as of 2005[update], has been cited nearly 1200 times. (wikipedia.org)
  • olfactory
  • The images are of a newborn mouse cloned from an olfactory sensory neuron that had been marked with a genetic change so that it would be green under fluorescent light. (innovations-report.com)
  • In doing their experiments, the researchers were seeking to determine whether a single mature olfactory neuron, when introduced into an egg, or oocyte, depleted of its nucleus, could revert to an undifferentiated state in which it could give rise to an adult mouse possessing the full range of olfactory receptors. (innovations-report.com)
  • But a team of researchers led by Rudolf Jaenisch and Andrew Chess, scientists at Whitehead and professors in the Department of Biology, and by Richard Axel of Columbia University showed that even a cell as highly specialized as an olfactory neuron can produce successful clones. (mit.edu)
  • If the central nervous system acted in the same way, a mouse cloned from an olfactory cell should have a very limited sense of smell. (mit.edu)
  • However, the mice in this experiment maintained full olfactory range, the scientists noted. (mit.edu)
  • nuclei
  • A central question, said the scientists, was whether mature cells had undergone certain irreversible genetic processes, such as gene rearrangements, that would prevent them from reprogramming their nuclei to allow totipotent development. (innovations-report.com)
  • For now, Jaenisch's lab is continuing to investigate ways to produce healthier animal clones by studying how genomes of donated nuclei are reactivated. (mit.edu)
  • The first mouse born was named Cumulina, after the cumulus cells whose nuclei were used to clone her. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • This method of activation may be used for the preparation of anti-tumor vaccines or for ex vivo activation of the cytotoxic T-cells which can then be followed by the expansion of T-cells through normal, mature dendritic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • fetal
  • The cells are grown in a modified CMRL-1415 medium supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum. (aacrjournals.org)
  • NK cells obtained by exposing mouse fetal thymocytes to appropriate combinations of IL-4, IL-2, and PMA are phenotypically indistinguishable from cultured adult splenic NK cells with the exception that they generally lack measurable expression of all of the inhibitory Ly49 molecules that can currently be detected with Abs (Ly49A, -C, -G, and -I) and of the activating molecule Ly49D. (jimmunol.org)
  • The expression of individual variable Ags is independent and stochastic, resulting in fetal NK "clones" being potentially composed of hundreds of phenotypically distinct cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • We hypothesize that fetal NK cells behave as progenitor cells that are undergoing a process of rapid, extensive, and continuous diversification and that are individually capable of generating and regenerating a complex NK cell repertoire. (jimmunol.org)
  • strains
  • Together they generated the DBA (Dilute, Brown and non-Agouti) inbred mouse strain and initiated the systematic generation of inbred strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • In 1973 he described, with Edward Cohen, a method of producing antibodies involving human-mouse hybrid cells, or hybridomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hybrid cells continued secretion of mouse immunoglobulin and initiate synthesis and secretion of human immunoglobulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human x mouse somatic cell hybrid clone secreting immunoglobulins of both parental types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human and mouse IL-17A were cloned a few years later by Yao and Kennedy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human TH17 cells have been shown to efficiently transmigrate across the blood-brain barrier in multiple sclerosis lesions, promoting central nervous system inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • This close relationship, the associated high homology with humans, their ease of maintenance and handling, and their high reproduction rate, make mice particularly suitable models for human-oriented research. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the time, stem cell research in the United States was threatened by political pressure due to concerns over the ethics of human embryo research, and research such as this was at risk of potentially being made illegal. (wikipedia.org)
  • This ATF-7 is actually ATF5 and not ATF7, as noted by the authors at the end of their paper ("Note Added in Proof-While this manuscript was under review, sequences for mouse and human ATF-5 were deposited in GenBankTM. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mechanical force may increase the expression of MMP1 in human periodontal ligament cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The NTERA-2 (also designated NTERA2/D1, NTERA2, or NT2) cell line is a clonally derived, pluripotent human embryonal carcinoma cell line. (wikipedia.org)
  • NTERA-2 cells exhibit biochemical and developmental properties similar to the cells of the early embryo, and can be used to study the early stages of human neurogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • They also express nestin and vimentin, which are found in neuroepithelial precursor cells, as well as microtubule-associated proteins expressed in human neuroepithelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1984). "Pluripotent embryonal carcinoma clones derived from the human teratocarcinoma cell line Tera-2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Jaenisch
  • Because the cloned animals are normal, our experiment also shows that [some] brain functions do not involve genetic alterations of the neuron s genome," said Jaenisch. (innovations-report.com)
  • These findings shift the spotlight away from the type of cell used to produce a clone to the more fundamental question of how the egg cell reactivates the donated genetic material," Jaenisch said. (mit.edu)
  • molecules
  • Recently, a significant advance in our understanding of NK cell recognition has come from the realization that MHC class I molecules can protect target cells from lysis by NK cells ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • This protection is mediated at least in part by receptors on NK cells that bind to class I molecules and deliver inhibitory signals ( 2 , 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Different members of the Ly49 family bind to different class I molecules and are expressed independently on overlapping subpopulations of NK cells ( 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • scientists
  • The scientists credit the idea for the experiments to Woody Allen whose classic comedy Sleeper depicted scientists who try to clone a dead dictator from his nose. (innovations-report.com)
  • In 2006, following "more than two years of intensive ethical and scientific review", two groups of scientists at HSCI were granted permission to explore Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer techniques to create disease-specific stem cell lines as an approach to various currently incurable conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuronal
  • After 4 days in culture, the cells also expressed immature neuronal and RGC-related markers, such as betaIII tubulin (Tuj-1), neurofilament middle chain (NFM), Islet1, brn3a, brn3b, Thy1 and melanopsin. (arvojournals.org)
  • cytotoxic
  • Blood samples containing the required precursors for CD4+ helper T-cell, CD8+ cytotoxic T-cell, and natural killer (NK) cell are extracted from the patient and activated before being re-administered to the patient to induce anti-tumor activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are activated to target the cells that present proteins characteristic of tumor cells Some tumor cells, however, do not present an antigen due to lack of a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and therefore cannot be recognized by the CTLs. (wikipedia.org)
  • in 1993 from a rodent T-cell hybridoma, derived from the fusion of a mouse cytotoxic T cell clone and a rat T cell lymphoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pancreatic
  • Furthermore, pancreatic sections from a disease transfer experiment with one of the clones showed a pronounced cellular infiltration and degranulation of islets in nondiabetic (CBA x NOD)F1 recipients. (pnas.org)
  • It uses a patient's own immune system to target tumor cells in prostate cancer, glioblastomas, and potentially pancreatic cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem cell
  • These features are key factors for successful stem cell transplantations that are used in cancer patients and in gene therapy protocols. (rupress.org)
  • Our findings have important implications for experimental and clinical and stem cell transplantation protocols. (rupress.org)
  • Each stem cell contains one mutant gene copy and one 'wild-type' (normal) gene copy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kevin Eggan (born 1974 in Normal, Illinois) is a Professor of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology at Harvard University, known for his work in stem cell research (also known as "therapeutic cloning"), and as a spokesperson for stem cell research in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eggan began to explore both this process and also the reasons that cloned animals often appeared to develop abnormally, with organ defects and immunological problems - his first contact with stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Federal funding for stem cell research had recently been removed, and part of his role was to obtain private funding to replace it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eggan also serves as the Chief Scientific Officer of The New York Stem Cell Foundation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eggan's work as of 2007[update] has succeeded in developing a technique of merging stem and skin cells that has obtained considerable public attention as a possible avenue to avoid moral objections regarding stem cell research in the context of serious illness. (wikipedia.org)
  • He is also the senior scientist, division of Stem Cell and Developmental Biology, Advanced Medical Discovery Institute/Ontario Cancer Institute. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • The retrovirus inserts itself 'randomly' into the mouse genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mutations introduced in the ES Cells are conditional: this means that the initial mutation can be modified - by the application of particular DNA-altering enzymes (site specific recombinases) to make the knockout initially latent in the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • laboratory
  • The laboratory mouse is a small mammal of the order Rodentia which is bred and used for scientific research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Laboratory mice are usually of the species Mus musculus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other mouse species sometimes used in laboratory research include the American white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) and the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus). (wikipedia.org)
  • In the early part of the 20th century Clarence Cook Little, a Harvard undergraduate was conducting studies on mouse genetics in the laboratory of William Ernest Castle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Laboratory mice are the same species as the house mouse, however, they are often very different in behaviour and physiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Yanagimachi laboratory and his former associates continue to make advances in cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2004 the laboratory participated in the cloning of an infertile male mouse. (wikipedia.org)
  • SCID
  • At the same department, the SCID mouse model was demonstrated as "an excellent model system" for studying interaction between tumors and CTLs. (wikipedia.org)
  • experiment
  • The experiment also counters current theories on how central nervous system cells develop. (mit.edu)
  • invariant
  • Lymphocytes including CD4+, CD8+, gamma-delta T (γδ-T), invariant NKT and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are primary sources of IL-17A. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Mouse undifferentiated ES cells were transfected with pax6 gene. (arvojournals.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a proinflammatory cytokine produced by activated T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene can be later knocked out (inactivated) at a specific time-point or tissue-type in mutant mice derived from the mutant ES Cells, by appropriate breeding to other transgenic mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neuroepithelial cell-transforming gene 1 protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NET1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Knockout
  • The EUCOMM consortium is a member of the International Knockout Mouse Consortium, (an organisation including the EUCOMM, KOMP, NorCOMM and TIGM consortia) which reflects a commitment to share and promote their products and technology with the international research community. (wikipedia.org)
  • International Mouse Knockout Consortium (2007). (wikipedia.org)
  • Financial support from Amgen resulted in his lab pioneering the use of knockout mice, and as a result his lab generated one of the first knockout mice and has generated more knockout mice than any other lab in the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammals
  • Mice are mammals of the Glires clade ( a group consisting of an ancestor and all its descendants), which means they are amongst the closest relatives of humans along with lagomorphs, treeshrews, flying lemurs and other primates. (wikipedia.org)
  • transplantation
  • We detected highly skewed representation of individual clones in different bones at least 11 mo after transplantation. (rupress.org)
  • Thus far, it is unknown how individual HSC clones migrate and distribute among skeletal niches after transplantation and how this is affected by mobilization-inducing cytokines. (rupress.org)
  • cytokines
  • Nonetheless, Th17 signature cytokines, such as IL-17A and IL-22, may target gut epithelial cells and promote the activation of regulatory pathways and confer protection in the gastrointestinal tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • neural
  • The transfected cells were cultured in the G418 containing media and limiting dilution culture was conducted to select cloned neural progenitors. (arvojournals.org)
  • The growing neural like cells was characterized using RT-PCR and immunostaining. (arvojournals.org)
  • After selection of the clones for nestin and musashi-1 mRNAs as neural progenitors, we obtained the cells which begin to express retinal progenitor transcripts, six3 and chx10 on the next day after culture. (arvojournals.org)
  • lymphocytes
  • The lymphocytes are frozen and the monocytes are differentiated into dendritic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • After 6 days, the lymphocytes are mixed with dendritic cells and incubated for eight days. (wikipedia.org)
  • After that, dendritic cells are added to the lymphocytes to induce further lymphocyte proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • ALECSAT (Autologous Lymphoid Effector Cells Specific Against Tumor cells) technology is a novel method of epigenetic cancer immunotherapy being used by the company CytoVac. (wikipedia.org)
  • tend
  • As a general rule, inbred mice tend to have longer gestation periods and smaller litters than outbred and hybrid mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clonal
  • Here we determine the degree of hematopoietic migration at a clonal level by transplanting individual young and aged mouse HSCs labeled with barcoded viral vector, followed by assessing the skeletal distribution of hundreds of HSC clones. (rupress.org)
  • reveals
  • Analysis of the lipids from differentiating and nondifferentiating clones reveals the presence of sebaceous-type lipids in differentiating clones only. (aacrjournals.org)
  • make
  • The researchers led by Tomohiro Kono at the Tokyo University of Agriculture used cells from two different female mice and combined them to make a single unique animal. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • Many researchers have long assumed that nervous system cells distinguish themselves from each other the same way immune system cells do--that is, by removing all pieces of genetic information that the cell doesn't need for its particular function. (mit.edu)
  • The cells scramble this unnecessary genetic information in such a way that it can't be restored. (mit.edu)
  • developmental
  • The current study aims to answer longstanding questions about the developmental potential of mature cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • Although the existence of NK cells has been known for more than 20 years, many of the basic issues concerning these cells, such as their developmental pathway, their mechanisms of recognition, and their physiologic function, are still poorly understood. (jimmunol.org)
  • receptors
  • Indeed, the resulting mice exhibited an array of well organized odorant receptors that were indistinguishable from those of normal mice, the researchers reported on February 15, 2004, in an article published in an advance online publication in the journal Nature. (innovations-report.com)
  • immune system cells
  • In order to have efficient eradication of cancer cells, the immune system cells should be able to both populate in the secondary lymphoid organs for a long-lasting effect and target a shared variety of tumor cells as opposed to one, specific cancer cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • researchers
  • Little and Castle collaborated closely with Abbie Lathrop who was a breeder of fancy mice and rats which she marketed to rodent hobbyists and keepers of exotic pets, and later began selling in large numbers to scientific researchers. (wikipedia.org)
  • destruction
  • Th17 cells is also strongly associated rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a chronic disorder with symptoms include chronic joint inflammation, autoantibody production, which lead to the destruction of cartilage and bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1986
  • Beddington taught at the newly established Cold Spring Harbor Laboratories summer course on manipulating the mouse embryo from 1986, including two years as co-organiser with Robertson. (wikipedia.org)
  • experiments
  • In 1902 Lucien Cuénot published the results of his experiments using mice which showed that Mendel's laws of inheritance were also valid for animals - results that were soon confirmed and extended to other species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins
  • T-cell receptor T3 delta chain Monoclonal detects proteins from variouse species most likely human. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Clathrin coated vesicles enable neurotransmitter receptors and other proteins to be endocytosed or taken up across neuronal membranes and across the membranes of other types of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The proteins were called Ten-ms in zebrafish, teneurins in chicken, Ten-m1-4, Odz1-4, Ten-m/Odz1-4, DOC4 in mouse, neurestin in rat, and teneurin or Odz in human. (wikipedia.org)
  • All teneurins, especially in mouse, are type II transmembrane proteins that are composed of a large extracellular C terminal domain of ~2400 amino acid residues, a single transmembrane helical domain of ~30 hydrophobic residues and an intracellular N terminal domain of ~300-375 residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Atg proteins regulate autophagy, which is a lysosomal degradation pathway required for maintaining cell health, surviving periods of nutrient deprivation and also plays a role in cancer, neurodegeneration and immune responses to a diverse range of pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • transgenic
  • Specially M Wnt cells, cloned from a spontaneous mammary tumor from a MMTV Wnt 1 transgenic mouse, ow a senchy mal morphology, stably convey stem cell markers Manti Te'o Chargers Jersey , and swiftly create claudin reduced maArlen Booth s Cocaine Coma provides an important social mentary, exploring many societal problems while grounding itself in a story of an ordinary, middle class Chicago family to which anyone could relate. (xobor.com)
  • Mice do not have a granulysin homolog, but transgenic mice expressing human granulysin have been engineered. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear
  • It has been associated with heterochromatin and PML-NBs (Promyelocytic Leukaemia nuclear bodies) and has been implicated in many nuclear processes including transcription and cell cycle regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the cell is treated with TGF-β, HIPK2, a nuclear kinase, phosphorylates Daxx and the activated Daxx in turn activates the JNK pathway (see "The Daxx Pathway" figure). (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferation
  • of TRPC decreased the cell routine S stage and cell migration, implicating an operating function for TRP-mediated Ca2+ entrance in cell proliferation and invasion. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Exogenous PUFA and a TRPC3 antagonist regularly attenuated breasts cancer tumor cell proliferation and migration, recommending a mechanism where PUFA restrains the breasts cancer partially via its inhibition of TRPC stations. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Ca2+ entrance via turned on TRPC was improved when PUFA had been absent, recommending a double-gating system for Danshensu TRPC which may be involved with MCF breasts cancer tumor cell proliferation and invasion. (cancercurehere.com)
  • functional
  • Within this research, we discovered the functional appearance of TRPC3 in individual MCF-7 breasts cancer tumor cell-mediated Ca2+ entrance. (cancercurehere.com)
  • expression
  • Over-expression of PPARδ also sensitised THP-1 cells to phorbol ester and correspondingly, inhibition of PPARδ by anti-sense RNA completely abolished this response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Both mouse and human atherosclerotic lesions show a high level of PPARγ expression and these findings provoked intense interest in the regulatory actions of PPARs in monocyte-macrophage biology. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bio-Rad collaborated with Biogazelle, leaders in real-time PCR research, to design and experimentally validate PCR primers for gene expression assays across the human and mouse transcriptomes. (bio-rad.com)
  • 9kD granulysin is also a chemoattractant for T lymphocytes, monocytes, and other inflammatory cells and activates the expression of a number of cytokines, including RANTES, MCP-1, MCP-3, MIP-1α, IL-10, IL-1, IL-6 and IFNα. (wikipedia.org)
  • serum
  • Components and strategies Cell lifestyle MCF-7 cells had been grown up in DMEM moderate filled with 10% fetal leg serum and 1% penicillin/streptomycin serum as defined (9). (cancercurehere.com)
  • The heterodimer also stimulated cAMP production and thymidine incorporation by cultured thyroid cells and increased serum thyroxine levels in TSH-suppressed rats in vivo. (jci.org)
  • HAP1 cells are grown in Iscove's Modified Dulbecco's Medium (IMDM) in the presence of 10% fetal calf serum and penicillin/ streptomycin. (horizondiscovery.com)
  • Genetically
  • The plethora of inbred mouse strains, including genetically modified animals, and the depth of knowledge of the murine immune system have made studies of the mouse particularly valuable. (asmscience.org)
  • inhibition
  • One more rising problem is that Kendall Reyes Chargers Jersey , in addition to im pting the advancent and survival of aberrant cells, CR and mTOR inhibition may well also impt the stem mobile partnt and enrich maintenance or fix of tissues. (xobor.com)
  • concentration
  • Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • assay
  • Sphingolipids were added to the cells and the dual luciferase reporter assay was performed to determine the transcriptional activity of PPARs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • genomic
  • The mutation is described in the clone datasheet enclosed upon shipment and can be verified by a PCR on genomic DNA followed by Sanger sequencing. (horizondiscovery.com)
  • inhibitory
  • Yilmaz and colleagues confird that CR, through its inhibitory consequences of mTOR signaling in Pah cells adja cent to intestinal stem cells, preserves and even enriches intestinal stem cells. (xobor.com)
  • migration
  • Additionally, our outcomes also claim that TRPC3 shows up as a fresh mediator of breasts cancer tumor cell migration/invasion and represents a potential focus on for a fresh course of anticancer agent. (cancercurehere.com)