Loading...
  • proliferating cell nu
  • During replication, DNA polymerases working on the leading and lagging strands are coupled by the DNA processivity factor proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), which has also been implicated in patterning and strand crosstalk that allows for copy fidelity of epigenetic marks. (wikipedia.org)
  • p21 interacts with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a DNA polymerase accessory factor, and plays a regulatory role in S phase DNA replication and DNA damage repair. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitosis
  • Thus, CHK2's inhibition of the CDC25 phosphatases prevents entry of the cell into mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first major regulatory transition occurs in late G1, when the Start of meiotic cycle is activated by Ime1 instead of Cln3/Cdk1 in mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experiments looking at CDK2 activity within single cells have also shown p21 to be responsible for a bifurcation in CDK2 activity following mitosis, cells with high p21 enter a G0/quiescent state, whilst those with low p21 continue to proliferate. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • Chen MJ, Ng JM, Peng ZF, Manikandan J, Yap YW, Llanos RM, Beart PM, Cheung NS (2013) Gene profiling identifies commonalities in neuronal pathways in excitotoxicity: evidence favouring cell cycle re-activation in concert with oxidative stress. (springer.com)
  • In this work, their genomes were analyzed with the goal to reveal pathways enriched in genes, which are more similar between the mole-rats than between the mouse and the naked mole-rat. (deepdyve.com)
  • The pathways related to cell cycle control were prominent. (deepdyve.com)
  • There are several stem cell pathways among them. (deepdyve.com)
  • In practical sense, these data suggest caveat for using muroid rodents (mouse, rat, and hamsters) as biomedical models of human conditions involving cell cycle and show the network of pathways where muroid genes are most different (compared with non-muroid) from human genes. (deepdyve.com)
  • Others may yet be elucidated, but currently self-sustaining feedback loops, spatial templating, chromatin marking, and RNA-mediated pathways modify epigenes at the level of individual cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • PP2C family members are known to be negative regulators of cell stress response pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibit
  • In this cell type, p53 activates numerous microRNAs (like miR-302a, miR-302b, miR-302c, and miR-302d) that directly inhibit the p21 expression in hESCs. (wikipedia.org)
  • knockout mice
  • By generating these 'conditional' knockout mice, we could address these questions for the first time," said Choi. (medindia.net)
  • Although the highly conserved nature of the Cdc25s implies an important role in cell physiology, Cdc25B and Cdc25C knockout mice (both single and double mutants) are viable and display no major alterations in their cell cycles, suggesting some functional compensation either via other Cdk regulatory enzymes (such as Wee1 and Myt1) or from the activity of the third member of the family, Cdc25A. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hiroaki Kiyokawa's laboratory has shown that Cdc25A knockout mice are not viable. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • Others were modified to develop a type of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) that is driven by an abnormal pathway known as Notch1. (medindia.net)
  • Accelerated pathway evolution in mouse-like rodents involves cell cycle control Vinogradov, Alexander 2015-09-30 00:00:00 Rodents include both the cancer-susceptible short-lived mouse and the two unrelated cancer-resistant long-lived mole-rats. (deepdyve.com)
  • These DNA breaks must be repaired before metaphase I. and these DSBs must be repaired before metaphase I. The cell monitor these DSBs via ATM pathway, in which Cdc25 is suppressed when DSB lesion is detected. (wikipedia.org)
  • The DSB-independent pathway was proposed when people studied spo11 mutant cells in some species and found that these Spo11 cells could not process to metaphase I even in the absence of DSB. (wikipedia.org)
  • Davies is interested in the pathway of Alzheimer's disease and has said that the disease may be a process of cell cycle division gone wild. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different domains of the protein are required for this function of IKK-α in zebrafish than in mice, but in neither case does the NF-κB pathway seem to be implicated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regeneration
  • Using the ear hole closure phenotype, a genetically mapped and reliable quantitative indicator of regeneration in the MRL mouse, we show that the unrelated Cdkn1a tmi/Tyj /J p21 −/− mouse (unlike the B6129SF2/J WT control) closes ear holes similar to MRL mice, providing a firm link between cell cycle checkpoint control and tissue regeneration. (pnas.org)
  • In biology, regeneration is the process of renewal, restoration, and growth that makes genomes, cells, organisms, and ecosystems resilient to natural fluctuations or events that cause disturbance or damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells in the primordia of zebrafish fins, for example, express four genes from the homeobox msx family during development and regeneration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Development and regeneration involves the coordination and organization of populations cells into a blastema, which is "a mound of stem cells from which regeneration begins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dedifferentiation of cells means that they lose their tissue-specific characteristics as tissues remodel during the regeneration process. (wikipedia.org)
  • This should not be confused with the transdifferentiation of cells which is when they lose their tissue-specific characteristics during the regeneration process, and then re-differentiate to a different kind of cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was during the course of an autoimmunity study that Heber-Katz discovered the regeneration trait of the MRL mouse, which has largely occupied her research program for the past 15 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • squamous
  • We found that COPS3 was overexpressed in most of the lung cancer samples examined, particularly in small cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. (jcancer.org)
  • Decreased IKK-α activity has been reported in a large percentage of human squamous cell carcinomas, and restoring IKK-α in mouse models of skin cancer has been shown to have an anti-tumorigenic effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • miR-137 is located on human chromosome 1p22 and has been implicated to act as a tumor suppressor in several cancer types including colorectal cancer, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma via cell cycle control. (wikipedia.org)
  • miR-137 is embedded within a CpG island, a genomic region containing high frequency of CpG dinucleotides, and is reported to be frequently silenced by promoter hyper-methylation in many tumour types, including colorectal, gastric, breast and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. (wikipedia.org)
  • Analysis of promoter methylation in oral rinses of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck showed that miR-137 methylation is associated with female gender and inversely associated with body mass index. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenotype
  • The phenotype of these mutant fetuses is similar to the mouse IKK-α null phenotype, and is characterized by shiny, thickened skin and truncated limbs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epidermis
  • Cell kinetic perturbations that resulted in a wave of increased cell division during the 6--8 hr lag period prior to regenerative DNA replication in mouse epidermis were examined. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The epidermis was stimulated to proliferate by adhesive tape stripping, and flow cytometric DNA measurements of isolated epidermal basal cells, counting of mitoses, of Colcemid arrested metaphases and of labeled mitoses among basal cells in histologic sections were made. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Early peaks of mitoses in epidermis stimulated to proliferate should therefore not, without further evidence, be assumed to originate from cells triggered into division from a resting G2 compartment. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Their epidermis retains a proliferative precursor cell population and lacks the outer two most differentiated cell layers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Schizosaccharomyces
  • The central role in meiosis of human and mouse CHEK1 and CHEK2 and their orthologs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Caenorhabditis elegans, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Drosophila has been reviewed by MacQueen and Hochwagen and Subramanian and Hochwagen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cdc25 is a dual-specificity phosphatase first isolated from the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe as a cell cycle defective mutant. (wikipedia.org)
  • induces
  • Hallows JL Chakrabarty P Davies P Vincent I. Conditional neuronal SV40 T Antigen expression induces Alzheimer-like tau and amyloid pathology in mice" J Neurosci 27, 2969-2978, 2007. (wikipedia.org)
  • primordial germ
  • Firstly just after fertilization and secondly, in the developing primordial germ cells, the precursors to future gametes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the primordial germ cells (PGC) there is a more extensive erasure of epigenetic information. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nude
  • In a xenograft tumor model in nude mice, shRNA-knockdown of COPS3 significantly reduced tumor growth. (jcancer.org)
  • blastema
  • Certain commonalities, such as blastema formation and basement membrane breakdown at the wound site, suggest that MRL mice may share other features with classical regenerators. (pnas.org)
  • spermatogonial
  • Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) migrate to the niche upon introduction into the seminiferous tubules of the testis of infertile animals. (go.jp)
  • In this study, we analyzed the impact of cell cycle on spermatogonial transplantation. (go.jp)
  • cancers
  • In addition to these tests with mouse cancers, the scientists found that the cyclin-D-inhibiting drug had similar effects on human blood cancer cells in the laboratory. (medindia.net)
  • further showed that miR-137 targets Cdc42 (cell division cycle 42), a well-known member of the Rho GTPase family found be upregulated in many human cancer types such as colorectal, testicular and breast cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • phosphorylation
  • Czapski GA, Gąssowska M, Songin M, Radecka UD, Strosznajder JB (2011) Alterations of cyclin dependent kinase 5 expression and phosphorylation in amyloid precursor protein (APP) transfected PC12 cells. (springer.com)
  • Davies P. Troglitazone, a Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor-gamma agonist, decreases tau phosphorylation in CHOtau4R cells" J. Neurochem 98, 1068-1077, 2006. (wikipedia.org)
  • hypothesis
  • This "A/5R experiment" confirmed the Determinant Selection Hypothesis concerning the spatial relationships between the histocompatibility I-A and I-E molecules on the surface of antigen- presenting cells, the bound antigen and the recognition structure of the T-cell receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Broadening her immunology studies into the area of autoimmunity, Heber-Katz discovered that particular autoimmune diseases were under the control of delimited and separable T-cell receptor subsets (the V-region disease hypothesis). (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression
  • Cells in the G1 phase not only showed higher expression levels of GFRA1, a component of the GDNF self-renewal factor receptor, but also adhered more efficiently to laminin-coated plates. (go.jp)
  • Heatmap results confirmed cell cycle genes and ciliogenic genes share a similar expression pattern. (arvojournals.org)
  • IKK-α is sulfenylated at a conserved cysteine residue in the kinase domain, which correlated with derepression of EGF promoter activity and increased EGF expression, indicating that IKK-α stimulatea migration through dynamic interactions with the EGF promoter depending on the redox state within cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This alteration is believed to cause inefficient processing of miR-137 to its mature form, and serve as a mechanism to downregulate miR-137 expression in various human melanoma cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • identified a list of 32 genes targeted by miR-137 by cross-referencing the global gene expression analysis of HCT 116 colorectal carcinoma cells after transfection of miR-137 with the list of predicted miR-137 targets via miRecords database. (wikipedia.org)
  • SLBP expression is regulated during S-phase of the cell cycle, increasing more than 10-fold during the latter part of G1. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuronal
  • Mice homozygous for a knock-out allele exhibit decreased fetal size, bent posture, cyanosis, respiratory failure, and neonatal lethality with impaired neuronal network development and reduced dendritic localization of sodium potassium ATPase subunit isoform mRNAs. (jax.org)
  • stem cells
  • Epigenetic manipulations may allow for restoration of totipotency in stem cells or cells more generally, thus generalizing regenerative medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Strategies include the rearrangement of pre-existing tissue, the use of adult somatic stem cells and the dedifferentiation and/or transdifferentiation of cells, and more than one mode can operate in different tissues of the same animal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore
  • Furthermore, this cell cycle-dependency was not observed when cells were transplanted into immature pup recipients, which do not have the blood-testis barrier (BTB) between Sertoli cells, suggesting that cells in the G1 phase may passage through the BTB more readily than cells in the S/G2-M phase. (go.jp)
  • thus
  • Thus cell cycle status is an important factor in regulating SSC migration to the niche. (go.jp)
  • tumor
  • The loss of normal CHK2 protein function leads to unregulated cell division, accumulated damage to DNA and in many cases, tumor development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experiments reintroducing SIM2s in human breast cancer cells allowed for the tumor suppressive characteristics to be observed. (wikipedia.org)
  • EMT suppression allows for E-cadherin to remain and for the cell to not undergo pathological EMT associated with tumor formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular
  • She was a postdoctoral fellow at the National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases in the Laboratory of Immunology, discovering the first functional evidence for the T cell-antigen-MHC-Ia tri-molecular complex anticipating the crystal structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] With the use of genetically inbred mice, Heber-Katz and collaborators dissected the fine molecular details that control the T-cell and macrophage interaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • targets
  • The authors say the results show that blocking cyclin D "represents a highly selective anticancer strategy that specifically targets cancer cells without significantly affecting normal tissues. (medindia.net)
  • The central role of Cdc25s in the cell cycle has garnered them considerable attention from the pharmaceutical industry as potential targets for novel chemotherapeutic (anti-cancer) agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • Profiling novel sulfonamide antitumor agents with cell-based phenotypic screens and array-based gene expression analysis. (naver.com)
  • These phenotypes include the set of transformed states associated with aberrant gene expression, the set of differentiated states that have been defined as a result of stochastic gene expression and the distribution of cells between living and dead or growth inhibited. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Other studies showed that lack of Daxx gene caused a higher apoptotic rate in embryonic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • These gene products are important in determining cell fates during normal development and in maintaining homeostasis, or they can lead to de-regulated growth in disorders like cancer by responding to mutations in β-catenin, APC or Axin, each of which can lead to this de-regulated β-catenin level stabilization in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene is highly conserved during evolution and it plays a key role in the regulation of cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • This new fusion gene, BCR-ABL, encodes an unregulated, cytoplasm-targeted tyrosine kinase that allows the cells to proliferate without being regulated by cytokines. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • These data collectively demonstrate that PPARδ plays a fundamental role in mediating a subset of cellular effects of phorbol ester and supports observations from mouse knockout models that PPARδ is involved in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Polyamines are ubiquitous small molecules involved in many normal cellular functions, including transcribing and translating genes, regulating ion channels and cell-to-cell interactions, and powering cell growth and replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • While less attention is directed at α-catenin in studies involving cell adhesion, it is nonetheless an important player in cellular organization, function and growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice lacking plakoglobin have cell adhesion defects in many tissues, although β-catenin substitutes for plakoglobin at many cellular junctions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular senescence is the phenomenon by which normal diploid cells cease to divide. (wikipedia.org)
  • As such, cellular senescence represents a change in "cell state" rather than a cell becoming "aged" as the name confusingly suggests. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistent with this, telomerase-immortalised cells continued to age (according to the epigenetic clock) without having been treated with any senescence inducers or DNA-damaging agents, re-affirming the independence of the process of epigenetic ageing from telomeres, cellular senescence, and the DNA damage response pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (wikipedia.org)
  • V-ATPase 116 kDa isoform a2 is a subunit of the vacuolar ATPase (v-ATPase), an heteromultimeric enzyme that is present in intracellular vesicles and in the plasma membrane of specialized cells, and which is essential for the acidification of diverse cellular components. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotic cells
  • Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA are thought to be of separate evolutionary origin, with the mtDNA being derived from the circular genomes of the bacteria that were engulfed by the early ancestors of today's eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • In the cells of extant organisms, the vast majority of the proteins present in the mitochondria (numbering approximately 1500 different types in mammals) are coded for by nuclear DNA, but the genes for some, if not most, of them are thought to have originally been of bacterial origin, having since been transferred to the eukaryotic nucleus during evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • knockout mouse
  • A conditional knockout mouse line, called Trraptm1a(EUCOMM)Wtsi was generated as part of the International Knockout Mouse Consortium program - a high-throughput mutagenesis project to generate and distribute animal models of disease to interested scientists. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • At the level of the cell, Daxx is found in the cytoplasm, interacting with Fas-receptor or other cytoplasmic molecules, as well as in the nucleus, where it is interacting with some subnuclear structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • ASK1 will be transported to the nucleus when UV-irradiation is used to treat the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • most of the DNA can be found in the cell nucleus and, in plants and algae, also in plastids such as chloroplasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • In bacteria, which lack a cell nucleus, the cell cycle is divided into the B, C, and D periods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interphase is a series of changes that takes place in a newly formed cell and its nucleus, before it becomes capable of division again. (wikipedia.org)
  • apoptosis
  • A preclinical study, performed at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, demonstrated that melflufen induced apoptosis in multiple myeloma cell lines, even those resistant to conventional treatment (including melphalan). (wikipedia.org)
  • it is often a biochemical alternative to the self-destruction of such a damaged cell by apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kinase
  • The DNA-binding activity of the ubiquitously expressed ABL1 tyrosine kinase is regulated by CDC2-mediated phosphorylation, suggesting a cell cycle function for ABL1. (wikipedia.org)
  • One such inhibitor is imatinib mesylate, which occupies the tyrosine kinase domain and inhibits BCR-ABL's influence on the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • malignant
  • She discovered that overexpression of ODC and c-Raf activation is sufficient to convert a normal primary keratinocyte into a malignant, invasive tumor cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Taking their findings one step further, Gilmour and her team in 2017 demonstrated that a polyamine blockade therapy (PBT) they developed inhibited the growth of malignant tumors in mice and activated an immune response to those tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overexpression of p120 leads to malignant transformation of 3T3 cells while treatment with antisense p120 mRNA causes the transformed cells to revert to their original non-malignant phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • Junctions
  • These complexes, which help regulate cell growth in addition to creating and maintaining epithelial layers, are known as adherens junctions and they typically include at least cadherin, β-catenin, and α-catenin. (wikipedia.org)
  • β-catenin acts by anchoring the actin cytoskeleton to the junctions, and may possibly aid in contact inhibition signaling within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, when an epithelial layer is complete and the adherens junctions indicate that the cell is surrounded, β-catenin may play a role in telling the cell to stop proliferating, as there is no room for more cells in the area. (wikipedia.org)
  • α-catenin participates in the formation and stabilization of adherens junctions by binding to β-catenin-cadherin complexes in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • telomere length
  • Cells can also be induced to senesce via DNA damage in response to elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS), activation of oncogenes and cell-cell fusion, independent of telomere length. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibition
  • Over-expression of PPARδ also sensitised THP-1 cells to phorbol ester and correspondingly, inhibition of PPARδ by anti-sense RNA completely abolished this response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • citation needed] The injury is associated with the inhibition of catalase, which in turn stimulates the pentose phosphate cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Both mouse and human atherosclerotic lesions show a high level of PPARγ expression and these findings provoked intense interest in the regulatory actions of PPARs in monocyte-macrophage biology. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Blast analysis of the sequence of the immunogen shows 100% identity with human and 93% identity to mouse. (rockland-inc.com)
  • It is a peptidase enhanced cytotoxic (PEnC) that exerts a targeted delivery of melphalan in cells with high expression of aminopeptidases, such as aminopeptidase N, which has been described as over-expressed in human malignancies. (wikipedia.org)
  • adhesion
  • Cell-cell adhesion complexes are required for simple epithelia in higher organisms to maintain structure, function and polarity. (wikipedia.org)
  • F9 embryonal carcinoma cells are similar to the P19 cells shown in Figure 1 and normally have cell-to-cell adhesion mediated by E-cadherin with β-catenin bound to the cytoplasmic domain of E-cadherin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice engineered to specifically have vascular endothelium cells deficient in β-catenin showed disrupted adhesion between vascular endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Keratinocytes engineered to not express alpha-catenin have disrupted cell adhesion and activated NF-κB. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytotoxic
  • Tumors of mice treated with PBT showed reductions in myeloid cells that suppress immune attack on tumor cells and significant increases in tumor-specific cytotoxic T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Melflufen is a peptidase enhanced cytotoxic (PEnC) with a targeted delivery within tumor cells of melphalan, a widely used classical chemotherapeutic belonging to a group of alkylating agents developed more than 50 years ago. (wikipedia.org)
  • fluorescence
  • Adjustments in the Ca2+ focus had been indicated as F/F, where F was the fluorescence strength when cells had been at rest, and F was the modification in fluorescence during excitement. (cancercurehere.com)
  • dormant
  • Specifically, hydrogen cyanamide stimulates cell division and growth in dormant plants, causing budbreak when the plant is on the edge of breaking dormancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasm
  • As a result, its levels in the cell are stabilized as it builds up in the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the final stage, cytokinesis, the chromosomes and cytoplasm separate into two new daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • biochemical
  • Coat colour in mammals is determined by the presence, distribution and biochemical activity of the melanocytes, which are specialized cells where eumelanins (black/brown pigments) and pheomelanins (yellow/red pigments) are synthesized. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Division
  • The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA (DNA replication) to produce two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The B period extends from the end of cell division to the beginning of DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • To ensure the proper division of the cell, there are control mechanisms known as cell cycle checkpoints. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell-division cycle is a vital process by which a single-celled fertilized egg develops into a mature organism, as well as the process by which hair, skin, blood cells, and some internal organs are renewed. (wikipedia.org)
  • After cell division, each of the daughter cells begin the interphase of a new cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before a cell can enter cell division, it needs to take in nutrients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Previously it was called resting stage because there is no apparent activity related to cell division.Typically interphase lasts for at least 90% of the total time required for the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • high
  • During this phase, the biosynthetic activities of the cell, which are considerably slowed down during M phase, resume at a high rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • The plethora of inbred mouse strains, including genetically modified animals, and the depth of knowledge of the murine immune system have made studies of the mouse particularly valuable. (asmscience.org)